HOME
The Info List - Saktism


--- Advertisement ---



Shaktism
Shaktism
(Sanskrit: Śāktaḥ,; lit., "doctrine of energy, power, the Goddess") is a major tradition of Hinduism, wherein the metaphysical reality is considered feminine and the Devi
Devi
(goddess) is supreme.[1][2][3] It includes a variety of goddesses, all considered aspects of the same supreme goddess.[1][4] Shaktism
Shaktism
has different sub-traditions, ranging from those focussed on gracious Lakshmi
Lakshmi
to fierce Kali, and some Shakti
Shakti
sub-traditions associate their goddess with Shiva
Shiva
or Brahma
Brahma
or Vishnu.[5][6] The Sruti
Sruti
and Smriti
Smriti
texts of Hinduism
Hinduism
are an important historical framework of the Shaktism
Shaktism
tradition. In addition, it reveres the texts Devi
Devi
Mahatmya, the Devi-Bhagavata Purana, and Shakta Upanishads
Shakta Upanishads
such as the Devi
Devi
Upanishad.[7] The Devi
Devi
Mahatmya in particular, is considered in Shaktism
Shaktism
to be as important as the Bhagavad Gita.[8] Shaktism
Shaktism
is known for its various sub-traditions of Tantra,[9] as well as a galaxy of goddesses with respective systems. It consists of the Vidyapitha and Kulamārga. The pantheon of goddesses in Shaktism
Shaktism
grew after the decline of Buddhism in India, wherein Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist goddesses were combined to form the Mahavidya, a list of ten goddesses.[10] The most common aspects of Devi
Devi
found in Shaktism include Durga, Kali, Amba, Saraswati, Lakshmi, Parvati
Parvati
and Tripurasundari.[4] The goddess-focussed tradition is particularly popular in West Bengal, Odisha, Assam, Tripura, Mithila (North Bihar) and Nepal
Nepal
and the neighboring regions, which it celebrates through festivals such as the Durga
Durga
puja.[5] Shaktism's ideas have influenced Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and Shaivism
Shaivism
traditions, with the goddess considered the Shakti
Shakti
of Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva
Shiva
respectively, and revered prominently in numerous Hindu
Hindu
temples and festivals.[2]

Part of a series on

Shaktism

Deities

Adishakti (Supreme)

Shakti Shiva Devi Parvati Durga Matrika Mahavidya Lalita Navadurga Yoginis Kali Lakshmi Saraswati More

Scriptures and texts

Tantras Vedas Upanishads Shakta Upanishads Devi
Devi
Bhagavatam Devi
Devi
Mahatmyam Devi
Devi
Upanishad Lalita Sahasranamam Soundarya Lahari Abhirami Anthadhi

Philosophy and practices

Maya Yoga Tantra Panchamakara Kundalini Yantra

Schools

Vidya margam

Vamachara Dakshinachara

Kula margam

Srikulam Kalikulam Trika Kubjika

Scholars

Bhaskararaya Ramprasad Sen Ramakrishna Abhirami Bhattar

Festivals and temples

Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Puja Kali
Kali
Puja Saraswati
Saraswati
Puja Teej Shakti
Shakti
Peetha

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

Part of a series on

Hinduism

Hindu History

Concepts

Worldview

Hindu
Hindu
cosmology Puranic chronology Hindu
Hindu
mythology

God / Highest Reality

Brahman Ishvara God in Hinduism God and gender

Life

Ashrama (stage)

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Liberation

Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Ethics

Niti shastra Yamas Niyama Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Damah Dayā Akrodha Ārjava Santosha Tapas Svādhyāya Shaucha Mitahara Dāna

Liberation

Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga Jnana
Jnana
yoga Karma
Karma
yoga

Schools

Six Astika
Astika
schools

Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Advaita Dvaita Vishishtadvaita

Other schools

Pasupata Saiva Pratyabhijña Raseśvara Īśvara Pāṇini
Pāṇini
Darśana Charvaka

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Other major Devas / Devis

Vedic Indra Agni Prajapati Rudra Devi Saraswati Ushas Varuna Vayu

Post-Vedic Durga Ganesha Hanuman Kali Kartikeya Krishna Lakshmi Parvati Radha Rama Shakti Sita

Texts

Scriptures

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Rigveda: Aitareya Kaushitaki

Yajurveda: Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara Maitri

Samaveda: Chandogya Kena

Atharvaveda: Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Other scriptures

Bhagavad Gita Agama (Hinduism)

Other texts

Vedangas

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Puranas

Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana Bhagavata Purana Nāradeya Purana Vāmana Purana Matsya Purana Garuda Purana Brahma
Brahma
Purana Brahmānda Purana Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana Bhavishya Purana Padma Purana Agni
Agni
Purana Shiva
Shiva
Purana Linga Purana Kūrma Purana Skanda Purana Varaha Purana Mārkandeya Purana

Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Shastras and Sutras

Dharma
Dharma
Shastra Artha
Artha
Śastra Kamasutra Brahma
Brahma
Sutras Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras Nyāya Sūtras Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Yoga
Yoga
Sutras Pramana
Pramana
Sutras Charaka Samhita Sushruta Samhita Natya Shastra Panchatantra Divya Prabandha Tirumurai Ramcharitmanas Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Swara yoga Shiva
Shiva
Samhita Gheranda Samhita Panchadasi Stotra Sutras

Text classification

Śruti
Śruti
Smriti

Timeline of Hindu
Hindu
texts

Practices

Worship

Puja Temple Murti Bhakti Japa Bhajana Yajna Homa Vrata Prāyaścitta Tirtha Tirthadana Matha Nritta-Nritya

Meditation and Charity

Tapa Dhyana Dāna

Yoga

Sadhu Yogi Asana Hatha yoga Jnana
Jnana
yoga Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga Karma
Karma
yoga Raja yoga Kundalini
Kundalini
Yoga

Arts

Bharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic music

Rites of passage

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Ashrama Dharma

Ashrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra

Raksha Bandhan Ganesh Chaturthi Vasant Panchami Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Makar Sankranti Kumbha Mela Pongal Ugadi Vaisakhi

Bihu Puthandu Vishu

Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers

Ancient

Agastya Angiras Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Bharadwaja Gotama Jamadagni Jaimini Kanada Kapila Kashyapa Pāṇini Patanjali Raikva Satyakama Jabala Valmiki Vashistha Vishvamitra Vyasa Yajnavalkya

Medieval

Nayanars Alvars Adi Shankara Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddheshwar Jñāneśvar Chaitanya Gangesha Upadhyaya Gaudapada Gorakshanath Jayanta Bhatta Kabir Kumarila Bhatta Matsyendranath Mahavatar Babaji Madhusudana Madhva Haridasa Thakur Namdeva Nimbarka Prabhakara Raghunatha Siromani Ramanuja Sankardev Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Ramprasad Sen Jagannatha Dasa Vyasaraya Sripadaraya Raghavendra Swami Gopala Dasa Śyāma Śastri Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Tyagaraja Tukaram Tulsidas Vachaspati Mishra Vallabha Vidyaranya

Modern

Aurobindo Bhaktivinoda Thakur Chinmayananda Dayananda Saraswati Mahesh Yogi Jaggi Vasudev Krishnananda Saraswati Narayana Guru Prabhupada Ramakrishna Ramana Maharshi Radhakrishnan Sarasvati Sivananda U. G. Krishnamurti Sai Baba Vivekananda Nigamananda Yogananda Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade Tibbetibaba Trailanga

Society

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Dalit Jati

Denominations Persecution Nationalism Hindutva

Other topics

Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Balinese Hinduism Criticism Calendar Iconography Mythology Pilgrimage sites

Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism / and Buddhism / and Sikhism / and Judaism / and Christianity / and Islam

Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

Contents

1 Origins and history 2 Theology

2.1 Devi
Devi
Gita 2.2 Tantra

3 Principal deities 4 Tantric traditions

4.1 Vidyāpīṭha 4.2 Kulamārga

5 Worship

5.1 Srikula: family of Sri 5.2 Kalikula: family of Kali 5.3 Festivals

5.3.1 Navratri 5.3.2 Vasant Panchami 5.3.3 Diwali
Diwali
and others

5.4 Animal sacrifice

6 Shaktism
Shaktism
versus other Hindu
Hindu
traditions 7 Demography 8 Temples and influence

8.1 Buddhism 8.2 Jainism 8.3 Sikhism 8.4 Other ancient religions

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Sources 13 External links

Origins and history[edit] One of the earliest evidence of reverence for the feminine aspect of God in Hinduism
Hinduism
appears in chapter 10.125 of the Rig Veda, also called the Devi
Devi
Suktam hymn:[11][12][13]

I am the Queen, the gatherer-up of treasures, most thoughtful, first of those who merit worship.      Thus gods have established me in many places with many homes to enter and abide in. Through me alone all eat the food that feeds them, – each man who sees, breathes, hears the word outspoken.      They know it not, yet I reside in the essence of the Universe. Hear, one and all, the truth as I declare it. I, verily, myself announce and utter the word that gods and men alike shall welcome.      I make the man I love exceeding mighty, make him nourished, a sage, and one who knows Brahman. I bend the bow for Rudra
Rudra
[Shiva], that his arrow may strike, and slay the hater of devotion.      I rouse and order battle for the people, I created Earth and Heaven and reside as their Inner Controller. On the world's summit I bring forth sky the Father: my home is in the waters, in the ocean as Mother.      Thence I pervade all existing creatures, as their Inner Supreme Self, and manifest them with my body. I created all worlds at my will, without any higher being, and permeate and dwell within them.      The eternal and infinite consciousness is I, it is my greatness dwelling in everything.

Devi
Devi
Sukta, Rigveda
Rigveda
10.125.3 – 10.125.8,[11][12][13]

The Vedic literature reveres various goddesses, but far less frequently than gods Indra, Agni
Agni
and Soma. Yet, they are declared equivalent aspects of gender neutral Brahman, of Prajapati
Prajapati
and Purusha. The goddesses often mentioned in the Vedic layers of text include the Ushas
Ushas
(dawn), Vac (speech, wisdom), Sarasvati (as river), Prithivi (earth), Nirriti (annihilator), Shraddha (faith, confidence).[4] Goddesses such as Uma appear in the Upanishads
Upanishads
as another aspect of Brahman
Brahman
and the knower of ultimate knowledge, such as in section 3 and 4 of the ancient Kena Upanishad.[14][15] Hymns to goddesses are in the ancient Hindu
Hindu
epic Mahabharata, particularly in the later (100 to 300 CE) added Harivamsa section of it.[16] The archaeological and textual evidence implies, states Thomas Coburn, that the Goddess had become as much a part of the Hindu tradition, as God, by about the third or fourth century.[17] The literature on Shakti
Shakti
theology grew in ancient India, climaxing in one of the most important texts of Shaktism
Shaktism
called the Devi
Devi
Mahatmya. This text, states C. Mackenzie Brown – a professor of Religion, is both a culmination of centuries of Indian ideas about the divine feminine, as well as a foundation for the literature and spirituality focussed on the feminine transcendence in centuries that followed.[16] The Devi-Mahatmya is not the earliest literary fragment attesting to the existence of devotion to a goddess figure, states Thomas B. Coburn – a professor of Religious Studies, but "it is surely the earliest in which the object of worship is conceptualized as Goddess, with a capital G".[18] Other important texts of Shaktism
Shaktism
include the Shakta Upanishads,[19] as well as Shakta-oriented Upa Puranic literature such as the Devi Purana and Kalika Purana,[20] the Lalita Sahasranama (from the Brahmanda Purana).[21][22] The Tripura
Tripura
Upanishad
Upanishad
is historically the most complete introduction to Shakta Tantrism,[23] distilling into its 16 verses almost every important topic in Shakta Tantra
Tantra
tradition.[24] Along with the Tripura
Tripura
Upanishad, the Tripuratapini Upanishad
Upanishad
has attracted scholarly bhasya (commentary) in the second half of 2nd-millennium, such as by Bhaskararaya,[25] and by Ramanand.[26] These texts link the Shakti
Shakti
Tantra
Tantra
tradition as a Vedic attribute,[27] however this link has been contested by scholars.[28][29] Theology[edit]

In Shakta theology, the feminine and masculine are interdependent realities, represented with Ardhanarishvara
Ardhanarishvara
icon. Left: A 5th century art work representing this idea at the Elephanta Caves; Right: a painting of Ardhanarishvara.

Shaktas conceive the Goddess as the supreme, ultimate, eternal reality of all existence, or same as the Brahman
Brahman
concept of Hinduism. She is considered to be simultaneously the source of all creation, its embodiment and the energy that animates and governs it, and that into which everything will ultimately dissolve.[30][4] According to V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar – a professor of Indian history, in Shaktism theology " Brahman
Brahman
is static Shakti
Shakti
and Shakti
Shakti
is dynamic Brahman."[31] Shaktism
Shaktism
views the Devi
Devi
as the source, essence and substance of everything in creation.[4] Its texts such as the Devi-Bhagavata Purana states:

I am Manifest Divinity, Unmanifest Divinity, and Transcendent Divinity. I am Brahma, Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva, as well as Saraswati, Lakshmi and Parvati. I am the Sun and I am the Stars, and I am also the Moon. I am all animals and birds, and I am the outcaste as well, and the thief. I am the low person of dreadful deeds, and the great person of excellent deeds. I am Female, I am Male in the form of Shiva.[a]

Shaktism's focus on the Divine Feminine does not imply a rejection of masculine. It rejects male-female, soul-body, transcendent-immanent dualism, considering nature as divine. Devi
Devi
is considered to be the cosmos itself – she is the embodiment of energy, matter and soul, the motivating force behind all action and existence in the material universe.[33] Yet in Shaktism, states C. MacKenzie Brown, the masculine and the feminine are aspects of the divine, transcendent reality.[34] In Hindu
Hindu
iconography, the cosmic dynamic of masculine-feminine interdependence and equivalence, is expressed in the half-Shakti, half- Shiva
Shiva
deity known as Ardhanari.[35] The philosophical premises in many Shakta texts, states June McDaniel – a professor of Religious Studies, is syncretism of Samkhya
Samkhya
and Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, called Shaktadavaitavada (literally, the path of nondualistic Shakti).[36] Devi
Devi
Gita[edit] The seventh book of the Devi-Bhagavata Purana
Devi-Bhagavata Purana
presents the theology of Shaktism.[37] This book is called Devi
Devi
Gita, or the "Song of the Goddess".[37][38] The Goddess explains she is the Brahman
Brahman
that created the world, asserting the Advaita premise that spiritual liberation occurs when one fully comprehends the identity of one's soul and the Brahman.[37][39] This knowledge, asserts the Goddess, comes from detaching self from the world and meditating on one's own soul.[37][40] The Devi
Devi
Gita, like the Bhagavad Gita, is a condensed philosophical treatise.[41] It presents the divine female as a powerful and compassionate creator, pervader and protector of the universe.[42] She is presented in the opening chapter of the Devi
Devi
Gita as the benign and beautiful world-mother, called Bhuvaneshvari
Bhuvaneshvari
(literally, ruler of the universe).[43][41] Thereafter, the text presents its theological and philosophical teachings.[42]

The soul and the Goddess

[My sacred syllable ह्रीम्] transcends,[b] the distinction of name and named, beyond all dualities. It is whole, infinite being, consciousness and bliss. One should meditate on that reality, within the flaming light of consciousness. Fixing the mind upon me, as the Goddess transcending all space and time, One quickly merges with me by realizing, the oneness of the soul and Brahman.

Devi
Devi
Gita, Transl: Lynn Foulston, Stuart Abbott Devibhagavata Purana, Book 7[46]

The Devi
Devi
Gita describes the Devi
Devi
(or Goddess) as "universal, cosmic energy" resident within each individual. It thus weaves in the terminology of Samkhya
Samkhya
school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[42] The text is suffused with Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
ideas, wherein nonduality is emphasized, all dualities are declared as incorrect, and interconnected oneness of all living being's soul with Brahman
Brahman
is held as the liberating knowledge.[47][48][49] However, adds Tracy Pintchman – a professor of Religious Studies and Hinduism, Devi
Devi
Gita incorporates Tantric ideas giving the Devi
Devi
a form and motherly character rather than the gender-neutral concept of Adi Shankara's Advaita Vedanta.[50] Tantra[edit] Sub-traditions of Shaktism
Shaktism
include "Tantra", which refers to techniques, practices and ritual grammar involving mantra, yantra, nyasa, mudra and certain elements of traditional kundalini yoga, typically practiced under the guidance of a qualified guru after due initiation (diksha) and oral instruction to supplement various written sources.[51] There has been a historic debate between Shakta theologians on whether its tantric practices are Vedic or non-Vedic.[52][28][29] The roots of Shakta Tantrism are unclear, probably ancient and independent of the Vedic tradition of Hinduism. The interaction between Vedic and Tantric traditions trace back to at least the sixth century,[52] and the surge in Tantra
Tantra
tradition developments during the late medieval period, states Geoffrey Samuel, were a means to confront and cope with Islamic invasions and political instability in and after 14th-century CE.[53] Principal deities[edit]

A 9th-century Durga
Durga
Shakti
Shakti
idol, victorious over demon Mahishasura, in Indonesia.[54]

Shaktas approach the Devi
Devi
in many forms; however, they are all considered to be but diverse aspects of the one supreme goddess.[55][56] The primary Devi
Devi
form worshiped by a Shakta devotee is his or her ishta-devi, that is a personally selected Devi.[57] The selection of this deity can depend on many factors, such as family tradition, regional practice, guru lineage and personal resonance.[58] Some forms of the goddess are widely known in the Hindu
Hindu
world. The common goddesses of Shaktism, popular in the Hindu
Hindu
thought at least by about mid 1st-millennium CE, include Durga, Kali, Amba, Tripurasundari, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
(and her avatars such as Radha, Sita), Saraswati
Saraswati
and Parvati
Parvati
(Uma).[59][4] The rarer forms of Devi
Devi
found among tantric Shakta are the Mahavidyas, particularly Tara, Bhairavi, Chhinnamasta, Kamala and Buvaneshwari.[60][61] Other major goddess groups include the Sapta- Matrika
Matrika
("Seven Little Mothers"), "who are the energies of different major gods, and described as assisting the great Shakta Devi
Devi
in her fight with demons", and the 64 Yoginis.[62] Tantric traditions[edit] Vidyāpīṭha[edit] The Vidyāpīṭha is subdivided into Vāmatantras, Yāmalatantras, and Śaktitantras.[63] Kulamārga[edit] The Kulamārga
Kulamārga
preserves some of the distinctive features of the Kāpālika
Kāpālika
tradition, from which it is derived.[64] It is subdivided into four subcategories of texts based on the goddesses Kuleśvarī, Kubjikā, Kālī
Kālī
and Tripurasundarī respectively.[65] The Trika texts are closely related to the Kuleśvarī texts and can be considered as part of the Kulamārga.[66] Worship[edit] Shaktism
Shaktism
encompasses a nearly endless variety of beliefs and practices – from animism to philosophical speculation of the highest order – that seek to access the Shakti
Shakti
(Divine Energy or Power) that is believed to be the Devi's nature and form.[67] Its two largest and most visible schools are the Srikula (family of Sri), strongest in South India, and the Kalikula (family of Kali), which prevails in northern and eastern India.[67] Srikula: family of Sri[edit]

Sri
Sri
Lalita- Tripurasundari
Tripurasundari
enthroned with her left foot upon the Sri Chakra, holding her traditional symbols, the sugarcane bow, flower arrows, noose and goad.

The Srikula (family of Sri) tradition (sampradaya) focuses worship on Devi
Devi
in the form of the goddess Lalita- Tripura
Tripura
Sundari, who is regarded as the Great Goddess (Mahadevi). Rooted in first-millennium Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir Valley, Srikula became a force in South India
South India
no later than the seventh century, and is today the prevalent form of Shaktism
Shaktism
practiced in South Indian regions such as Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Tamil areas of Sri
Sri
Lanka.[68] The Srikula's best-known school is Srividya, "one of Shakta Tantrism's most influential and theologically sophisticated movements." Its central symbol, the Sri
Sri
Chakra, is probably the most famous visual image in all of Hindu
Hindu
Tantric tradition. Its literature and practice is perhaps more systematic than that of any other Shakta sect.[69] Srividya largely views the Goddess as "benign [saumya] and beautiful [saundarya]" (in contrast to Kalikula's focus on "terrifying [ugra] and horrifying [ghora]" goddess forms such as Kali
Kali
or Durga). In Srikula practice, moreover, every aspect of the Goddess – whether malignant or gentle – is identified with Lalita.[70] Srikula adepts most often worship Lalita using the abstract Sri
Sri
Chakra yantra, which is regarded as her subtle form. The Sri
Sri
Chakra can be visually rendered either as a two-dimensional diagram (whether drawn temporarily as part of the worship ritual, or permanently engraved in metal) or in the three-dimensional, pyramidal form known as the Sri Meru. It is not uncommon to find a Sri
Sri
Chakra or Sri
Sri
Meru installed in South Indian temples, because – as modern practitioners assert – "there is no disputing that this is the highest form of Devi
Devi
and that some of the practice can be done openly. But what you see in the temples is not the srichakra worship you see when it is done privately."[c] The Srividya paramparas can be further broadly subdivided into two streams, the Kaula
Kaula
(a vamamarga practice) and the Samaya (a dakshinamarga practice). The Kaula
Kaula
or Kaulachara, first appeared as a coherent ritual system in the 8th century in central India,[72] and its most revered theorist is the 18th-century philosopher Bhaskararaya, widely considered "the best exponent of Shakta philosophy."[73] The Samaya or Samayacharya finds its roots in the work of the 16th-century commentator Lakshmidhara, and is "fiercely puritanical [in its] attempts to reform Tantric practice in ways that bring it in line with high-caste brahmanical norms."[74] Many Samaya practitioners explicitly deny being either Shakta or Tantric, though scholars argues that their cult remains technically both.[74] The Samaya-Kaula division marks "an old dispute within Hindu
Hindu
Tantrism,"[74] and one that is vigorously debated to this day.[citation needed] Kalikula: family of Kali[edit]

Kali
Kali
in her Dakshina
Dakshina
Kali
Kali
form

The Kalikula (family of Kali) form of Shaktism
Shaktism
is most dominant in Nepal, northern and eastern India, and is most widely prevalent in West Bengal, Assam, Bihar
Bihar
and Odisha, as well as parts of Maharashtra, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and some parts of Kerala. Kalikula lineages focus upon the Devi
Devi
as the source of wisdom (vidya) and liberation (moksha). They generally stand "in opposition to the brahmanic tradition," which they view as "overly conservative and denying the experiential part of religion."[75] The main deities of Kalikula are Kali, Chandi
Chandi
and Durga. Other goddesses that enjoy veneration are Tara and all the other Mahavidyas as well as regional goddesses such as Manasa, the snake goddess, and Sitala, the smallpox goddess – all of them, again, considered aspects of the Divine Mother.[75] In Nepal
Nepal
devi is mainly worshipped as Kali, Bhawani, Matrika
Matrika
and Navadurga.There are many shakti peeth in Nepal
Nepal
including the main shakti peeth Guhyeshwari Temple
Guhyeshwari Temple
of Guhyeshwari Devi
Devi
also called as Guhekali Bhagawati on the bank of holy Bagmati
Bagmati
river. She is one of the important deity in kalikula. Two major centers of Shaktism
Shaktism
in West Bengal
Bengal
are Kalighat
Kalighat
in Calcutta
Calcutta
and Tarapith
Tarapith
in Birbhum district. In Calcutta, emphasis is on devotion (bhakti) to the goddess as Kali:

She is "the loving mother who protects her children and whose fierceness guards them. She is outwardly frightening – with dark skin, pointed teeth, and a necklace of skulls – but inwardly beautiful. She can guarantee a good rebirth or great religious insight, and her worship is often communal – especially at festivals, such as Kali
Kali
Puja and Durga
Durga
Puja. Worship may involve contemplation of the devotee's union with or love of the goddess, visualization of her form, chanting [of her] mantras, prayer before her image or yantra, and giving [of] offerings."[75]

At Tarapith, Devi's manifestation as Tara ("She Who Saves") or Ugratara ("Fierce Tara") is ascendant, as the goddess who gives liberation (kaivalyadayini). [...] The forms of sadhana performed here are more yogic and tantric than devotional, and they often involve sitting alone at the [cremation] ground, surrounded by ash and bone. There are shamanic elements associated with the Tarapith
Tarapith
tradition, including "conquest of the goddess', exorcism, trance, and control of spirits."[75] The philosophical and devotional underpinning of all such ritual, however, remains a pervasive vision of the Devi
Devi
as supreme, absolute divinity. As expressed by the nineteenth-century saint Ramakrishna, one of the most influential figures in modern Bengali Shaktism:

Kali
Kali
is none other than Brahman. That which is called Brahman
Brahman
is really Kali. She is the Primal Energy. When that Energy remains inactive, I call It Brahman, and when It creates, preserves, or destroys, I call It Shakti
Shakti
or Kali. What you call Brahman
Brahman
I call Kali. Brahman
Brahman
and Kali
Kali
are not different. They are like fire and its power to burn: if one thinks of fire one must think of its power to burn. If one recognizes Kali
Kali
one must also recognize Brahman; again, if one recognizes Brahman
Brahman
one must recognize Kali. Brahman
Brahman
and Its Power are identical. It is Brahman
Brahman
whom I address as Shakti
Shakti
or Kali.[76]

Festivals[edit] Shaktas celebrate most major Hindu
Hindu
festivals, as well as a huge variety of local, temple- or deity-specific observances. A few of the more important events are listed below:[77] Navratri[edit] Main article: Navratri The most important Shakta festival is Navratri
Navratri
(lit., "Festival of Nine Nights"), also known as " Sharad
Sharad
Navratri" because it falls during the Hindu
Hindu
month of Sharad
Sharad
(October/November). This festival – often taken together with the following tenth day, known as Dusshera or Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
– celebrates the goddess Durga's victory over a series of powerful demons described in the Devi
Devi
Mahatmya.[78] In Bengal, the last four days of Navaratri
Navaratri
are called Durga
Durga
Puja, and mark one episode in particular: Durga's iconic slaying of Mahishasura
Mahishasura
(lit., the "Buffalo Demon").[79] While Hindus of all denominations celebrate the autumn Navratri festival, Shaktas also celebrate two additional Navratris – one in the spring and one in the summer. The spring festival is known as Vasanta Navaratri
Navaratri
or Chaitra
Chaitra
Navatri, and celebrated in the Hindu month of Chaitra
Chaitra
(March/April). Srividya lineages dedicate this festival to Devi's form as the goddess Lalita. The summer festival is called Ashada Navaratri, as it is held during the Hindu
Hindu
month of Ashadha (June/July). The Vaishno Devi
Devi
temple in Jammu, with Vaishno Devi
Devi
considered an aspect of Durga, celebrates Navaratri.[78][80] Ashada Navaratri, on the other hand, is considered particularly auspicious for devotees of the boar-headed goddess Varahi, one of the seven Matrikas
Matrikas
named in the Devi
Devi
Mahatmya.[81] Vasant Panchami[edit] Main article: Saraswati
Saraswati
Pooja Fifth day of Magha Gupta Navratri
Navratri
is very important for all branches of Shakta-pantha. Specially in Vindhyachal mahashakti peetham, thousands of chandipatha and other secret rituals performed this day to please Aadishakti. This is the festival of union of Shakti
Shakti
& Shiv (Shiva-Shiv). On the same basis Shiva-Shiv Sammoh is formed by Awadhoot Kripanandnath at Awadhoot Ashram, Vindhyachal in 1980. Diwali
Diwali
and others[edit] Main article: Diwali Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Puja is a part of Durga
Durga
Puja celebrations by Shaktas, where Laksmi symbolizes the goddess of abundance and autumn harvest.[82] Lakshmi's biggest festival, however, is Diwali
Diwali
(or Deepavali; the "Festival of Lights"), a major Hindu
Hindu
holiday celebrated across India and in Nepal
Nepal
as Tihar. In North India, Diwali
Diwali
marks the beginning of the traditional New Year, and is held on the night of the new moon in the Hindu
Hindu
month of Kartik (usually October or November). Shaktas (and many non-Shaktas) celebrate it as another Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Puja, placing small oil lamps outside their homes and praying for the goddess's blessings.[83] Diwali
Diwali
coincides with the celebration of Kali
Kali
Puja, popular in Bengal, and some Shakta traditions focus their worship on Devi
Devi
as Kali
Kali
rather than Lakshmi.[84]

A gopuram (tower) of the Meenakshi Amman Temple, a Shakta temple at Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, which was nominated in the "New Seven Wonders of the World" competition in 2004.

Jagaddhatri
Jagaddhatri
Puja is celebrated on the last four days of the Navaratis, following Kali
Kali
Puja. It is very similar to Durga
Durga
Puja in its details and observance, and is especially popular in Bengal
Bengal
and some other parts of Eastern India. Gauri Puja is performed on the fifth day after Ganesh Chaturthi, during Ganesha
Ganesha
Puja in Western India, to celebrate the arrival of Gauri, Mother of Ganesha
Ganesha
where she brings her son back home.[citation needed] Major Shakta temple festivals are Meenakshi Kalyanam and Ambubachi Mela. The Meenakshi Kalyanam is a part of the Chithirai Thiruvizha festival in Madurai
Madurai
around April/May, one of the largest festivals in South India, celebrating the wedding of goddess Meenakshi (Parvati) and Shiva. The festival is one where both the Vaishnava and Shaiva communities join the celebrations, because Vishnu
Vishnu
gives away his sister Meenakshi in marriage to Shiva.[85] Ambubachi Mela
Ambubachi Mela
or Ameti is a celebration of the menstruation of the goddess, by hundreds of thousands of devotees, in a festival held in June/July (during the monsoon season) at Kamakhya Temple, Guwahati, Assam. Here the Devi
Devi
is worshiped in the form of a yoni-like stone, and the site is one of Shakta Pitha or pilgrimage sites in Shaktism.[86] Animal sacrifice[edit]

In Shaktism
Shaktism
mythology, Durga
Durga
slays an evil buffalo demon (left, 18th century statue).[87] Right: A buffalo about to be sacrificed by a villager during Durga
Durga
puja festival. The buffalo sacrifice practice, however, is rare in contemporary India.[88]

Shaktism
Shaktism
tradition practices animal sacrifice to revere goddesses such as Kali
Kali
in many parts of India
India
but particularly in the eastern states of India
India
and Nepal. This is either an actual animal, or a vegetal or sweet dish substitute considered equivalent to the animal.[89] In many cases, Shaktism
Shaktism
devotees consider animal sacrifice distasteful, practice alternate means of expressing devotion while respecting the views of others in their tradition.[90] In Nepal, West Bengal, Odisha
Odisha
and Assam, animal sacrifices are performed at Shakti
Shakti
temples, particular to mark the legend of goddess Durga
Durga
slaying the buffalo demon. This involves slaying of a goat, chicken or a male water buffalo. This practice is rare among Hindus, outside this region.[87] In Bengal, animal sacrifice follows the guidelines in texts such as Mahanirvana Tantra
Tantra
are followed in selecting the animal, then a priest offers a prayer to the animal, then recites the Gayatri Mantra
Mantra
in its ear before killing it.[91] The meat of the sacrificed animal is then eaten by the Shakta devotee.[87] In Nepal, animal sacrifice en masse occurs during the three-day-long Gadhimai festival. In 2009 it was speculated that more than 250,000 animals were sacrificed during this event.[92][93] In Odisha, during the Bali Jatra, Shaktism
Shaktism
devotees sacrifice male goats to the goddess Samaleswari
Samaleswari
in her temple in Sambalpur, Orissa.[94][95] The Rajput
Rajput
of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
worship their weapons and horses on Navratri, and formerly offered a sacrifice of a goat to a goddess revered as Kuldevi – a practice that continues in some places.[96][97] The ritual requires slaying of the animal with a single stroke. In the past this ritual was considered a rite of passage into manhood and readiness as a warrior. The ritual is directed by a priest.[98] The Kuldevi among these Rajput
Rajput
communities is a warrior-pativrata guardian goddess, with local legends tracing reverence for her during Rajput-Muslim wars.[99] Animal Sacrifice of a buffalo or goat, particularly during smallpox epidemics, has been practiced in parts of South India. The sacrificed animal is dedicated to a goddess, and is probably related to the myth of goddess Kali
Kali
in Andhra Pradesh, but in Karnataka, the typical goddess is Renuka. According to Alf Hiltebeitel – a professor of Religions, History and Human Sciences, these ritual animal sacrifices, with some differences, mirrors goddess-related ritual animal sacrifice found in Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
epic and in texts of Egyptian, Minoan and Greek sources.[100] In the 19th-century through the early 20th-century, Indian laborers were shipped by the British Empire
British Empire
into colonial mining and plantations operations in the Indian ocean and the Caribbean regions. These included significant number of Shakta devotees. While instances of Shakta animal sacrifice during Kali
Kali
puja in the Caribbean islands were recorded between 1850s to 1920s, these were relatively uncommon when compared to other rituals such as temple prayers, community dancing and fire walking.[101] Shaktism
Shaktism
versus other Hindu
Hindu
traditions[edit]

"The Hindoo Goddess Karle", an illustration from Dr. Scudder's Tales for Little Readers About the Heathen, by Dr. John Scudder (London, 1849).

Shaktism
Shaktism
has at times been dismissed as a superstitious, black magic-infested practice that hardly qualifies as a true religion at all.[102][page needed][103][page needed] A representative criticism of this sort issued from an Indian scholar in the 1920s:

The Tantras
Tantras
are the Bible of Shaktism, identifying all Force with the female principle in nature and teaching an undue adoration of the wives of Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu
Vishnu
to the neglect of their male counterparts. It is certain that a vast number of the inhabitants of India
India
are guided in their daily life by Tantrik [sic] teaching, and are in bondage to the gross superstitions inculcated in these writings. And indeed it can scarcely be doubted that Shaktism
Shaktism
is Hinduism
Hinduism
arrived at its worst and most corrupt stage of development."[104]

The tantra practices are secretive, subject to speculations and criticism. Scholars variously attribute such criticism to ignorance, misunderstanding or sectarian bias on the part of some observers, as well as unscrupulous practices by some Shaktas. These are some of the reasons many Hindus question the relevance and historicity of Tantra to their tradition.[105][29] Beyond tantra, the Shakta sub-traditions subscribe to various philosophies, are similar in some aspects and differ in others. These traditions compare with Shaivism, Shaktism
Shaktism
and Smartism as follows:

Comparison of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
with other traditions

Vaishnava Traditions Shaiva Traditions Shakta Traditions Smarta Traditions References

Scriptural authority Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads [106][107]

Supreme deity god Vishnu god Shiva goddess Devi None [108][109]

Creator Vishnu Shiva Devi Brahman
Brahman
principle [108][110]

Avatar Key concept Minor Significant Minor [106][111][112]

Monastic life Accepts Recommends Accepts Recommends [106][113][114]

Rituals, Bhakti Affirms Affirms[115][116][117] Affirms Optional[118] [119]

Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and Vegetarianism Affirms Recommends,[115] Optional Optional Recommends, Optional [120][121]

Free will, Maya, Karma Affirms Affirms Affirms Affirms [108]

Metaphysics Brahman
Brahman
(Vishnu) and Atman (Soul, Self) Brahman
Brahman
(Shiva), Atman Brahman
Brahman
(Devi), Atman Brahman, Atman [108]

Epistemology (Pramana) 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Reliable testimony 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Reliable testimony 4. Self-evident[122] 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Reliable testimony 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Comparison and analogy 4. Postulation, derivation 5. Negative/cognitive proof 6. Reliable testimony [123][124][125]

Philosophy Dvaita, qualified advaita, advaita Dvaita, qualified advaita, advaita Shakti-advaita Advaita [126][127]

Salvation (Soteriology) Videhamukti, Yoga, champions householder life Jivanmukta, Charya-Kriyā-Yoga-Jnana[128] Bhakti, Tantra, Yoga Jivanmukta, Advaita, Yoga, champions monastic life [129][130]

Demography[edit] There is no census data available on demographic history or trends for Shaktism
Shaktism
or other traditions within Hinduism.[131] Estimates vary on the relative number of adherents in Shaktism
Shaktism
compared to other traditions of Hinduism. According to a 2010 estimate by Johnson and Grim, the Shaktism
Shaktism
tradition is the smaller group with about 30 million or 3.2% of Hindus.[132] In contrast, Galvin Flood states that Shaivism
Shaivism
and Shaktism
Shaktism
traditions are difficult to separate, as many Shaiva Hindus revere the goddess Shakti
Shakti
regularly.[133] The denominations of Hinduism, states Julius Lipner, are unlike those found in major religions of the world, because Hindu
Hindu
denominations are fuzzy with individuals revering gods and goddesses henotheistically, with many Shaiva and Vaishnava adherents recognizing Sri
Sri
(Lakshmi), Parvati, Saraswati
Saraswati
and other aspects of the goddess Devi. Similarly, Shakta Hindus revere Shiva
Shiva
and goddesses such as Parvati
Parvati
(such as Durga, Radha, Sita
Sita
and others) and Saraswati
Saraswati
important in Shaiva and Vaishnava traditions.[134] Temples and influence[edit] Further information: List of Shakti
Shakti
Temples and Shakti
Shakti
Peethas

Jwala Ji

Kanyakumari

Manasarovar

Puri

Kolkata

Guwahati

The map depicts location of Shakti
Shakti
Peethas in South Asia, major (blue) and minor (red) .

Shakta temples are found all over South Asia. Many towns, villages and geographic landmarks are named for various forms of the Devi.[135] Major pilgrimage sites of Shaktism
Shaktism
are called " Shakti
Shakti
Peethas", literally "Seats of the Devi". These vary from four to fifty one.[136] Some Shakta temples are also found in Southeast Asia, the Americas, Europe, Australia
Australia
and elsewhere.[137] Examples in the United States include the Kali
Kali
Mandir in Laguna Beach, California;[138] and Sri Rajarajeswari Peetam,[139] a Srividya temple in rural Rush, New York.[140] Some feminists and participants in New Age
New Age
spirituality who are attracted to goddess worship", suggest Shaktism
Shaktism
is a "symbol of wholeness and healing, associated especially with repressed female power and sexuality." However, these are adaptions and do not share Shakta theology.[137] Buddhism[edit] There has been a significant sharing of ideas, ritual grammar and concepts between Tantric Buddhism ( Vajrayana
Vajrayana
tradition) found in Nepal and Tibet and the Tantric Shakta tradition of Hinduism.[141][142] Both movements cherish female deities,[143] view the female creativity as the power behind the universe, and the feminine as the ontological primary. According to Miranda Shaw, "the confluence of Buddhism and Shaktism
Shaktism
is such that Tantric Buddhism could properly be called Shakta Buddhism".[144] The Buddhist
Buddhist
Aurangabad Caves
Aurangabad Caves
about 100 kilometers from the Ajanta Caves, dated to the 6th to 7th-century CE, show Buddhist
Buddhist
Matrikas (mother goddesses of Shaktism) next to the Buddha.[145] Other goddesses in these caves include Durga. The goddess iconography in these Buddhist
Buddhist
caves is close, but not identical to the Hindu
Hindu
Shakta tradition. The "seven goddess mothers" are found in other Buddhist caves and literature, such as their discussion in the Buddhist
Buddhist
text Manjusrimulakalpa and Vairocanabhisambodhi.[145][146]

Matrika
Matrika
– mother goddesses – are found in both Shakta- Hinduism
Hinduism
and Vajrayana-Buddhism.[143][147]

Jainism[edit] In Jainism, ideas similar to Shaktism
Shaktism
tradition are found, such as the Vidyadevis and the Shasanadevis.[142] Sikhism[edit] The secondary scripture of Sikhs, Dasam Granth
Dasam Granth
attributed to Guru Gobind Singh, includes numerous sections on Shakta goddesses, particularly Chandi
Chandi
– the fierce warrior form of the Hindu goddess.[148] According to Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh – a professor of Religious Studies, the stories about goddess Durga
Durga
in the Dasam Granth are reworkings of ancient Shakti
Shakti
mythologies.[149] A significant part of this Sikh scripture is based on the teachings in the Shakta text Devi
Devi
Mahatmya found in the Markandeya Purana
Markandeya Purana
of Hinduism.[150] Other ancient religions[edit] Some Westerners[who?] believe that many central concepts of Shaktism – including aspects of kundalini yoga as well as goddess worship – were once "common to the Hindu, Chaldean, Greek and Roman civilizations," but were largely superseded in the West, as well as the Near and Middle East, with the rise of the Abrahamic religions:

Of these four great ancient civilizations, working knowledge of the inner forces of enlightenment has survived on a mass scale only in India. Only in India
India
has the inner tradition of the Goddess endured. This is the reason the teachings of India
India
are so precious. They offer us a glimpse of what our own ancient wisdom must have been. The Indians have preserved our lost heritage. [...] Today it is up to us to locate and restore the tradition of the living Goddess. We would do well to begin our search in India, where for not one moment in all of human history have the children of the living Goddess forgotten their Divine Mother. — Linda Johnsen[151]

See also[edit]

Hecate
Hecate
– the Greek goddess of magic, ghosts, and necromancy Palden Lhamo
Palden Lhamo
– the fierce Buddhist
Buddhist
guardian goddess found in Tibet, and the goddess of war in Mongolia Shaivism Smarta Tradition Tridevi Vaishnavism Hindu
Hindu
sects Barbelo

Notes[edit]

^ Srimad Devi
Devi
Bhagavatam, VII.33.13-15, cited in Brown 1991[32] ^ ह्रीम् is pronounced as hrīm, it is a tantric mantra beej, and it identifies a "Shakti".[44][45] ^ A senior member of Guru
Guru
Mandali, Madurai, November 1984, cited in Brooks 1992.[71]

References[edit]

^ a b c Klaus K. Klostermaier (2010). Survey of Hinduism, A: Third Edition. State University of New York Press. pp. 30, 114–116, 233–245. ISBN 978-0-7914-8011-3.  ^ a b c Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, pp. 174–176, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0  ^ Thomas Coburn (2002), Devī-Māhātmya: The Crystallization of the Goddess Tradition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0557-6, pages 1–23 ^ a b c d e f J. Gordon Melton; Martin Baumann (2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. pp. 2600–2602. ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3.  ^ a b Shaktism, Encyclopædia Britannica (2015) ^ Yudit Kornberg Greenberg (2008). Encyclopedia of Love in World Religions. ABC-CLIO. pp. 254–256. ISBN 978-1-85109-980-1.  ^ Constance Jones; James Ryan (2014). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. p. 399. ISBN 978-0816054589.  ^ Rocher, Ludo (1986). The Puranas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 193. ISBN 978-3447025225.  ^ Katherine Anne Harper; Robert L. Brown (2012). The Roots of Tantra. State University of New York Press. pp. 48, 117, 40–53. ISBN 978-0-7914-8890-4.  ^ Sanderson, Alexis. "The Śaiva Literature." Journal of Indological Studies (Kyoto), Nos. 24 & 25 (2012–2013), 2014, pp. 80. ^ a b June McDaniel 2004, p. 90. ^ a b Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, p. 26. ^ a b The Rig Veda/Mandala 10/Hymn 125 Ralph T.H. Griffith (Translator); for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
original see: ऋग्वेद: सूक्तं १०.१२५ ^ Paul Deussen (1980). Sixty Upaniṣads of the Veda, Part 1. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 207–208, 211–213 verses 14–28. ISBN 978-81-208-1468-4.  ^ Charles Johnston, Kena Upanishad
Upanishad
in The Mukhya Upanishads: Books of Hidden Wisdom, (1920–1931), The Mukhya Upanishads, Kshetra Books, ISBN 978-1-4959-4653-0 (Reprinted in 2014), Archive of Kena Upanishad
Upanishad
- Part 3 as published in Theosophical Quarterly, pages 229–232 ^ a b NB Saxena (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Feminist Theology (Editors: Mary McClintock Fulkerson, Sheila Briggs). Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-19-927388-1.  ^ Coburn 2002, p. 7. ^ Coburn 1991, p. 16. ^ Krishna
Krishna
Warrier 1999, pp. ix-x. ^ Bhattacharyya 1996, p. 164. ^ Dikshitar 1999, pp. 1–36. ^ Brown 1998, pp. 8, 17, 10, 21, 320. ^ Brooks 1990, pp. xiii–xiv. ^ Brooks 1990, pp. xvi. ^ Brooks 1990, pp. 37-38. ^ Brooks 1990, p. 221 with note 64. ^ Dasgupta 1996, p. 3. ^ a b Brooks 1990, pp. xiii–xiv, xvi, 21. ^ a b c Hugh Urban (1997), Elitism and Esotericism: Strategies of Secrecy and Power in South Indian Tantra
Tantra
and French Freemasonry, Journal: Numen, Volume 44, Issue 1, pages 1 – 38 ^ Bhattacharyya 1996, p. 1. ^ Dikshitar 1999, pp. 77-78. ^ Brown 1991, p. 186. ^ Neela B Saxena (2012). Mary McClintock Fulkerson; Sheila Briggs, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Feminist Theology. Oxford University Press. pp. 134–138, 140. ISBN 978-0-19-927388-1.  ^ Brown 1991, p. 217. ^ Yadav 2001. ^ June McDaniel 2004, pp. 89–91. ^ a b c d Rocher 1986, p. 170. ^ Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, p. 1-2, 85-98. ^ Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, p. 12-17. ^ Tracy Pintchman 2015, pp. 131-138. ^ a b C Mackenzie Brown 1990, pp. 179-198. ^ a b c Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, pp. 1-3. ^ Tracy Pintchman 2014, p. 26-28. ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu
Hindu
Deity. State University of New York Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.  ^ Douglas Renfrew Brooks (1992). Auspicious Wisdom: The Texts and Traditions of Srividya Sakta Tantrism in South India. State University of New York Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-7914-1145-2.  ^ Lynn Foulston & Stuart Abbott 2009, pp. 74-75. ^ Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, pp. 1-3, 12-17. ^ Tracy Pintchman 2015, pp. 9, 34, 89-90, 131-138. ^ Lynn Foulston & Stuart Abbott 2009, pp. 15-16. ^ Tracy Pintchman 2014, p. 9-10. ^ Brooks 1990, pp. 47-72. ^ a b Brooks 1990, p. xii. ^ Geoffrey Samuel (2010), Tantric Revisionings, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120827523, pages 60–61, 87–88, 351–356 ^ Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1101–1102. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.  ^ Kinsley 1987. ^ Kali
Kali
2003, p. 149. ^ Patricia Monaghan (2011). Goddesses in World Culture. ABC-CLIO. pp. 26, 94. ISBN 978-0-313-35465-6.  ^ Kinsley 1987, pp. 102-104. ^ Kinsley 1987, pp. 1-5. ^ Kinsley 1987, pp. 161-165. ^ Kinsley 1998. ^ Bhattacharyya 1996, p. 126. ^ Sanderson, Alexis. "The Śaiva Literature." Journal of Indological Studies (Kyoto), Nos. 24 & 25 (2012–2013), 2014, pp. 35, 37. ^ Sanderson, Alexis. "The Śaiva Literature." Journal of Indological Studies (Kyoto), Nos. 24 & 25 (2012–2013), 2014, pp.4-5, 11, 57. ^ Sanderson, Alexis. "The Śaiva Literature." Journal of Indological Studies (Kyoto), Nos. 24 & 25 (2012–2013), 2014, pp. 57-65. ^ Sanderson, Alexis. "The Śaiva Literature." Journal of Indological Studies (Kyoto), Nos. 24 & 25 (2012–2013), 2014, pp. 59-60, 68. ^ a b Subramuniyaswami 2002, p. 1211. ^ Brooks 1992, p. back cover. ^ Brooks 1990, p. xiii. ^ Brooks 1992, pp. 59-60. ^ Brooks 1992, p. 56. ^ White 2003, p. 219. ^ Bhattacharyya 1996, p. 209. ^ a b c Brooks 1990, p. 28. ^ a b c d McDaniel n.d. ^ Nikhilananda 2000, p. 734. ^ Pattanaik 2000, pp. 103-109. ^ a b Kinsley 1987, pp. 95-115. ^ " Durga
Durga
Puja," DurgaPuja.org. ^ Susan Snow Wadley (2004). Raja Nal and the Goddess: The North Indian Epic Dhola in Performance. Indiana University Press. pp. 103–104. ISBN 0-253-11127-7.  ^ "Regaling Varahi
Varahi
with different 'alankarams' in 'Ashada Navaratri'," 24 July 2007, The Hindu. ^ Kinsley 1987, p. 33. ^ " Diwali
Diwali
Festival", DiwaliFestival.org. ^ " Kali
Kali
Pooja in Bengal," Diwali
Diwali
Festival.org. ^ Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 112–113. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.  ^ Roshen Dalal (2010). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-14-341517-6.  ^ a b c Fuller Christopher John (2004). "4". The camphor flame: popular Hinduism
Hinduism
and society in India
India
(Revised and Expanded ed.). Princeton University Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-691-12048-5.  ^ Christopher John Fuller (2004). The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India. Princeton University Press. p. 141. ISBN 0-691-12048-X.  ^ Rachel Fell McDermott (2011). Revelry, Rivalry, and Longing for the Goddesses of Bengal: The Fortunes of Hindu
Hindu
Festivals. Columbia University Press. pp. 204–205. ISBN 978-0-231-12919-0.  ^ Ira Katznelson; Gareth Stedman Jones (2010). Religion and the Political Imagination. Cambridge University Press. p. 343. ISBN 978-1-139-49317-8.  ^ McDermott, Rachel Fell (2011). Revelry, rivalry, and longing for the goddesses of Bengal: the fortunes of Hindu
Hindu
festivals. New York, Chichester: Columbia University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-231-12918-3. Retrieved 17 December 2014.  ^ Olivia Lang in Bariyapur (2009-11-24). " Hindu
Hindu
sacrifice of 250,000 animals begins World news guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2012-08-13.  ^ "Ritual animal slaughter begins in Nepal
Nepal
- CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. 2009-11-24. Retrieved 2012-08-13.  ^ Georg Pfeffer, Deepak Kumar Behera (1997). Contemporary Society: Developmental issues, transition, and change. Concept Publishing Company. p. 312. ISBN 9788170226420.  ^ " Bali Jatra
Bali Jatra
of Sonepur" (PDF). Orissa.gov.in. Retrieved 18 February 2015.  ^ Harlan, Lindsey (2003). The goddesses' henchmen gender in Indian hero worship. Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford University Press. pp. 45 with footnote 55, 58–59. ISBN 978-0195154269. Retrieved 14 October 2016.  ^ Hiltebeitel, Alf; Erndl, Kathleen M. (2000). Is the Goddess a Feminist?: the Politics of South Asian Goddesses,. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press. p. 77. ISBN 9780814736197.  ^ Harlan, Lindsey (1992). Religion and Rajput
Rajput
Women. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. pp. 61, 88. ISBN 0-520-07339-8.  ^ Harlan, Lindsey (1992). Religion and Rajput
Rajput
Women. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. pp. 107–108. ISBN 0-520-07339-8.  ^ Hiltebeitel, Alf (February 1980). "Rāma and Gilgamesh: the sacrifices of the water buffalo and the bull of heaven". History of Religions. 19 (3): 187–195, 211–214. doi:10.1086/462845. JSTOR 1062467.  ^ Patrick Taylor; Frederick Case (2013). The Encyclopedia of Caribbean Religions: Volume 1: A - L. University of Illinois Press. pp. 285–288. ISBN 978-0-252-09433-0.  ^ Urban 2003. ^ White 2003. ^ Kapoor 2002, p. 157. ^ White 2003, p. 262. ^ a b c Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase. p. 474. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.  ^ Mariasusai Dhavamony (1999). Hindu
Hindu
Spirituality. Gregorian Press. pp. 32–34. ISBN 978-88-7652-818-7.  ^ a b c d Jan Gonda (1970). Visnuism and Sivaism: A Comparison. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-4742-8080-8.  ^ Christopher Partridge (2013). Introduction to World Religions. Fortress Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-8006-9970-3.  ^ Sanjukta Gupta (1 February 2013). Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
and Vaisnavism: The Philosophy of Madhusudana Sarasvati. Routledge. pp. 65–71. ISBN 978-1-134-15774-7.  ^ Lai Ah Eng (2008). Religious Diversity in Singapore. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore. p. 221. ISBN 978-981-230-754-5.  ^ Mariasusai Dhavamony (2002). Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Theological Soundings and Perspectives. Rodopi. p. 63. ISBN 90-420-1510-1.  ^ Stephen H Phillips (1995), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0812692983, page 332 with note 68 ^ Olivelle, Patrick (1992). The Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. pp. 4–18. ISBN 978-0195070453.  ^ a b Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0, pages 162–167 ^ "Shaivas". Overview Of World Religions. Philtar. Retrieved 13 December 2017.  ^ Munavalli, Somashekar (2007). Lingayat Dharma
Dharma
(Veerashaiva Religion) (PDF). Veerashaiva Samaja of North America. p. 83.  ^ Prem Prakash (1998). The Yoga
Yoga
of Spiritual Devotion: A Modern Translation of the Narada Bhakti
Bhakti
Sutras. Inner Traditions. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-0-89281-664-4.  ^ Frazier, J. (2013). " Bhakti
Bhakti
in Hindu
Hindu
Cultures". The Journal of Hindu Studies. Oxford University Press. 6 (2): 101–113. doi:10.1093/jhs/hit028.  ^ Lisa Kemmerer; Anthony J. Nocella (2011). Call to Compassion: Reflections on Animal Advocacy from the World's Religions. Lantern. pp. 27–36. ISBN 978-1-59056-281-9.  ^ Frederick J. Simoons (1998). Plants of Life, Plants of Death. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 182–183. ISBN 978-0-299-15904-7.  ^ K. Sivaraman (1973). Śaivism in Philosophical Perspective. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 336–340. ISBN 978-81-208-1771-5.  ^ John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791430675, page 238 ^ Flood 1996, p. 225. ^ Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, pages 245-248 ^ McDaniel, June (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls. Oxford University Press. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5.  ^ Matthew James Clark (2006). The Daśanāmī-saṃnyāsīs: The Integration of Ascetic Lineages Into an Order. Brill. pp. 177–225. ISBN 978-90-04-15211-3.  ^ Hurley, Leigh; Hurley, Phillip (2012). Tantra, Yoga
Yoga
of Ecstasy: the Sadhaka's Guide to Kundalinin and the Left-Hand Path. Maithuna Publications. p. 5. ISBN 9780983784722.  ^ Kim Skoog (1996). Andrew O. Fort; Patricia Y. Mumme, eds. Living Liberation in Hindu
Hindu
Thought. SUNY Press. pp. 63–84, 236–239. ISBN 978-0-7914-2706-4.  ^ Rajendra Prasad (2008). A Conceptual-analytic Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals. Concept. p. 375. ISBN 978-81-8069-544-5.  ^ The global religious landscape: Hindus, Pew Research (2012) ^ Johnson, Todd M; Grim, Brian J (2013). The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. John Wiley & Sons. p. 400. ISBN 9781118323038.  ^ Gavin Flood (2008). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-470-99868-7. , Quote: "it is often impossible to meaningfully distinguish between Saiva and Sakta traditions". ^ Julius J. Lipner (2009), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7, pages 371-375 ^ Pattanaik 2000, pp. 110-114. ^ Bhattacharyya 1996, p. 171. ^ a b Fell McDermett 1998, pp. 281-305. ^ Kali
Kali
Mandir ^ Sri
Sri
Rajarajeshwari Peetham ^ Dempsey 2006. ^ J. Gordon Melton; Martin Baumann (2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 2599. ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3.  ^ a b Roshen Dalal (2010). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-14-341517-6.  ^ a b István Keul (2012). Transformations and Transfer of Tantra
Tantra
in Asia and Beyond. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 119–123. ISBN 978-3-11-025811-0.  ^ Mary McClintock Fulkerson; Sheila Briggs (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Feminist Theology. Oxford University Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-19-927388-1.  ^ a b Pia Brancaccio (2010). The Buddhist
Buddhist
Caves at Aurangabad: Transformations in Art and Religion. BRILL Academic. pp. 21, 202–207. ISBN 90-04-18525-9. , Quote: "To the right of the main Buddha image, carved out of the wall of the sanctum, is an ensemble of seven female images". ^ David B. Gray; Ryan Richard Overbey (2016). Tantric Traditions in Transmission and Translation. Oxford University Press. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-0-19-990952-0.  ^ Peter Alan Roberts (2011). Mahamudra and Related Instructions: Core Teachings of the Kagyu Schools. Simon and Schuster. p. 715. ISBN 978-0-86171-444-5.  ^ Robin Rinehart (2011). Debating the Dasam Granth. Oxford University Press. pp. 71, 107–110. ISBN 978-0-19-984247-6.  ^ Constance Waeber Elsberg (2003). Graceful Women: Gender and Identity in an American Sikh Community. University of Tennessee Press. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-1-57233-214-0.  ^ Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.  ^ Johnsen 2002, pp. 176, 181.

Sources[edit]

Bhattacharyya, N. N. (1996) [1974]. History of the Sakta Religion (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.  Bhattacharyya, N. N. (1977) [1970]. The Indian Mother Goddess (2nd ed.). New Delhi: South Asia Books.  Brooks, Douglas Renfrew (1990). The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu
Hindu
Shakta Tantrism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-07569-3.  Brooks, Douglas Renfrew (1992). Auspicious Wisdom: The Texts and Traditions of Srividya Shakta Tantrism in South India. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-1146-9.  Brown, C. MacKenzie (1991). The Triumph of the Goddess: The Canonical Models and Theological Issues of the Devi-Bhagavata Purana. SUNY Series in Hindu
Hindu
Studies. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0364-8.  Brown, C. Mackenzie (1998). The Devi
Devi
Gita: The Song of the Goddess: A Translation, Annotation and Commentary. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3940-1.  Dasgupta, S (1996). Journal of the Indian Musicological Society. 27–28. Indian Musicological Society.  Dempsey, Corinne G. (2006). The Goddess Lives in Upstate New York: Breaking Convention and Making Home at a North American Hindu
Hindu
Temple. New York: Oxford University Press.  Dikshitar, V. R. Ramachandra (1999) [1942]. The Lalita Cult. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.  Fell McDermett, Rachel (1998). "The Western Kali". In Hawley, John; Wulff, Donna Marie (eds.). Devi: Goddesses of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-1491-2. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Hawley, John Stratton (1998). "The Goddess in India". In Hawley, John; Wulff, Donna Marie (eds.). Devi: Goddesses of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-1491-2. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Joshi, M. C. (2002). "Historical and Iconographical Aspects of Shakta Tantrism". In Harper, Katherine; Brown, Robert L. (eds.). The Roots of Tantra. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-5305-6. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Kali, Davadatta (2003). In Praise of the Goddess: The Devimahatmya and Its Meaning. Berwick, ME: Nicolas-Hays, Inc.  Kapoor, Subodh (2002) [1925]. A Short Introduction to Sakta Philosophy. New Delhi: Indigo Books.  Kinsley, David (1987). Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Visions of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-0394-7.  Kinsley, David (1998). Tantric Visions of the Divine Feminine: The Ten Mahavidyas. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-1523-0.  Krishna
Krishna
Warrier, A. J. (1999) [1967]. The Sākta Upaniṣads. The Adyar Library and Research Center, Library Series. 89 (3rd. ed.). Chennai: Vasanta Press.  McDaniel, June (n.d.). "Bengali Shakta". Countries and Their Cultures. Advameg, Inc.  Nikhilananda, Swami (trans.) (2000) [1942]. The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
(9th ed.). New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center.  Pattanaik, Devdutt (2000). Devi
Devi
the Mother-Goddess: An Introduction. Mumbai: Vakils, Feffer and Simons Ltd.  Pechilis, Karen (ed.) (2004). The Graceful Guru: Hindu
Hindu
Female Gurus in India
India
and the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Subramuniyaswami, Satguru Sivaya (2002) [1999]. Merging with Siva: Hinduism's Contemporary Metaphysics (2nd ed.). Hawaii: Himalayan Academy. ISBN 978-0-945497-99-8.  White, David Gordon (2003). Kiss of the Yogini: "Tantric Sex" in its South Asian Contexts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-89483-6.  Woodroffe, Sir John (1951) [1927]. Sakti and Sakta: Essays and Addresses on the Shâkta Tantrashâstra. Ganesh & Company. ISBN 978-1-60620-145-9.  Yadav, Neeta (2001). Ardhanārīśvara in Art and Literature. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld (P) Ltd.  Lynn Foulston; Stuart Abbott (2009). Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-902210-43-8.  Bolon, Carol Radcliffe (1992). Forms of the Goddess Lajja Gauri in Indian Art. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press.  Erndl, Kathleen M. (1992). Victory to the Mother: The Hindu
Hindu
Goddess of Northwest India
India
in Myth, Ritual, and Symbol. New York: Oxford University Press.  Johnsen, Linda (2002). The Living Goddess: Reclaiming the Tradition of the Mother of the Universe. Yes International. ISBN 978-0-936663-28-9.  Joshi, L. M. (1998). Lalita Sahasranama: A Comprehensive Study of the One Thousand Names of Lalita Maha-tripurasundari. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld (P) Ltd.  C Mackenzie Brown (1990). The Triumph of the Goddess: The Canonical Models and Theological Visions of the Devi-Bhagavata Purana. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0364-8.  Cheever Mackenzie Brown (1998). The Devi
Devi
Gita: The Song of the Goddess: A Translation, Annotation, and Commentary. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3939-5.  Coburn, Thomas B. (1991). Encountering the Goddess: A translation of the Devi-Mahatmya and a Study of Its Interpretation. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791404463.  Coburn, Thomas B. (2002). Devī Māhātmya, The Crystallization of the Goddess Tradition. South Asia Books. ISBN 81-208-0557-7.  Lynn Foulston; Stuart Abbott (2009). Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-902210-43-8.  John Stratton Hawley; Donna Marie Wulff (1998). Devi: Goddesses of India. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1491-2.  Alf Hiltebeitel; Kathleen M. Erndl (2000). Is the Goddess a Feminist?: The Politics of South Asian Goddesses. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-3619-7.  Kali, Davadatta (2003). In Praise of the Goddess: The Devimahatmya and Its Meaning. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120829530.  Manna, Sibendu, Mother Goddess, Chaṇḍī, Punthi Pustak, Calcutta, India, 1993. (ISBN 81-85094-60-8) June McDaniel (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5.  Jyotir Maya Nanda. Mysticism of the Devi
Devi
Mahatmya Worship of the Divine Mother. South Miami, Fla: Yoga
Yoga
Research Foundation, 1994. ISBN 0-934664-58-7 Tracy Pintchman (2005). Guests at God's Wedding: Celebrating Kartik among the Women of Benares. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6595-0.  Tracy Pintchman (2014). Seeking Mahadevi: Constructing the Identities of the Hindu
Hindu
Great Goddess. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-9049-5.  Tracy Pintchman (2015). The Rise of the Goddess in the Hindu Tradition. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-1618-2.  Rocher, Ludo (1986). The Puranas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3447025225.  Sarma, S. A. (2001). Kena Upanisad: A Study From Sakta Perspective. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.  Shankarnarayanan, S. (2002b) [1971]. Sri
Sri
Chakra (4th ed.). Chennai: Samata Books.  Smith, Frederick M. (2006). The Self Possessed: Deity and Spirit Possession in South Asian Literature. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13748-6.  Suryanarayana Murthy, C. (2000) [1962]. Sri
Sri
Lalita Sahasranama with Introduction and Commentary. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.  Urban, Hugh B. (2003). Tantra: Sex, Secrecy, Politics and Power in the Study of Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-93689-8.  Winternitz, M. (1973) [1927]. History of Indian Literature. New Delhi. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shaktism.

Encyclopædia Britannica, "Shaktism" The Sakta Traditions, The Oxford Centre for Hindu
Hindu
Studies Devi, The Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution The Portrait of the Goddess in the Devī-māhātmya, David Kinsley (1978) The Indian Religion of the Goddess Shakti, Hans Koester (1929)

v t e

Shaktism

Devi

Adi Parashakti Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Sati Shakti Durga

Navadurga

Mahadevi Mahakali Bhadrakali Radha Sita More

Matrikas

Brahmani Maheshvari Kaumari Vaishnavi Varahi Indrani Chamunda

Mahavidya

Kali Tara Tripura
Tripura
Sundari Bhuvaneshvari Bhairavi Chhinnamasta Dhumavati Bagalamukhi Matangi Kamalatmika

Shakti
Shakti
Peethas

Bimala Kalighat Kamakhya Taratarini Tulja Bhavani Mahalakshmi More...

Hinduism Tantra

v t e

Hinduism
Hinduism
topics

Glossary

Philosophy

Concepts

Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
Shastra Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

Manusmriti Nāradasmṛti Yājñavalkya Smṛti

Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

Related

Hindu Denominations Law Calendar Criticism Gurus, saints, philosophers Hindu
Hindu
studies Iconography Mythology Nationalism

Hindutva

Persecution Pilgrimage sites Glossary Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

.