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This articles concerns the Sakya
Sakya
school of Tibetan Buddhism. For information on the ancient Śākya tribe, see Shakya.

The Sakya
Sakya
(Tibetan: ས་སྐྱ་, Wylie: sa skya, "pale earth") school is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the others being the Nyingma, Kagyu, and Gelug. It is one of the Red Hat Orders along with the Nyingma
Nyingma
and Kagyu.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Teachings 3 Subschools 4 Feudal lordship over Tibet 5 Sakya
Sakya
today 6 The Rimé movement 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Origins[edit]

Sakya
Sakya
Monastery

The name Sakya
Sakya
("pale earth") derives from the unique grey landscape of Ponpori Hills in southern Tibet
Tibet
near Shigatse, where Sakya Monastery, the first monastery of this tradition, and the seat of the Sakya
Sakya
School was built by Khon Konchog Gyalpo (1034–1102) in 1073. The Sakya
Sakya
tradition developed during the second period of translation of Buddhist scripture from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
into Tibetan in the late 11th century. It was founded by Drogmi, a famous scholar and translator who had studied at the Vikramashila
Vikramashila
directly under Naropa, Ratnākaraśānti, Vagishvakirti and other great panditas from India for twelve years.[1] Konchog Gyalpo became Drogmi's disciple on the advice of his elder brother.[2][3] The tradition was established by the "Five Venerable Supreme Masters" starting with the grandson of Khonchog Gyalpo, Sachen Kunga Nyingpo, who became known as Sachen, or "Great Sakyapa":[4][5]

Sachen Kunga Nyingpo
Sachen Kunga Nyingpo
(1092–1158) Sonam Tsemo
Sonam Tsemo
(1142–1182) Jetsun Dragpa Gyaltsen
Jetsun Dragpa Gyaltsen
(1147–1216) Sakya Pandita
Sakya Pandita
(1182–1251) Drogön Chögyal Phagpa
Drogön Chögyal Phagpa
(1235–1280)

Buton Rinchen Drub
Buton Rinchen Drub
(1290–1364) was an important scholar and writer and one of Tibet's most celebrated historians. Other notable scholars of the Sakya
Sakya
tradition are the so-called "Six Ornaments of Tibet:"

Yaktuk Sangyey Pal Rongton (1367–1449) [6] Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo [7] Zongpa Kunga Namgyel Gorampa
Gorampa
(1429–1489) Sakya Chokden (1428–1507)

The leadership of the Sakya
Sakya
School is passed down through a hereditary system between the male members of the Sakya
Sakya
branch of the Khon family. Teachings[edit]

Sakya
Sakya
Pandita

Sachen, the first of the five supreme masters, inherited a wealth of tantric doctrines from numerous Tibetan translators or "lotsawas" who had visited India: most importantly Drokmi Lotsawa,[3] Bari Lotsawa and Mal Lotsawa.[8] From Drokmi comes the supreme teaching of Sakya, the system of Lamdre
Lamdre
"Path and its Fruit" deriving from the mahasiddha Virupa based upon the Hevajra
Hevajra
Tantra. Mal Lotsawa
Lotsawa
introduced to Sakya the esoteric Vajrayogini
Vajrayogini
lineage known as "Naro Khachoma." From Bari Lotsawa
Lotsawa
came innumerable tantric practices, foremost of which was the cycle of practices known as the One Hundred Sadhanas. Other key transmissions that form part of the Sakya
Sakya
spiritual curriculum include the cycles of Vajrakilaya, Mahākāla
Mahākāla
and Guhyasamāja tantras. The fourth Sakya
Sakya
patriarch, Sakya
Sakya
Pandita, was notable for his exceptional scholarship and composed many important and influential texts on sutra and tantra, including "Means of Valid Cognition: A Treasury of Reasoning" (Wylie: tshad ma rigs gter), "Clarifying the Sage's Intent" (Wylie: thub pa dgongs gsal) and "Discriminating the Three Vows" (Wylie: sdom gsum rab dbye). The main Dharma
Dharma
system of the Sakya
Sakya
school is the "Path with its Result" (Wylie: lam dang 'bras bu bcas), which is split into two main lineages, "Explanation for the Assembly" (Wylie: tshogs bshad) and the "Explanation for Close Disciples" (Wylie: slobs bshad). The other major system of the Sakya
Sakya
school is the " Naropa
Naropa
Explanation For Disciples" (Wylie: nā ro mkha spyod slob bshad). Subschools[edit] In due course, two subsects emerged from the main Sakya
Sakya
lineage,

Ngor, founded in Tsang by Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo (1382–1457).[7] The Ngor
Ngor
school is centered on Ngor
Ngor
Evam Choden monastery. It represents 85% of the Sakyapa school[citation needed] and most if not all the monasteries in India
India
are Ngorpa, apart from Sakya
Sakya
Trizin's monastery. Tshar, founded by Tsarchen Losal Gyamtso (1496 - 1560 or 1502–1556).[9]

There were three "mother" monasteries of the Sakya
Sakya
school: Sakya Monastery, founded in 1073, Ngor
Ngor
Evam Choden, founded in 1429, and Phanyul Nalendra in Phanyul, north of Lhasa, founded in 1435 by Kuntchen Rongten. Nalendra became the home of the 'whispered-lineage' of the Tsar school.[10] The Bodongpa tradition, founded by Bodong Panchen Chögle Namgyel [1376 1451], is considered by some scholars to be a sub-sect of the Sakya
Sakya
tradition.[citation needed] Feudal lordship over Tibet[edit] See also: Tibet
Tibet
under Yuan rule, Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs, and List of rulers of Tibet

Tibet
Tibet
within the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
under the top-level department known as the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs
Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs
(Xuanzheng Yuan).

The Mongol conquest of Tibet
Tibet
began after the foundation of the Mongol Empire in the early 13th century. In 1264, the feudal reign over Tibet was given to Drogön Chögyal Phagpa
Drogön Chögyal Phagpa
by Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty. Sakya
Sakya
lamas, along with Sakya
Sakya
Imperial Preceptors and dpon-chens continued to serve as viceroys or administrators of Tibet on behalf of Yuan emperors for nearly 75 years after Phagpa’s death in 1280 until the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
was greatly weakened by the Red Turban Rebellion in the 1350s, a decade before the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
founded by the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
overthrew Mongol rule in China. The leaders of the Sakya
Sakya
regime were as follows.

Drogön Chögyal Phagpa
Drogön Chögyal Phagpa
1253-1280 Dharmapala Raksita 1280-1282, d. 1287 Jamyang Rinchen Gyaltsen 1286-1303 Zangpo Pal 1306-1323 Khatsun Namkha Lekpa Gyaltsen 1325-1341 Jamyang Donyo Gyaltsen 1341-1344 Lama
Lama
Dampa Sonam Gyaltsen 1344-1347 Lotro Gyaltsen 1347-1365

Sakya
Sakya
today[edit] The head of the Sakya
Sakya
school, known as Sakya Trizin
Sakya Trizin
("holder of the Sakya
Sakya
throne"), is always drawn from the male line of the Khön family. The present Sakya
Sakya
Trizin, Ngawang Kunga Tegchen Palbar Trinley Samphel Wanggi Gyalpo, born in Tsedong in 1945, is the forty-first to hold that office. 41st Sakya Trizin
Sakya Trizin
is the reincarnation of two great Tibetan masters: a Nyingmapa lama known as Apong Terton (Orgyen Thrinley Lingpa), who is famous for his Red Tara cycle, and his grandfather, the 39th Kyabgon Sakya Trizin
Sakya Trizin
Dhagtshul Thrinley Rinchen (1871–1936).[11] Today, he resides in Rajpur, India
India
along with his wife, Gyalyum Kushok Tashi Lhakyi, and two sons Ratna Vajra
Vajra
Rinpoche and Gyana Vajra
Vajra
Rinpoche. Ratna Vajra
Vajra
Rinpoche
Rinpoche
being the older son, is the lineage holder and is married to Dagmo Kalden Dunkyi Sakya
Sakya
and Gyana Vajra
Vajra
Rinpoche
Rinpoche
is married to Dagmo Sonam Palkyi Sakya. Traditionally hereditary succession alternates between the two Sakya palaces since Khon Könchok Gyelpo's (1034–1102) reign. The Ducho sub-dynasty of Sakya
Sakya
survives split into two palaces, the Dolma Phodrang and Phuntsok Phodrang. Sakya Trizin
Sakya Trizin
is head of the Dolma Phodrang. Jigdal Dagchen Sakya
Jigdal Dagchen Sakya
(1929–2016) was the head of the Phuntsok Phodrang, and lived in Seattle, Washington, where he co-founded Sakya Monastery
Sakya Monastery
of Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
with Dezhung Rinpoche III, and constructed the first Tibetan Buddhist Monastery in the United States. Dagchen Sakya's father was the previous Sakya
Sakya
Trizin, Trichen Ngawang Thutop Wangchuk, throne holder of Sakya, and his mother Dechen Drolma. Dagchen Sakya
Sakya
was married to Her Eminence Dagmo Jamyang Kusho Sakya; they have five sons, and several grandchildren. The Rimé movement[edit] Having seen how the Gelug
Gelug
institutions pushed the other traditions into the corners of Tibet's cultural life, Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo
Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo
and Jamgön Kongtrül compiled together the teachings of the Sakya, Kagyu and Nyingma, including many near-extinct teachings.[12] Without Khyentse and Kongtrul's collecting and printing of rare works, the suppression of Buddhism
Buddhism
by the Communists would have been much more final.[13] See also[edit]

Tibet
Tibet
under Yuan rule Sakya
Sakya
Monastery Lamdré Tibetan Buddhism Jonang Patron and priest relationship

Notes[edit]

^ Luminous Lives, Stearns, Wisdom 2001 ^ Ch. 25, Treasures of the Sakya
Sakya
Lineage, Tseten, Shambhala, 2008 ^ a b Warner, Cameron David Warner (December 2009). "Drokmi Śākya Yeshe". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09.  ^ Powers, John. Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Snow Lion Publications. 1995. p. 382. ^ Townsend, Dominique (December 2009). "Sachen Kunga Nyingpo". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09.  ^ Townsend, Dominique (February 2010). "Rongton Sheja Kunrik". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09.  ^ a b Townsend, Dominique; Jörg Heimbel (April 2010). "Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09.  ^ Gardner, Alexander (June 2010). "Mel Lotsāwa Lodro Drakpa". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09.  ^ Gardner, Alexander (April 2010). "Nesar Jamyang Khyentse Wangchuk". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09.  ^ The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art by John C. Huntington and Dina Bangdel. Serindia Publications. pg 42 ^ Hungarian website of Sakya
Sakya
Trizin ^ Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 165-9. ^ Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 169.

References[edit]

Davidson, Ronald (1992). "Preliminary Studies on Hevajra's Abhisamaya and the Lam 'bras Tshogs bshad." In Davidson, Ronald M. & Goodman, Steven D. Tibetan Buddhism: reason and revelation. State University of New York Press: Albany, N.Y. ISBN 0-7914-0786-1 pp. 107–132. Powers, John (1995). Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Ithaca, N.Y. USA: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-026-3.  Trichen, Chogyay. History of the Sakya
Sakya
Tradition, Ganesha Press, 1993

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sakya.

His Holiness the Sakya
Sakya
Trizin, Official Website. The French Ngorpa temple. Palden Sakya
Sakya
- Website of Sakya
Sakya
Trizin's Monastery in Rajpur, India Tsechen Kunchab Ling - Sakya
Sakya
Trizin's seat in the United States Sakya
Sakya
Tsechen Thubten Ling - Canada Sakya
Sakya
Foundation - Canada Sakya
Sakya
Dechenling - Canada Sakya
Sakya
Kachöd Chöling - Canada Sakya
Sakya
Lamas International Buddhist Academy (IBA) in Kathmandu, Nepal Sakya
Sakya
Foundation - USA Sakya Monastery
Sakya Monastery
in Seattle, Washington Chödung Karmo, Sakya
Sakya
Translation Group SAKYA TRADITION: DROGON CHOGYAL PHAGPA- Holy Biography of the Fifth Founder of the Sakya
Sakya
Order Synthesized from a biography written by Sakyapa Ngawang Kunga Sodnam

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Tibet
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1938–39 German expedition to Tibet 1939 Japanese expedition to Tibet Battle of Chamdo Protests and uprisings since 1950

1959 Tibetan uprising 1987–89 Tibetan unrest 2008 Tibetan unrest Self-immolation protests by Tibetans in China

Documents

70,000 Character Petition Treaty of Chushul Treaty of Thapathali Treaty of Lhasa Treaty of friendship and alliance with Mongolia Simla Accord (1914) Seventeen-Point Agreement

Geography

Flora

Mountains

Lhotse / Changtse Namcha Barwa Tanggula

rivers

Yarlung Tsangpo

Grand Canyon

Rongbuk Glacier Tibetan Plateau

Changtang

Nature Reserve

Valleys

Traditional regions

Amdo Kham Ü-Tsang

Ü Tsang Ngari

Politics

Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region (TAR) Central Tibetan Administration

Parliament

Definitions of Tibet Foreign relations Human rights

LGBT

Patron and priest relationship Golden Urn Tibet
Tibet
Area Independence movement Serfdom controversy Sovereignty debate CIA Tibetan program

Government

Regional Government

Economy

Postage and postal history Qinghai- Tibet
Tibet
Highway Qinghai– Tibet
Tibet
Railway

Society

Education Languages Religion

Tibetan Buddhism

Sakya

Imperial Preceptor Dpon-chen

Nyingma Kagyu Jonang Gelug

Ganden Tripa Dalai Lama

list

Lhamo La-tso Panchen Lama

list

Bon

Sinicization Social classes Tibetan people

Changpa Yolmo Diaspora Names

Culture

Art Calendar Cuisine Dzong architecture Emblem Festivals Flag Historical and cultural sites Khata
Khata
(ceremonial scarf) Literature

Annals Chronicle writers

Music Tibetology Traditional medicine

Outline Index

Category Portal

Authority control

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