Sakanoue no Tamuramaro
   HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

was a court noble, general and ''
shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictator A military dictatorship is a dictatorship in which the military exerts complete or substantial control over political authority, and the dictator is often a high-ranked military officer. ...
'' of the early
Heian period The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. It followed the Nara period, beginning when the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu, moved the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese langu ...
of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally , ''Nihonkoku'') is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north ...
. He served as
Dainagon was a counselor of the first rank in the Imperial court of Japan. The role dates from the 7th century. This advisory position remained a part of the Imperial court from the 8th century until the Meiji period in the 19th century.Nussbaum, "Dainag ...
,
Minister of War A defence minister or minister of defence is a Cabinet (government), cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states. The role of a defence minister varies considerably from coun ...
and ''Ukon'e no Taisho'' (Major Captain of the Right Division of Inner Palace Guards). He held the ''
kabane were Japanese hereditary Nobility, noble titles. Their use traces back to ancient times when they began to be used as titles signifying a family's political and social status. History As the national unification by the Yamato period, Yamato im ...
'' of Ōsukune and the court rank of Junior Second Rank and was awarded the Order of Second Class. He was the son of Sakanoue no Karitamaro.


Military career

Serving
Emperor Kanmu , or Kammu, was the 50th emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch and the head of the Imperial House of Japan, Imperial Family of Japan. Under the Constitution of Japan, he is defined as the symbol of the Japanese state and the ...
, Tamuramaro was appointed ''
shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictator A military dictatorship is a dictatorship in which the military exerts complete or substantial control over political authority, and the dictator is often a high-ranked military officer. ...
'' and given the task of conquering the
Emishi The (also called Ebisu and Ezo), written with Chinese characters that literally mean "shrimp Dongyi, barbarians," constituted an ancient ethnic group of people who lived in parts of Honshū, especially in the Tōhoku region, Tōhoku region, refe ...
(蝦夷征伐 ''Emishi Seibatsu''), a people native to the north of Honshū, which he subjugated. Recent evidence suggests that a migration of Emishi from northern Honshū to
Hokkaidō is Japan's second largest island and comprises the largest and northernmost prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin ''Praefectura'') is an administrative jurisdiction traditionally governed by an appointed prefect. This can be a regional or ...
took place sometime between the seventh and eighth centuries, perhaps as a direct result of this policy that pre-dated Tamuramaro's appointment. However, many Emishi remained in the
Tōhoku region The , Northeast region, or consists of the northeastern portion of Honshu, the largest island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally , ''Nihonkoku'') is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacifi ...
as subjects of the expanding
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally , ''Nihonkoku'') is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north ...
ese Empire and later established independent Fushu domains. After Emperor Kanmu's death, the general continued to serve
Emperor Heizei , also known as ''Heijō-tennō'', was the 51st emperor of Japan,#Kunaichō, Emperor Heizei, Yamamomo Imperial Mausoleum, Imperial Household Agency according to the traditional List of Emperors of Japan, order of succession. Heizei's reign las ...
and
Emperor Saga was the 52nd emperor of Japan,#Kunaichō, Emperor Saga, Saganoyamanoe Imperial Mausoleum, Imperial Household Agency according to the traditional List of Emperors of Japan, order of succession. Saga's reign spanned the years from 809 through 823 ...
as and . He was the second person to be given the title of ''Sei-i Taishōgun'' (征夷大将軍). The first to receive this title was Ōtomo no Otomaro. It is said that the famous
Tanabata , also known as the Star Festival (wiktionary:星祭り, 星祭り, ''Hoshimatsuri''), is a Japanese festival originating from the Chinese Qixi Festival. It celebrates the meeting of the deities Orihime and Hikoboshi (represented by the star ...
festivals and parades of
Aomori Prefecture is a Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan in the Tōhoku region. The prefecture's capital, largest city, and namesake is the city of Aomori (city), Aomori. Aomori is the northernmost prefecture on Japan's main island, Honshu, and is border ...
(also celebrated in the city of Sendai in Miyagi prefecture), which draw over 3 million people to the prefecture a year, were popularised in remembrance of Sakanoue no Tamuramaro's campaign to subdue the tribal societies then living in Tōhoku. These annual ''
matsuri Japanese festivals are traditional festive occasions often celebrated with dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and ofte ...
'' are called the ''Nebuta'' festival in Aomori City and ''Neputa'' Festival () in Hirosaki City. They feature a number of gigantic, specially-constructed, illuminated paper floats. These huge festival structures are colourfully painted with mythical figures, and teams of men carry them through the streets as crowds shout encouragement. Aomori's great nebuta lanterns are said to hark back to Tamuramaro's innovative strategy in that early ninth century campaign. According to legend, the taishogun is remembered for having ordered huge illuminated lanterns to be placed at the top of hills; and when the curious Emishi approached these bright lights to investigate, they were captured and subdued. Until the mid-1990s the prize awarded for the best float of the parades was called the Tamuramaro Prize. However, there is no historical record that Tamuramaro went farther north than
Iwate Prefecture is a Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan located in the Tōhoku region of Honshu. It is the second-largest Japanese prefecture at , with a population of 1,210,534 (as of October 1, 2020). Iwate Prefecture borders Aomori Prefecture to the ...
. Tamuramaro's name is linked with payments for construction projects at Kiyomizu Temple (''Kiyomizu-dera'') in the late 8th century. * 811 ('' Kōnin 2, 3rd month''): Tamuramaro died at age 54, to the great regret of Emperor Saga, who expressed his sense of loss by distributing large quantities of silk cloth, cotton cloth and rice in honour of his dead counsellor. His bow, arrows, quiver and sword were placed in his coffin by order of the Emperor.Titsingh, Isaac. (1834)
''Annales des empereurs du japon'', p. 99.
/ref> The Tomb of Sakanoue no Tamuramaro is located in Kanshuji Higashikurisunocho, Yamashina Ward, Kyoto, Japan. He is not the samurai buried at Shōgun-zuka as that was a ceremonial statue of a warrior buried by Emperor Kanmu when he decided to move the capital to Heian-kyo, present day Kyoto.


Ancestry

According to the ''
Shoku Nihongi The is an imperially-commissioned Japanese history text. Completed in 797, it is the second of the ''Rikkokushi, Six National Histories'', coming directly after the ''Nihon Shoki'' and followed by ''Nihon Kōki''. Fujiwara no Tsugutada and Sugano ...
'', an official historical record, the Sakanoue clan is descended from Emperor Ling of
Han China The Han dynasty (, ; ) was an Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 9 AD, 25–220 AD), established by Emperor Gaozu of Han, Liu Bang (Emperor Gao) and ruled by the House of Liu. The dynasty was preceded by th ...
. The Sakanoue clan's
family tree A family tree, also called a genealogy Genealogy () is the study of families, family history, and the tracing of their Lineage (anthropology), lineages. Genealogists use oral interviews, historical records, genetic analysis, and other rec ...
shows that Tamuramaro is a 14th-generation descendant of Ling. Other research traces the origins of the Sakanoue clan from the Asian mainland, possibly through
Baekje Baekje or Paekche (, ) was a Korean kingdom located in southwestern Korea Korea ( ko, 한국, or , ) is a peninsular region in East Asia. Since 1945, it has been divided at or near the 38th parallel north, 38th parallel, with North Kor ...
.


Honours

* Senior second rank (May 27, 811; posthumous)


See also

* List of shōguns * Tamura clan


Notes


References

* Bornoff, Nicholas. (2005). ''National Geographic Traveler Japan.'' Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. * Iwao, Seiichi. (2002)
''Dictionnaire historique du Japon''
(with Teizō Iyanaga, Susumu Ishii, Shōichirō Yoshida ''et al.''). Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose.
OCLC 51096469
* Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). iyun-sai_Rin-siyo/Hayashi_Gahō_(1652).html" ;"title="Hayashi_Gahō.html" ;"title="iyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō">iyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō (1652)">Hayashi_Gahō.html" ;"title="iyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō">iyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō (1652) ''Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon.'' Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. * H. Paul Varley, Varley, H. Paul, ed. (1980). [ Kitabatake Chikafusa (1359)], '' Jinnō Shōtōki ("A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa" translated by H. Paul Varley).'' New York:
Columbia University Press Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University. It is currently directed by Jennifer Crewe (2014–present) and publishes titles in the humanities and sciences, including the field ...
. * Kameda Takashi 亀田隆之 (1967). ''Sakanoue no Tamuramaro''. Tokyo: Jinbutsu Oraisha 人物往来社.


External links

* Shōgun-zuka – Tamuramaro's reputed grave site overlooking Kyoto is at coordinates {{DEFAULTSORT:Sakanoue no, Tamuramaro 758 births 811 deaths 8th-century Japanese people 9th-century Japanese people 8th-century shōguns 9th-century shōguns Samurai Shōguns Bushido Deified Japanese people Baekje people Japanese people of Chinese descent Japanese people of Korean descent