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The Info List - Salix Cinerea


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SALIX CINEREA (GREY WILLOW; also occasionally LARGE GRAY WILLOW or GREY SALLOW) is a species of willow native to Europe
Europe
and western Asia .

CONTENTS

* 1 Plant
Plant
* 2 Ecology * 3 Invasive species
Invasive species
* 4 References

PLANT

Close-ups of Salicaceae
Salicaceae
flowers,

It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 4–15 m (13–49 ft) high. The leaves are spirally arranged, 2–9 cm long and 1–3 cm broad (exceptionally up to 16 cm long and 5 cm broad), green above, hairy below, with a crenate margin. The flowers are produced in early spring in catkins 2–5 cm long; it is dioecious with male and female catkins on separate plants. The male catkins are silvery at first, turning yellow when the pollen is released; the female catkins are greenish-grey, maturing in early summer to release the numerous tiny seeds embedded in white cottony down which assists wind dispersal.

The two subspecies are:

* S. c. cinerea - central and eastern Europe, western Asia, shrub to 4–6 m (rarely 10 m) tall, with smooth bark, leaves densely hairy below with pale yellow-grey hairs, stipules large, persistent until autumn * S. c. oleifolia (Sm.) Macreight (syn. S. atrocinerea Brot.) - western Europe, northwest Africa, shrub or tree to 10–15 m tall, with furrowed bark, leaves thinly hairy below with dark red-brown hairs, stipules small, early deciduous

Some overlap in the distributions (not indicated in the map, right) occurs, with both occurring in a broad band north to south through France, and scattered specimens of S. c. cinerea west to Ireland, western France, and Morocco; scattered specimens of S. c. oleifolia occur east to the Netherlands. Specimens of S. c. oleifolia in southern Scandinavia are planted or naturalised, not native. Intermediate specimens also occur.

ECOLOGY

Salix cinerea
Salix cinerea
seeds on a birch tree branch

It usually grows in wetlands . The two subspecies differ slightly in requirements, with S. c. cinerea generally restricted to basic marshland and fen habitats, while S. c. oleifolia is less demanding, occurring in both alkaline marshes and acidic bogs and streamsides. A common herbivore of Salix cinerea
Salix cinerea
is Phratora vulgatissima, which prefers and is more common on female plants. Anthocoris nemorum, a natural enemy of Phratora vulgatissima, is also more common on S. cinerea.

INVASIVE SPECIES

S. cinerea is an invasive species in New Zealand
New Zealand
and is listed on the National Pest Plant
Plant
Accord , which means it cannot be sold or distributed.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Salix cinerea". Natural Resources Conservation Service
Natural Resources Conservation Service
PLANTS Database. USDA . Retrieved 26 October 2015. * ^ A B C D E Meikle, R. D. (1984). Willows and Poplars of Great Britain and Ireland. BSBI Handbook No. 4. ISBN 0-901158-07-0 . * ^ A B C D Christensen, K. I., Moritz, Kim K; Stenberg, Johan A (2015-04-19). "Plant-sex-biased tritrophic interactions on dioecious willow". Ecosphere. doi :10.1890/ES14-00356.1 .

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