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Salisbury
Salisbury
(various pronunciations,[a] but locally /ˈsɔːzbri/, SAWZ-bree) is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, and the only city within the county. It is the third-largest settlement in the county, after Swindon
Swindon
and Chippenham, with a population of 40,302.[1] It is about 20 miles (32 km) from Southampton
Southampton
and 30 miles (48 km) from Bath. The city is located in the southeast of Wiltshire
Wiltshire
near the edge of Salisbury
Salisbury
Plain. Its cathedral was formerly located to the north at Old Sarum. Following its relocation, a settlement grew up around it, drawing residents from Old Sarum
Old Sarum
and Wilton. The new town received its city charter in 1227 under the name New Sarum, which continued to be its official name until 2009 when the Salisbury City Council
Salisbury City Council
was established. It sits at the confluence of five rivers. The Nadder, Ebble, Wylye, and Bourne are tributary to the Hampshire
Hampshire
Avon, which flows to the south coast and into the sea at Christchurch in Dorset. Salisbury railway station
Salisbury railway station
serves the city and is a regional interchange at the crossing point between the West of England
England
Main Line and the Wessex
Wessex
Main Line. Stonehenge
Stonehenge
is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
about 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Salisbury
Salisbury
and greatly aids the local economy. The city itself, Old Sarum, the present cathedral and the ruins of the former one also attract visitors.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Old Sarum 2.2 New Sarum 2.3 Salisbury

3 Governance 4 Geography

4.1 Areas and suburbs 4.2 Climate

5 Demography 6 Economy 7 Culture

7.1 Salisbury
Salisbury
Museum

8 Twin towns and sister cities 9 Education 10 Transport

10.1 Road 10.2 Bus 10.3 Railways

11 Sport and leisure 12 Notable people

12.1 before 1900 12.2 since 1900

13 Media 14 Bordering areas 15 In popular culture 16 See also 17 References 18 External links

Name[edit] The name Salisbury, which is first recorded around the year 900 as Searoburg (dative Searobyrig), is a partial translation of the Roman Celtic name Sorviodūnum. Brittonic *-dūnon, meaning "fortress" (in reference to the fort that stood at Old Sarum), was replaced by its Old English
Old English
equivalent -burg. The first part of the name is of obscure origin. The form "Sarum" is a Latinization of Sar, a medieval abbreviation for Middle English
Middle English
Sarisberie.[3] The two names for the city, Salisbury
Salisbury
and Sarum, are humorously alluded to in a 1928 limerick from Punch:

There was an old Sultan of Salisbury Who wanted some wives for his halisbury, So he had them sent down By a fast train from town, For he thought that his motor would scalisbury.[4]

Salisbury
Salisbury
appeared in the Welsh Chronicle of the Britons as Caer-Caradog, Caer-Gradawc and Caer-Wallawg.[5][6][7] Cair-Caratauc, one of the 28 British cities listed in the History of the Britons, has also been identified with Salisbury.[8][9] History[edit] Old Sarum[edit] Main articles: Old Sarum
Old Sarum
and Old Sarum
Old Sarum
Cathedral

A reconstruction of Old Sarum
Old Sarum
in the 12th century

The hilltop at Old Sarum
Old Sarum
lies near the Neolithic sites of Stonehenge and Avebury
Avebury
and shows some signs of early settlement.[10] It commanded a salient between the River Bourne and the Hampshire
Hampshire
Avon, near a crossroads of several early trade-routes.[11] During the Iron Age, sometime between 600 and 300 BC, a hillfort (oppidum) was constructed around it.[11] The Romans may have occupied the site or left it in the hands of an allied tribe. At the time of the Saxon invasions, Old Sarum
Old Sarum
fell to King Cynric of Wessex in 552.[12] Preferring settlements in bottomland like nearby Wilton, the Saxons largely ignored Old Sarum
Old Sarum
until the Viking invasions led King Alfred (KIng of Wessex
Wessex
from 871 to 899) to restore its fortifications.[11] Along with Wilton, however, it was abandoned by its residents to be sacked and burned by the Dano-Norwegian king Sweyn Forkbeard
Sweyn Forkbeard
in 1003.[13] It subsequently became the site of Wilton's mint.[11] Following the Norman invasion of 1066, a motte-and-bailey castle was constructed by 1070.[11] The castle was held directly by the Norman kings; its castellan was generally also the sheriff of Wiltshire. In 1075 the Council of London
London
established Herman as the first bishop of Salisbury,[14] uniting his former sees of Sherborne and Ramsbury into a single diocese which covered the counties of Dorset, Wiltshire, and Berkshire. (In 1055 Herman had planned to move his seat to Malmesbury, but its monks and Earl Godwin objected.[15]) Herman and his successor Saint Osmund
Saint Osmund
began the construction of the first Salisbury
Salisbury
cathedral, but neither lived to see its completion in 1092.[14] Osmund served as Lord Chancellor
Lord Chancellor
of England
England
(in office c. 1070–1078); he was responsible for the codification of the Sarum Rite,[16] the compilation of the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
(which was probably presented to William at Old Sarum[11]), and—after centuries of advocacy from Salisbury's bishops—was finally canonized by Pope Callixtus III
Callixtus III
in 1457.[17] The cathedral was consecrated on 5 April 1092 but suffered extensive damage in a storm, traditionally said to have occurred only five days later.[18][19] Bishop Roger was a close ally of Henry I (reigned 1100–1135); he served as viceroy during the king's absence in Normandy[20] and directed the royal administration and exchequer along with his extended family.[21] He refurbished and expanded Old Sarum's cathedral in the 1110s and began work on a royal palace during the 1130s, prior to his arrest by Henry's successor Stephen.[20] After this arrest, the castle at Old Sarum
Old Sarum
was allowed to fall into disrepair, but the sheriff and castellan continued to administer the area under the king's authority.[22] New Sarum[edit] Bishop Hubert Walter
Hubert Walter
was instrumental in the negotiations with Saladin during the Third Crusade, but he spent little time in his diocese prior to his elevation to archbishop of Canterbury.[23] The brothers Herbert and Richard Poore
Richard Poore
succeeded him and began planning the relocation of the cathedral into the valley almost immediately. Their plans were approved by King Richard I but repeatedly delayed: Herbert was first forced into exile in Normandy in the 1190s by the hostility of his archbishop Walter and then again to Scotland in the 1210s owing to royal hostility following the papal interdiction against King John. The secular authorities were particularly incensed, according to tradition, owing to some of the clerics debauching the castellan's female relations.[22] In the end, the clerics were refused permission to reenter the city walls following their rogations and processions.[24] This caused Peter of Blois
Peter of Blois
to describe the church as "a captive within the walls of the citadel like the ark of God in the profane house of Baal". He advocated

Let us descend into the plain! There are rich fields and fertile valleys abounding in the fruits of the earth and watered by the living stream. There is a seat for the Virgin Patroness of our church to which the world cannot produce a parallel.[25]

His successor and brother Richard Poore
Richard Poore
eventually moved the cathedral to a new town on his estate at Veteres Sarisberias ("Old Salisburies") in 1220. The site was at "Myrifield" ("Merryfield"),[26] a meadow near the confluence of the River Nadder
River Nadder
and the Hampshire
Hampshire
Avon. It was first known as "New Sarum"[25] or New Saresbyri.[24] The town was laid out on a grid.

The Great West Front of Salisbury
Salisbury
Cathedral.

Work on the new cathedral building—the present Salisbury Cathedral—began in 1221. The site was supposedly established by shooting an arrow from Old Sarum, although this is certainly a legend: the distance is over 3 km (1.9 mi). The legend is sometimes amended to claim that the arrow struck a white deer, which continued to run and died on the spot where the cathedral now rests. The structure was built upon wooden faggots on a gravel bed with unusually shallow foundations of 18 inches (46 cm) and the main body was completed in only 38 years. The 123 m or 404 ft tall spire, the tallest in the UK, was built later. With royal approval, many of the stones for the new cathedral were taken from the old one; others came from Chilmark. They were probably transported by ox-cart owing to the obstruction to boats on the River Nadder
River Nadder
caused by its many weirs and watermills. The cathedral is considered a masterpiece of Early English architecture. The spire's large clock was installed in 1386, the oldest surviving mechanical clock in the world. The Cathedral also contains the best-preserved of the four surviving copies of the Magna Carta. New Sarum was made a city by a charter from King Henry III in 1227[27] and, by the 14th century, was the largest settlement in Wiltshire. The city wall surrounds the Close and was built in the 14th century, again with stones removed from the former cathedral at Old Sarum. The wall now has five gates: the High Street Gate, St Ann's Gate, the Queen's Gate, and St Nicholas's Gate were original, while a fifth was constructed in the 19th century to allow access to Bishop Wordsworth's School in the Cathedral Close. During his time in the city, the composer Handel
Handel
stayed in a room above St Ann's gate. The original site of the city at Old Sarum, meanwhile, fell into disuse. It continued as a rotten borough: at the time of its abolition during the reforms of 1832, its MP represented three households.

A picture of Minster Street, c. 1870

In May 1289, there was uncertainty about the future of Margaret, Maid of Norway, and her father sent ambassadors to Edward I. Edward met Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce
and others at Salisbury
Salisbury
in October 1289, which resulted in the Treaty of Salisbury, under which Margaret would be sent to Scotland before 1 November 1290 and any agreement on her future marriage would be delayed until she was in Scotland.[28] The Parliament of England
England
met at New Sarum in the years 1324, 1328, and 1384.[29] In 1450, a number of riots broke out in Salisbury
Salisbury
at roughly the same time as Jack Cade
Jack Cade
led a famous rebellion through London. The riots occurred for related reasons, although the declining fortunes of Salisbury's cloth trade may also have been influential. The violence peaked with the murder of the bishop, William Ayscough, who been involved with the government. In 1483, a large-scale rebellion against Richard III broke out, led by his own 'kingmaker', Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. After the revolt collapsed, Buckingham was executed at Salisbury, near the Bull's Head Inn. In 1664, an act for making the River Avon navigable from Christchurch to the city of New Sarum was passed[30] and the work completed, only for the project to be ruined shortly thereafter by a major flood.[31] Soon after, during the Great Plague of London, Charles II held court in Salisbury's cathedral close. Salisbury
Salisbury
was the site chosen to assemble James II's forces to resist the Glorious Revolution. He arrived to lead his approximately 19 000 men on 19 November 1688. His troops were not keen to fight Mary or her husband William, and the loyalty of many of James's commanders was in doubt. The first blood was shed at the Wincanton Skirmish, in Somerset. In Salisbury, James heard that some of his officers had deserted, such as Edward Hyde, and he broke out in a nosebleed, which he took as an omen that he should retreat. His commander in chief, the Earl of Feversham, advised retreat on 23 November, and the next day John Churchill defected to William. On 26 November, James's own daughter, Princess Anne, did the same, and James returned to London the same day, never again to be at the head of a serious military force in England.[32] At the time of the 1948 Summer Olympics, held in London, a relay of runners carried the Olympic Flame
Olympic Flame
from Wembley Stadium, where the Games were based, to the sailing centre at Torbay
Torbay
via Slough, Basingstoke, Salisbury, and Exeter. Salisbury[edit] The 1972 Local Government Act eliminated the administration of the City of New Sarum under its former charters, but its successor— Wiltshire
Wiltshire
County's Salisbury
Salisbury
District—continued to be accorded its former city status. The name was finally formally amended from "New Sarum" to "Salisbury" during the 2009 changes occasioned by the 1992 Local Government Act, which established the Salisbury
Salisbury
City Council. On 4 March 2018, former Russian double agent Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia Skripal were poisoned in Salisbury
Salisbury
with a Novichok nerve agent.[33] Governance[edit] Main articles: Salisbury City Council
Salisbury City Council
and Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Council Salisbury
Salisbury
falls under two authorities created in 2009: Salisbury
Salisbury
City Council and Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Council. It was once at the heart of the now defunct Salisbury
Salisbury
District, which oversaw most of south Wiltshire
Wiltshire
as well as the city. When Wiltshire's local government was reorganised under a unitary authority in April 2009, Salisbury City Council
Salisbury City Council
was formed, although with fewer responsibilities than the former district council as it is now merely a parish. Three electoral wards – St Martin's and Cathedral, St Edmund and Milford and St Paul's – correspond roughly to the city centre, and the rest of the parish and city council area is covered by five further wards. Netherhampton
Netherhampton
is in the Fovant and Chalke Valley ward while Laverstock and Ford
Laverstock and Ford
parish has the same boundary as the Laverstock, Ford and Old Sarum
Old Sarum
ward.[34] These two wards are not administered by the city council. The Member of Parliament for the Salisbury
Salisbury
constituency, which includes the city, Wilton, Amesbury
Amesbury
and surrounding rural areas, is John Glen (Conservative), who was first elected in 2010. Geography[edit]

Queen Elizabeth Gardens showing part of the River Avon diverted through the gardens.

Salisbury
Salisbury
lies in a valley. The geology of the area, as with much of South Wiltshire
Wiltshire
and Hampshire, is largely chalk. The rivers which flow through the city have been redirected, and along with landscaping, have been used to feed into public gardens. They are popular in the summer, particularly in Queen Elizabeth Gardens, as the water there is shallow and slow-flowing enough to enter safely. Close to Queen Elizabeth Gardens are water-meadows, where the water is controlled by weirs. Because of the low-lying land, the rivers are prone to flooding, particularly during the winter months. The Town Path, a walkway that links Harnham
Harnham
with the rest of the city, is at times impassable. Salisbury
Salisbury
is approximately half way between Exeter
Exeter
and London, the two termini of the West of England
England
main line, being 80 miles (128 km) ENE of Exeter
Exeter
and 78 miles (126 km) WSW of London
London
as the crow flies.[35][36]

Settlements and geographic features near Salisbury

Warminster
Warminster
30 km Stonehenge18 km Amesbury
Amesbury
15 km Andover 25 km Basingstoke
Basingstoke
45 km

Wilton 5 km

Salisbury

Winchester
Winchester
30 km

Shaftesbury
Shaftesbury
25 km Ringwood
Ringwood
20 km Bournemouth
Bournemouth
35 km Romsey
Romsey
25 km Southampton
Southampton
30 km

There are civil airfields at Old Sarum
Old Sarum
(where the experimental aircraft the Edgley Optica
Edgley Optica
was developed and tested) and at Thruxton near Andover. Areas and suburbs[edit] Salisbury
Salisbury
has many areas and suburbs, most of them being former villages that were absorbed by the growth of the city. The boundaries of these areas are for the most part unofficial and not fixed. All of these suburbs are within Salisbury's ONS Urban Area that had a population of 44,748 in 2011.[37] However, not all of these suburbs are administered by the city council, thus not being within the eight wards that had a combined population of 40,302 in 2011. There are two parishes that are part of the urban area but outside Salisbury
Salisbury
parish.

Bemerton Lower Bemerton Bemerton
Bemerton
Heath Hampton Park Laverstock and Ford
Laverstock and Ford
(outside city council area) City Centre East Harnham West Harnham Harnham
Harnham
Hill Stratford-sub-Castle St Paul's St Francis Fisherton St Mark's Bishopdown Milford St Edmund Petersfinger Netherhampton
Netherhampton
(outside city council area) Paul's Dene Friary Estate (formerly known as Bugmore) St Martin's

Surrounding parishes, villages and towns rely on Salisbury
Salisbury
for some services. The following are within a 4-mile radius of the city centre (more or less clockwise):

Britford Odstock Quidhampton Nunton Homington Old Sarum Little Durnford Fugglestone St Peter Alderbury Bodenham Downton Wilton Charlton All Saints Ditchampton Bulbridge Coombe Bissett Ugford Chilhampton South Newton Winterbourne Earls Winterbourne Gunner Winterbourne Dauntsey

Climate[edit] Salisbury
Salisbury
experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) similar to almost all of the United Kingdom. The nearest Met Office weather station to Salisbury
Salisbury
is Boscombe Down, about 6 miles to the north of the city centre. In terms of the local climate, Salisbury
Salisbury
is among the sunniest of inland areas in the UK, averaging over 1650 hours of sunshine in a typical year. Temperature extremes since 1960 have ranged from −12.4 °C (9.7 °F) in January 1963[38] to 34.5 °C (94.1 °F) during July 2006.[39] The lowest temperature to be recorded in recent years was −10.1 °C (13.8 °F) during December 2010.[40]

Climate data for Boscombe Down 126asl, 1971–2000, Extremes 1960–

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 13.6 (56.5) 15.7 (60.3) 21.3 (70.3) 25.9 (78.6) 27.5 (81.5) 33.7 (92.7) 34.5 (94.1) 34.2 (93.6) 27.8 (82) 26.2 (79.2) 17.6 (63.7) 14.3 (57.7) 34.5 (94.1)

Average high °C (°F) 6.9 (44.4) 7.3 (45.1) 9.8 (49.6) 12.4 (54.3) 16.1 (61) 18.9 (66) 21.7 (71.1) 21.4 (70.5) 18.2 (64.8) 14.1 (57.4) 10.0 (50) 7.8 (46) 13.8 (56.8)

Average low °C (°F) 1.1 (34) 1.0 (33.8) 2.8 (37) 3.8 (38.8) 6.8 (44.2) 9.5 (49.1) 11.8 (53.2) 11.7 (53.1) 9.6 (49.3) 6.9 (44.4) 3.6 (38.5) 2.2 (36) 5.7 (42.3)

Record low °C (°F) −12.4 (9.7) −9.6 (14.7) −9.6 (14.7) −4.7 (23.5) −2.4 (27.7) −0.1 (31.8) 4.4 (39.9) 3.6 (38.5) −0.1 (31.8) −3.4 (25.9) −6.4 (20.5) −11.3 (11.7) −12.4 (9.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 76.4 (3.008) 52.9 (2.083) 59.0 (2.323) 48.2 (1.898) 52.1 (2.051) 55.1 (2.169) 40.5 (1.594) 57.1 (2.248) 64.5 (2.539) 70.9 (2.791) 73.2 (2.882) 85.9 (3.382) 735.6 (28.961)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.0 75.4 115.3 169.2 206.8 207.3 223.5 208.3 151.2 113.8 78.3 53.9 1,661

Source #1: MetOffice[41]

Source #2: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute/KNMI[42]

Demography[edit] The civil parish of Salisbury, which does not include some of the city's suburbs such as Laverstock, Ford, Britford
Britford
and Netherhampton, had a population of 40,302 at the 2011 census.[1] The urban zone, which contains the wards immediately surrounding the city, had a population of 62,216 at the 2011 Census.[43] The wards included in this figure are Laverstock, Britford, Downton, Alderbury, Odstock
Odstock
and the neighbouring town of Wilton, among others, however it does not include the towns of Amesbury
Amesbury
or Romsey, as these support their own local populations and are further afield. At the 2011 census the population of the civil parish was 95.73% white (91.00% White British), 2.48% Asian (0.74% Indian, 0.41% Bangladeshi, 0.40% Chinese), 0.45% black and 1.15% mixed race.[44] There is not much contrast between areas when it comes to ethnic diversity. The ward of St Edmund and Milford is the most multiethnic, with 86.0% of the population being White British.[45] The least multiethnic is the ward of St Francis and Stratford, which contains expensive suburbs in the north of the city, with 94.8% of the population being indigenous White British.[46] The city is represented by six other wards.

Ethnic Groups, 2011

Salisbury
Salisbury
CP[1] Salisbury
Salisbury
UA[47] Wiltshire

White British 91.0% 91.3% 93.4%

Asian 2.5% 2.4% 1.3%

Black 0.5% 0.4% 0.7%

86.43% of the civil parish's population were born in England, 3.94% were born elsewhere in the UK. 4.94% were born elsewhere in the EU (including the Republic of Ireland), while 4.70% of the population were born outside the EU.[48] 62.49% of the civil parish's population declared their religion to be Christianity, while 27.09% stated "no religion" and 8.02% declined to state their religion.[49] 0.79% of the population declared their religion to be Islam, 0.41% Buddhism, 0.40% Hinduism
Hinduism
and 0.80% as another religion.[49] 95.89% of the civil parish's population considered their "main language" to be English, while 1.12% considered it to be Polish, 0.28% considered it to be Bengali and 0.24% considered it to be Tagalog.[50] 99.43% of the population claimed to be able to speak English well or very well.[51] In 2001, 22.33% of Salisbury's population were aged between 30–44, 42.76% were over 45, and only 13.3% were between 18–29.[52] Economy[edit]

The 15th-century Poultry Cross originally marked the section of the market trading in poultry.

Salisbury
Salisbury
holds a Charter[53] market on Tuesdays and Saturdays and has held markets regularly since 1227. In the 15th century the Market Place had four crosses: the Poultry Cross, whose name describes its market, the 'cheese and milk cross', which indicated that market and was in the triangle between the HSBC bank and the Salisbury
Salisbury
Library, a third cross near the site of the present war memorial, which marked a woollen and yarn market and a fourth, called Barnwell or Barnards Cross, situated around the Culver Street / Barnard Street area, which marked a cattle and livestock market.[54] Today, only the Poultry Cross remains, to which flying buttresses were added in 1852. In 1226, King Henry III granted the Bishop of Salisbury
Bishop of Salisbury
a charter to hold a fair lasting 8 days from the Feast of the Assumption of Mary (15 August).[55] Over the centuries the dates for the fair have moved around, but in its modern guise, a funfair is now held in the Market Place for three days from the third Monday in October. However, there is still an ancient law stating that the fair can be held in the Cathedral Close. From 1833 to its demolition in the mid-1980s, the Salisbury
Salisbury
Gas Light & Coke Company, which ran the city's gasworks, were one of the major employers in the area. The company was formed in 1832 with a share capital of £8,000, and its first chairman was The 3rd Earl of Radnor. The company was incorporated by a private Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
in 1864, and the Gas Orders Confirmation Act 1882 empowered the company to raise capital of up to £40,000. At its peak, the gasworks were producing not only coal gas but also coke, which was sold off as the by-product of gas-making. Ammonical liquor, which came out as another by-product in the making of gas, was mixed with sulphuric acid, dried and ground to make a powder which was sold as an agricultural fertiliser. The clinker from the retort house was sold to a firm in London
London
to be used as purifier beds in the construction of sewage works.[56] Shopping centres include The Old George Mall, The Maltings, Winchester Street and the Crosskeys precinct. Major employers include Salisbury District Hospital. Closure of the Friends Life office, the second largest employer, was announced in 2015.[57] Culture[edit]

Salisbury
Salisbury
High Street

St Martin's Church (Church of England)

Salisbury
Salisbury
was an important centre for music in the 18th century. The grammarian James Harris, a friend of Handel, directed concerts at the Assembly Rooms for almost 50 years up to his death in 1780, with many of the most famous musicians and singers of the day performing there.[58] Salisbury
Salisbury
holds an annual St George's Day
St George's Day
pageant, the origins of which are claimed to go back to the 13th century. Salisbury
Salisbury
has a strong artistic community, with galleries situated in the city centre, including one in the public library. In the 18th century, John Constable
John Constable
made a number of celebrated landscape paintings featuring the cathedral's spire and the surrounding countryside. Salisbury's annual International Arts Festival, started in 1973, and held in late May to early June, provides a programme of theatre, live music, dance, public sculpture, street performance and art exhibitions. Salisbury
Salisbury
also houses a producing theatre – Salisbury Playhouse
Salisbury Playhouse
– which produces between eight and ten plays a year, as well as welcoming touring productions. Salisbury
Salisbury
Museum[edit]

Salisbury
Salisbury
Museum, housed in the King's House.

The Salisbury Museum
Salisbury Museum
is housed in the King's House, a Grade I listed building whose history dates back to the 13th century, opposite the west front of the cathedral. The permanent Stonehenge
Stonehenge
exhibition gallery has interactive displays about Stonehenge
Stonehenge
and the archaeology of south Wiltshire, and its collections include the skeleton of the Amesbury
Amesbury
Archer, which is on display. The Pitt Rivers display holds a collection from General Augustus Pitt Rivers. The costume gallery showcases costume and textiles from the area with costumes for children to try on while imagining themselves as characters from Salisbury's past. Also in Salisbury, the former home of Sir Edward Heath
Sir Edward Heath
is now open as a museum. The house, Arundells, is in the Cathedral Close.

Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Salisbury
Salisbury
has been twinned with Saintes, France, since 1990;[59] and with Xanten, Germany, since 2005.[59] Salisbury
Salisbury
is also a sister city of Salisbury, North Carolina
Salisbury, North Carolina
and Salisbury, Maryland, both of which are in the United States.[59] Education[edit] There are numerous schools in and around Salisbury. The city has the only grammar schools in Wiltshire: South Wilts Grammar
Grammar
School for Girls and Bishop Wordsworth's School, which is for boys and is located in the Cathedral Close. Also in the Close is Salisbury
Salisbury
Cathedral School. Other schools in or near the city include the Chafyn Grove School, Leehurst Swan School, the Godolphin senior and prep school, St Edmund's Girls' School, Sarum Academy, St Joseph's Catholic School and South Wiltshire
Wiltshire
UTC. Sixth form education is offered by Salisbury
Salisbury
Sixth Form College, while the Salisbury
Salisbury
campus of Wiltshire
Wiltshire
College offers a range of further education courses, as well as some higher education courses in association with Bournemouth
Bournemouth
University. Sarum College
Sarum College
is a Christian theological college located within the Cathedral close
Cathedral close
in Salisbury. Transport[edit] Road[edit] The main transport links for the city are the roads. Salisbury
Salisbury
lies on the intersection of the A30, the A36 and the A338 and is at the end of the A343, A345, A354 and A360. Car
Car
parks around the periphery of the city are linked to the city centre by a park and ride scheme (see details in the bus section below). The A36 forms an almost complete ring road around the city centre. The A3094 comprises the southwestern quadrant of the ring road, passing through the city's outer suburbs. The lack of adequate roads is a cause of concern to the people of Salisbury: as there is no motorway to link the ports of Southampton and Bristol, traffic passes around the city's ring-road via the A36 to Bath. Bus[edit] There are bus links to Southampton, Bournemouth
Bournemouth
and Andover working seven days a week with limited services on Sundays. Wilts & Dorset are the main local bus company, part of the Go-Ahead group. Stagecoach in Hampshire
Hampshire
runs the number 87 to Andover every two hours from Salisbury
Salisbury
and also every other journey on route x8 to Andover via Amesbury
Amesbury
and Tidworth
Tidworth
sharing the route with the Salisbury
Salisbury
Reds. Bodman's also runs the number 24 bus between Salisbury
Salisbury
and Warminster,[60] which replaced the X4/X5 service which used to run between Salisbury
Salisbury
and Bath. Salisbury
Salisbury
also has a Park and Ride
Park and Ride
bus scheme with five sites around the city. The scheme attempts to relieve pressure on the city centre, but as of 2010, ran at an annual loss of £1 million.[61] The sites, which are funded by Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Council and cost £2.50 for parking and bus transport for an individual or £3.50 for up to six passengers, are:[62] 501 Beehive – A345 Castle Road to the north, 502 Wilton – A36 Wilton Road to the west, 503 Britford
Britford
– A338 Downton Road to the south, 504 London
London
Road – A30 London
London
Road to the northeast, 505 Petersfinger – A36 Southampton
Southampton
Road to the southeast.[61] Most buses are run by Salisbury
Salisbury
Reds, a brand of Go South Coast. Other buses that can be found in the city include Wheelers, an orange coloured bus. Furthermore, FirstGroup
FirstGroup
runs a 265 bus from Salisbury
Salisbury
to Bath calling at Trowbridge, Bradford on Avon, etc. National Express services call at the Boathouse. Railways[edit] Salisbury railway station
Salisbury railway station
is the crossing point of the West of England Main Line, from London
London
Waterloo to Exeter
Exeter
St Davids, and the Wessex Main Line from Bristol
Bristol
Temple Meads to Southampton
Southampton
Central. The station is operated by South Western Railway. Great Western Railway hourly trains call from Cardiff
Cardiff
Central, Bristol
Bristol
Temple Meads, Bath Spa to Southampton
Southampton
Central and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Harbour.

Salisbury Racecourse
Salisbury Racecourse
with the cathedral in the distance

Sport and leisure[edit] The city has a football team, Salisbury
Salisbury
F.C., who play in the Southern League Division One South & West and are based at the Raymond McEnhill Stadium on the northern edge of the city. Non-league clubs are Bemerton
Bemerton
Heath Harlequins F.C. and Laverstock
Laverstock
& Ford F.C.. Salisbury
Salisbury
Rugby Club, which is based at Castle Road, play in National League 3 South West. South Wilts Cricket Club is based at the Salisbury
Salisbury
and South Wiltshire Sports Club and play in the Southern Premier Cricket League, which they have won five times in the past 25 years. They produce many juniors who represent both Hampshire
Hampshire
and Wiltshire
Wiltshire
at county level. Winterbourne Cricket Club is based in Winterbourne Gunner
Winterbourne Gunner
and Farley Cricket Club is based at Coronation Field, Farley.[63][64] Salisbury Hockey Club is also based at the Salisbury
Salisbury
and South Wilts Sports Club.[65] The Five Rivers Leisure Centre and Swimming Pool is located just outside the ring road and was opened in 2002. Salisbury Racecourse
Salisbury Racecourse
is a flat racing course to the south-west of the city. Five Rivers Indoor Bowls Club and Salisbury
Salisbury
Snooker Club share a building on Tollgate Road (behind the College). The snooker club also has sections for pool and darts. The Bishop's Walk on the edge of the city provides a popular viewing point. Old Sarum
Old Sarum
Airfield, north of the city centre, is home to a variety of aviation-based businesses, including flying schools and the APT Charitable Trust for disabled flyers. The city's theatre is the Salisbury
Salisbury
Playhouse. The City Hall is an entertainment venue and hosts comedy, musical performances (including those by the resident Musical Theatre Salisbury) as well as seminars and conventions. Salisbury
Salisbury
Arts Centre, housed in a redundant church, has exhibitions and workshops. Salisbury
Salisbury
is well-supplied with pubs. The Haunch of Venison, overlooking the Poultry Cross, operates from a 14th-century building; one of its attractions is a cast of a mummified hand, supposedly severed during a game of cards.[66] The Rai d’Or has original deeds dating from 1292. It was the home of Agnes Bottenham, who used the profits of the tavern to found Trinity Hospital next door around 1380. Some buildings in Salisbury
Salisbury
are reputed to be haunted. Ghost tours are popular with locals and visitors. One such building is the local Odeon cinema located in the Hall of John Halle – the oldest building in the UK to contain a cinema. The Debenhams
Debenhams
department store is said to be haunted by Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham; the store is on the site where he was beheaded in 1483. Notable people[edit] before 1900[edit]

John of Salisbury (c.1120–1180) [67] author, educationalist, diplomat and bishop of Chartres and was born at Salisbury Simon Forman
Simon Forman
(1552 in Quidhampton, Fugglestone St Peter
Fugglestone St Peter
– 1611) [68] was an Elizabethan astrologer, occultist and herbalist John Bevis
John Bevis
(1695 in Old Sarum
Old Sarum
– 1771) [69] doctor, [70] electrical researcher and astronomer, discovered the Crab Nebula
Crab Nebula
in 1731 James Harris FRS (1709–1780) [71] politician [72] and grammarian, born and educated in Salisbury James Harris, 1st Earl of Malmesbury
Malmesbury
GCB (1746 in Salisbury
Salisbury
– 1820) [73] diplomat, politician & MP. Sir John Stoddart (1773 in Salisbury
Salisbury
– 1856) [74] writer and lawyer, and editor of The Times Sir George Staunton, 2nd Baronet
Sir George Staunton, 2nd Baronet
(1781 at Milford House near Salisbury – 1859) [75] traveller and Orientalist Henry Fawcett
Henry Fawcett
PC (1833 in Salisbury
Salisbury
– 1884) [76] academic, statesman and economist John Neville Keynes (1852 in Salisbury
Salisbury
– 1949) [77] economist and father of John Maynard Keynes Sir James Macklin, DL, JP (1864 in Harnham
Harnham
– 1944) [78] jeweller, farmer and six times Mayor of Salisbury
Salisbury
1913/1919 Herbert Ponting
Herbert Ponting
FRGS (1870 in Salisbury
Salisbury
– 1935) [79] professional photographer, the expedition photographer and cinematographer for Robert Falcon Scott's Terra Nova Expedition Lieutenant James Cromwell Bush MC (1891 in Salisbury
Salisbury
– 1917) [80] was a British World War I flying ace Lieutenant Colonel Tom Edwin Adlam VC (1893 in Salisbury
Salisbury
– 1975) [81] recipient of the Victoria Cross

since 1900[edit]

William Golding
William Golding
(1911–1993)[82] novelist, schoolteacher, taught Philosophy in 1939, and English, from 1945 to 1961 at Bishop Wordsworth's School. Daphne Pochin Mould
Daphne Pochin Mould
(1920 in Salisbury
Salisbury
– 2014) [83] photographer, broadcaster, geologist, traveller, pilot and Ireland’s [84] first female flight instructor Ray Teret (born 1941 in Salisbury) [85] radio disc jockey and convicted rapist,[86] sentenced to 25 years in prison in 2014. Iona Brown
Iona Brown
OBE, (1941 in Salisbury
Salisbury
– 2004 in Salisbury) [87] violinist and conductor, from 1968 to 2004 lived in Bowerchalke Sir Jeffrey Tate CBE (1943 in Salisbury
Salisbury
– 2017) [88] conductor of classical music Jonathan Meades
Jonathan Meades
(born 1947 in Salisbury) [89] writer, food journalist, essayist and film-maker Prof. Martyn Thomas CBE FREng FIET FRSA (born 1948 in Salisbury) [90] software engineer, entrepreneur and academic Kenneth Macdonald, Baron Macdonald of River Glaven QC (born 4 January 1953) [91] was Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) of England
England
and Wales 2003–2008 and head of the Crown Prosecution Service. He attended Bishop Wordsworth's School
Bishop Wordsworth's School
in Salisbury Carolyn Browne
Carolyn Browne
CMG (born 1958) [92] diplomat, Ambassador to Kazakhstan; attended South Wilts Grammar
Grammar
School for Girls Teresa Dent CBE (born 1959) [93] is the CEO of Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust, lives in Salisbury Martin Foyle
Martin Foyle
(born 1963 in Salisbury) [94] former pro. footballer and manager, he played 533 League games, scoring 155 goals Joseph Fiennes
Joseph Fiennes
(born 1970 in Salisbury) [95] English film and stage actor, educated in the town Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick & Tich (formed 1964) [96] 1960s pop/rock group, most of whom came from Salisbury
Salisbury
or Wiltshire Clare Moody (born 1965) [97] Labour Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for South West England. She lives in Salisbury Henni Zuël
Henni Zuël
(born 1990 in Salisbury) [98] pro. golfer, youngest ever player to join the Ladies European Tour as an amateur

Media[edit] Salisbury
Salisbury
is served by two local radio stations: Spire FM
Spire FM
is the city's Independent Local Radio station, and BBC Wiltshire
Wiltshire
is the BBC Local Radio public service station for the whole county. Regional television services are provided by BBC South
BBC South
and ITV Meridian, and a local television channel "That's Salisbury" is provided by That's TV. The Salisbury Journal is the local paid-for weekly newspaper which is available in shops every Thursday. The local free weekly newspaper from the same publisher is the Avon Advertiser, which is delivered to houses in Salisbury
Salisbury
and the surrounding area. Bordering areas[edit]

Neighbouring areas of Salisbury

Wilton Old Sarum Ford

Netherhampton

Salisbury

Laverstock

Coombe Bissett Odstock Nunton

In popular culture[edit]

This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances; add references to reliable sources if possible. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2017)

Salisbury
Salisbury
is the origin of "Melchester" in Thomas Hardy's novels, such as Jude the Obscure
Jude the Obscure
(1895). A lively account of the Salisbury
Salisbury
markets, as they were in 1842, is contained in Chapter 5 of Martin Chuzzlewit
Martin Chuzzlewit
by Charles Dickens. The fictitious Kingsbridge Cathedral in TV miniseries, The Pillars of the Earth (2010), based on a historical novel by the same name by Ken Follett, is modelled on the cathedrals of Wells and Salisbury. The final aerial shot of the series is of Salisbury
Salisbury
Cathedral.[99][100] The novel Sarum by Edward Rutherfurd describes the history of Salisbury. The novel The Spire
The Spire
by William Golding
William Golding
tells the story of the building of the spire of an unnamed cathedral similar to Salisbury
Salisbury
Cathedral. The Starbridge series (six novels) of Susan Howatch is laid in a cathedral city similar to Salisbury
Salisbury
during the 1930s and 1960s. It tracks various strands of religious thought and action in the Church of England. The detective Lord Peter Wimsey
Lord Peter Wimsey
visits Salisbury
Salisbury
in Whose Body?
Whose Body?
by Dorothy L. Sayers, the first novel in which he appears. The Andy McNab novel For Valour in the Nick Stone series, in which the titular character visits friends in the city. Progressive rock band Big Big Train
Big Big Train
wrote two songs in their Folklore album in which Salisbury
Salisbury
is featured with a "giant" character.

See also[edit]

Salisbury
Salisbury
Cathedral Salisbury
Salisbury
steak, which is not named after the city but after an James Salisbury, an American physician

References[edit]

Footnotes

^ Including /ˈsɔːlzbri/, SAWLZ-bree, /ˈsɔːlzbəri/ SAWLZ-bər-ee,[2] and /ˈsɒlzbri/ SOLZ-bree.

Notes

^ a b c d UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Salisbury
Salisbury
Parish (1170219621)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics.  ^ "Salisbury". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 23 September 2014.  ^ Mills, David. A Dictionary of British Place-Names. Oxford
Oxford
University Press, 2003. ^ Reed, Langford (1934). "Irreverent Radios". Mr. Punch's Limerick Book. London: R. Cobden–Sanderson Ltd. p. 65.  ^ Roberts 1811, p. 135. ^ Welsh Prose 1300–1425. " Oxford
Oxford
Jesus College MS. 111 (The Red Book of Hergest) – page 147r: Trioedd Ynys Prydain, Cas Bethau, Enwau ac Anrhyfeddodau Ynys Prydain", col. 600. University of Cardiff
Cardiff
(Cardiff), 2014. (in Old Welsh) ^ Roberts, Peter (1811). The Chronicle of the Kings of Britain; Translated from the Welsh Copy Attributed to Tysilio; Collated with Several Other Copies, and Illustrated with Copious Notes; to Which Are Added, Original Dissertations. London: E. Williams. pp. 150–151.  ^ Nennius, (Traditional attribution). Mommsen, Theodor. ed (in la).  Historia Brittonum. VI. Wikisource.  ^ Newman, John Henry; et al. (1844). "Chapter X: Britain in 429, A.D.". Lives of the English Saints: St. German, Bishop of Auxerre. London: James Toovey. p. 92.  ^ English Heritage. Old Sarum, p. 22. (London), 2003. ^ a b c d e f "Salisbury: Thumbnail History". Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Community History. Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Council. Retrieved 14 October 2016.  ^ Leeds, E.T. "The Growth of Wessex" in Oxoniensia, Vol. LIX, pp. 55–56. Oxford
Oxford
Architectural and Historical Society, 1954. Accessed 6 October 2011. ^  Hunt, William (1898). "Sweyn (d.1014)". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 55. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 202.  ^ a b British History Online. Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300, Vol. IV, "Salisbury: Bishops". Institute of Historical Research (London), 1991. ^  Dolan, John Gilbert (1910). "Malmesbury". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^  Bergh, Frederick T. (1912). "Sarum Rite". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Swanson, R.N. Religion and Devotion in Europe, c. 1215–c. 1515, pp. 148 & 315. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press (Cambridge), 1995. ISBN 0-521-37950-4. ^ The Ecclesiologist, p. 60. ^ "Old Sarum" at Sacred Destinations. Accessed 10 September 2010. ^ a b  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Roger, bishop of Salisbury". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. p. 454.  ^ Davis, R.H.C. (1977). King Stephen. London: Longman. p. 31. ISBN 0-582-48727-7.  ^ a b Storer, James (1819). History and Antiquities of the Cathedral Churches of Great Britain. 4. London: Rivingtons. p. 73.  ^ Frost, Christian (2009). Time, Space, and Order: The Making of Medieval Salisbury. Bern: Peter Lang. p. 34.  ^ a b Ledwich 1777, pp. 253 ff. quotes John Leland ^ a b Prothero, George Walter (1858). The Quarterly Review. John Murray. p. 115.  ^ Ledwich, Edward (1777). "Appendix of Original Records, with Observations". Antiquitates Sariſburienſes: The History and Antiquities of Old and New Sarum Collected from Original Records and Early Writers. Salisbury: E. Easton etc. p. 260.  ^ Easton, James. A Chronology of Remarkable Events Relative to the City of New Sarum, with the Year, and the Name of the Mayor in whose Time they occurred: Chiefly collected from the authentic Sources of the City Records, and Manuscripts of Citizens, From A.D. 1227 to 1823, a Period of 596 Years, Including the Prices of Wheat and Barley from an Early Æra: To which are added, Their annual Average Prices for 28 Years, Being from 1796 to 1823, 5th ed., p. 1. J. Easton (Salisbury), 1824. ^ Oram. Canmore Kings, p. 109. ^ "Parliaments held away from Westminster" (PDF). House of Commons Library. 12 November 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2018.  ^ 17 Charles II. Cap. 12. 2 March 1664. ^ Priestley, Joseph. Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain, as a Reference to Nichols, Priestley & Walker's New Map of Inland Navigation, Derived from Original and Parliamentary Documents in the Possession of Joseph Priestley, Esq., p. 37. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, & Green (London), 1831. Hosted at Wikisource. ^ Childs, J. The Army, James II, and the Glorious Revolution. (Manchester), 1980. ^ "Russian spy: What we know so far". BBC News. Retrieved 2018-04-06.  ^ "Election Maps". Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 14 February 2018.  ^ https://distancecalculator.globefeed.com/UK_Distance_Result.asp?fromplace=Exeter%2C%20UK&toplace=Salisbury%2C%20UK&dt1=ChIJp41J1MRSbEgRHq3fayXjdqk&dt2=ChIJt5sANlWMc0gRBqpe8oDgow0 ^ https://distancecalculator.globefeed.com/UK_Distance_Result.asp?fromplace=Salisbury%2C%20UK&toplace=London%2C%20UK&dt1=ChIJt5sANlWMc0gRBqpe8oDgow0&dt2=ChIJdd4hrwug2EcRmSrV3Vo6llI ^ http://citypopulation.de/php/uk-england-southwestengland.php?cityid=E34004306 ^ "1963 Temperature". KNMI.  ^ "2006 temperature". UKMO.  ^ "2010 temperature". Tutiempo.  ^ "Boscombe Down 1971–2000". UKMO. Retrieved 9 November 2011.  ^ "Boscombe Down extreme values". KNMI. Retrieved 9 November 2011.  ^ Compiled Neighbourhood Statistics ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "British government census statistics for race and ethnicity". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2014.  ^ http://ukcensusdata.com/salisbury-st-edmund-and-milford-e05008389#sthash.q5dDiWHA.dpbs ^ http://ukcensusdata.com/salisbury-st-francis-and-stratford-e05008390#sthash.ip2PlcAF.dpbs ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Salisbury
Salisbury
Built-up area (1119883473)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics.  ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "British government census statistics for country of birth". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2014.  ^ a b Neighbourhood Statistics. "British government census statistics for religion". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2014.  ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "British government census statistics for main language". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2014.  ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "British government census statistics for proficiency in English". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2014.  ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "British government census statistics for age". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2010.  ^ http://www.salisburycitycouncil.gov.uk/c/charter-market ^ " Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Community History". Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Council.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Wiltshire". Gazetteer OF MARKETS AND FAIRS IN ENGLAND AND WALES TO 1516. Centre for Metropolitan History. Retrieved 12 April 2010.  ^ Watts, John (1991) Salisbury
Salisbury
Gasworks: The Salisbury
Salisbury
Gas Light & Coke Company Salisbury: South Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Industrial Archaeology Society ISBN 0-906195-12-8 ^ Cork, Tristan (15 June 2015). "450 jobs to go in Salisbury
Salisbury
as Aviva shuts Friends Life offices". Western Daily Press. Retrieved 13 July 2015.  ^ Music and Theatre in Handel's World: The Family Papers of James Harris 1732–1780, by Donald Burrows and Rosemary Dunhill, Oxford University Press, USA (29 March 2002) ^ a b c "Twinning and Sister Cities". Salisbury
Salisbury
City Council. Retrieved 7 March 2018.  ^ "www.wiltshiretimes.co.uk". www.wiltshiretimes.co.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2010.  ^ a b Riddle, Annie (25 February 2010). "Park and ride losing £1million". Salisbury
Salisbury
Journal. Retrieved 12 April 2010.  ^ "Park and ride". Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Council. Retrieved 12 April 2010.  ^ "Winterbourne Cricket Club". Retrieved 17 March 2013.  ^ "Farley Cricket Club". Retrieved 17 March 2013.  ^ " Salisbury
Salisbury
Hockey Club". Retrieved 17 March 2013.  ^ "Mummified hand stolen from pub". BBC News: Wiltshire. 16 March 2004. Retrieved 19 May 2017.  ^ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Archive retrieved 28 September 2017 ^ Dictionary of National Biography, 1885–1900, Volume 19 retrieved 28 September 2017 ^ SEDS Deep Sky Astronomers website retrieved 28 September 2017 ^ Dictionary of National Biography, 1885–1900, Volume 04, Bevis, John retrieved 30 January 2018 ^ Archive of The Royal Society retrieved 28 September 2017 ^ Dictionary of National Biography, 1885–1900, Volume 25, Harris, James (1709–1780) retrieved 30 January 2018 ^ Oxford
Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography
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retrieved 28 September 2017 ^ Dictionary of National Biography, 1885–1900, Volume 54 retrieved 28 September 2017 ^ Project Gutenberg retrieved 28 September 2017 ^ The University of Glasgow
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retrieved 28 September 2017 ^ The London
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Ken Follett
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Salisbury.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article Salisbury.

Salisbury
Salisbury
(England) travel guide from Wikivoyage Salisbury
Salisbury
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Official tourism website Let Me Tell You: Salisbury
Salisbury
– a BBC film about life in the city in 1967 at BBC Wiltshire Historic Salisbury
Salisbury
photos at BBC Wiltshire

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