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The SALISH SEA (/ˈseɪlɪʃ/ SAY-lish ) is the intricate network of coastal waterways that includes the southwestern portion of the Canadian province of British Columbia
British Columbia
and the northwestern portion of the U.S. state of Washington . Its major bodies of water are the Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
, the Strait of Juan de Fuca
Strait of Juan de Fuca
, and Puget Sound
Puget Sound
. It reaches from Desolation Sound at the north end of the Strait
Strait
of Georgia to Oakland Bay
Oakland Bay
at the head of Hammersley Inlet at the south end of Puget Sound. The inland waterways of the Salish Sea
Salish Sea
are partially separated from the open Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
by Vancouver
Vancouver
Island and the Olympic Peninsula
Olympic Peninsula
, and are thus partially shielded from Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
storms. Major port cities on the Salish Sea
Salish Sea
include Vancouver
Vancouver
, Seattle
Seattle
, Tacoma , Bellingham
Bellingham
, Port
Port
Angeles and Victoria . Much of the coast is part of a megalopolis stretching from West Vancouver
Vancouver
, British Columbia
British Columbia
to Olympia, Washington
Olympia, Washington
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Definition

* 2 Name

* 2.1 Origin of the term * 2.2 Coast
Coast
Salish peoples * 2.3 Official recognition * 2.4 Opposition * 2.5 Other names

* 3 Fauna

* 3.1 Fish

* 4 Notes * 5 General references * 6 Further reading

DEFINITION

The Salish Sea
Salish Sea
includes the Strait
Strait
of Juan de Fuca, the Strait
Strait
of Georgia, Puget Sound, and all their connecting channels and adjoining waters, such as Haro Strait
Haro Strait
, Rosario Strait
Rosario Strait
, Bellingham
Bellingham
Bay , Hood Canal , and the waters around and between the San Juan Islands
San Juan Islands
in the U.S. state of Washington and the Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
in British Columbia, Canada. The western boundary is the entrance to the Strait
Strait
of Juan de Fuca, defined as a line between Cape Flattery and Carmanah Point . The southern boundary is the southern end of Puget Sound. The northern boundary reaches just beyond the northern end of the Strait
Strait
of Georgia to include waters that experience the floodstream or tidal surge from the south: Discovery Passage
Discovery Passage
south of Seymour Narrows , Sutil Channel south of Penn Islands, Lewis Channel (between Cortes and West Redonda Island ), Waddington Channel (between West Redonda and East Redonda Island ), and Pendrell Sound , Desolation Sound , and the southern portion of Homfray Channel (between East Redonda Island
East Redonda Island
and the mainland). These boundaries were based on the 2002 "Georgia Basin– Puget Sound
Puget Sound
Ecosystem Indicators Report". The total extent of the Salish Sea
Salish Sea
is about 18,000 square kilometres (6,900 sq mi).

NAME

ORIGIN OF THE TERM

The first known use of the term Salish Sea
Salish Sea
was in 1988, when marine biologist Bert Webber from Bellingham, Washington
Bellingham, Washington
, created the name for the combined waters in the region with the intention to complement the names Georgia Strait, Puget Sound, and Strait
Strait
of Juan de Fuca, not replace them. The adoption of the term, he said, would raise consciousness about taking care of the region's waters and ecosystems. Webber's efforts are credited with the official recognition of the term in Canada and the U.S.

COAST SALISH PEOPLES

The Coast
Coast
Salish are the indigenous peoples who live in southwest British Columbia
British Columbia
and northwest Washington along the Salish Sea
Salish Sea
and share a common linguistic and cultural origin. The Coast
Coast
Salish are seen as one of the main cultural and linguistic branches of a larger group known as Salishan or Salish. Five divisions of the Salish language family are recognized, with Coast
Coast
Salish and Interior Salish being the primary two. The Salish family consists of 23 separate languages. European and American explorers first encountered Salishan people along the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
coast in the late 18th century. The first detailed information was obtained by the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804-1806. The term "Salish" was originally applied only to the Interior Salish Flathead tribe living in the region of Flathead Lake , Montana. By the mid-20th century, it had been extended to cover all people speaking a similar language. The Flathead Nation continues to refer to their language and culture as Salish. A variant name for Flathead Lake is "Selish Lake". The name Salish Sea
Salish Sea
was coined only in the late 20th century. No overarching title exists for this area or even a commonly shared name for any of the waterbodies in any of the Coast
Coast
Salish languages.

The waterways of the Salish Sea
Salish Sea
were important trade routes for the Coast
Coast
Salish, and they remain a source of food and other resources for the indigenous peoples . The basin includes territory of not only Coast
Coast
Salish peoples, but also the Northern Wakashan
Wakashan
Kwakwaka\'wakw and Southern Wakashan
Wakashan
peoples (the Nuu-chah-nulth, Makah, and Ditidaht ) and, formerly, that of the Chimakum (a Chimakuan people related to the Quileute who no longer exist as a recognizable group, having been wiped out by the Suquamish
Suquamish
and others in the 19th century).

OFFICIAL RECOGNITION

In March 2008, the Chemainus First Nation
Chemainus First Nation
proposed renaming the strait the "Salish Sea," an idea that reportedly met with approval by B.C.'s Aboriginal Relations Minister Mike de Jong , who pledged to put it before the B.C. cabinet for discussion. Making the name "Salish Sea" official required a formal application to the Geographical Names Board of Canada . A parallel American movement promoting the name had a different definition, combining of the Strait of Juan de Fuca
Strait of Juan de Fuca
and Puget Sound
Puget Sound
as well as the Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
and related waters under the name Salish Sea.

In August 2009, the British Columbia
British Columbia
Geographical Names Office approved a resolution recommending that the Geographical Names Board of Canada adopt the name Salish Sea
Salish Sea
contingent on approval by the United States
United States
Board on Geographic Names . The name was endorsed by the Washington State Board on Geographic Names in late October, 2009. It was approved by the United States
United States
Board on Geographic Names on November 12, 2009, and by the British Columbia
British Columbia
Geographical Names Office in February 2010. The French name MER DE SALISH is also official in Canada.

OPPOSITION

Opponents to the Salish Sea
Salish Sea
designation assert that it is really a series of interconnected straits , sounds and inlets. Others oppose it for historical reasons and question the validity of the term "Salish". Despite these objections, the geographic boards of both Canada and the United States
United States
have officially recognized the name since the year 2010.

OTHER NAMES

The region encompassing these waterways is or was also known variously as the Georgia–Puget or Puget–Georgia Basin, or in the singular as the Georgia Depression, the Georgia Basin or Puget Sound et al. The Canadian half of the region was originally named in 1792 by George Vancouver
Vancouver
, and often remains referred to as the Gulf of Georgia , a term which encompasses the Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
and all other waters peripheral to it, as well as to the communities lining its shores or on its islands. Like the term "Puget Sound," the terms "Georgia Strait" and "Gulf of Georgia" refer to the general region as well as the body of water.

FAUNA

FISH

See also: List of Fishes of the Salish Sea

Scientists have identified 253 fish species observed in marine or brackish waters of the Salish Sea
Salish Sea
ecosystem. These 253 species, encompassing one myxinid , two petromyzontids , 18 chondrichthyans , two chondrosteans , and 230 teleosts , are contained within 78 families and 31 orders.

NOTES

* ^ A B C "Salish Sea". BC Geographical Names . * ^ "Georgia Basin– Puget Sound
Puget Sound
Ecosystem Indicators Report, Spring 2002" (PDF). Transboundary Georgia Basin-Puget Sound Environmental Indicators Working Group. Retrieved 27 June 2011. * ^ pdf document Stefan Freelan (Washington State University) 2009: "The Salish Sea
Salish Sea
( Marvin Dale Kinkade (1998). Salish languages and linguistics: theoretical and descriptive perspectives. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1–4, 59. ISBN 978-3-11-015492-4 . * ^ A B Hodge, Frederick Webb (1910). Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico, Volume 2. United States
United States
Government Printing Office . pp. 415–417. OCLC
OCLC
1297754 . * ^ Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
. Salish. Second Edition 1989 (online). Retrieved 2009-11-23. * ^ "Salish". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 23 November 2009. * ^ "Tribal Preservation Department". Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes. Retrieved 23 November 2009. * ^ "Salish Culture Committee". Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes. Retrieved 23 November 2009. * ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Flathead Lake * ^ Curtis, Edward S. The North American Indian. Volume 9 - The Salishan tribes of the coast. The Chimakum and the Quilliute. The Willapa. pp. 141–142. ISBN 978-0-7426-9809-3 . * ^ " Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
could be renamed Salish Sea". Canadian Press. CBC.ca. 2008-03-09. Retrieved 2008-03-10. * ^ Washington state adopts “Salish Sea” name for body of water including Strait
Strait
of Georgia, Carlito Pablo, Georgia Straight, October 30, 2009 * ^ Smooth Sailing for the Salish Sea?, Knute Berger , Crosscut Blog, Oct 20, 2009 * ^ "STATE BOARD ON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES APPROVES ‘SALISH SEA’". 2009-10-30. * ^ Berger, Knute (November 12, 2009). "U.S. approves Salish Sea name". Crosscut.com . Retrieved August 13, 2011. * ^ The Sound and the Sea, Paolo Pietropaolo, The Current, CBC Radio, November 2, 2009 * ^ Roberts, John E. (2005). A Discovery Journal: George Vancouver's First Survey Season - 1792. Trafford Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-4120-7097-3 . * ^ Pietsch, Theodore W.; Orr, James W. (September 2015). NOAA Professional Paper NMFS 18-Fishes of the Salish Sea: a compilation and distributional analysis (PDF) (Report). National Marine Fisheries Service. p. 1. Retrieved November 15, 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link )

GENERAL REFERENCES

* U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Salish Sea * "Georgia Basin Action Plan - Coast
Coast
Salish Sea
Salish Sea
Initiative". Georgia Basin Action Plan. Pacific & Yukon Regional, Environment Canada, Government of Canada. 2005-10-17. Archived from the original on 2006-06-20. Retrieved 2006-05-21. * "Part One: Where in the world is the Salish Sea?". Washington. estuaries.gov. 2004-08-04. Archived from the original on 2006-09-22. Retrieved 2006-05-21. External link in publisher= (help ) * "Salish Sea" proposed name for waters Washington, B.C. share * Washington State Board on Geographic Names adds Salish Sea
Salish Sea
to region\'s watery lexicon

FURTHER READING

* Kwiaht Center for the Historical Ecology of the Salish Sea * Tucker, Brian (2013), Inventing the Salish Sea: Exploring the Performative Act of Place Naming off the Pacific Coast
Coast
of North America, master\'s thesis, Department of Geography, University of Victoria

Coordinates : 48°21′N 123°11′W / 48.350°N 123.183°W / 48.350; -123.183

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Red Sea
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PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea
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Bering Sea
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Bohai Sea
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SOUTHERN OCEAN

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ENDORHEIC BASINS

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Aral Sea
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Caspian Sea
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Dead Sea
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Salton Sea

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