* 1 History * 2 Usage * 3 In literature * 4 See also
* 5 References
* 5.1 Citations * 5.2 Sources
The origin of the
Shaka era is highly controversial. There are two
Shaka era system in scholarly use, one is called Old Shaka Era, whose
epoch is uncertain, probably sometime in the 1st millennium BCE
because ancient Buddhist, Jaina and Hindu inscriptions and texts use
it, but this a subject of dispute among scholars. The other is called
The beginning of the
Shaka era is now widely equated to the ascension
Chashtana in 78 CE. His inscriptions, dated to the years 11
and 52, have been found at Andhau in
A previously more common view was that the beginning of the Shaka era corresponds to the ascension of Kanishka I in 78 CE. However, the latest research by Henry Falk indicates that Kanishka ascended the throne in 127 CE. Moreover, Kanishka was not a Shaka, but a Kushana ruler. Other historical candidates have included rulers such as Vima Kadphises , Vonones , and Nahapana .
According to historian
Dineshchandra Sircar , the historically
inaccurate notion of "
Shalivahana era" appears to be based on the
victory of the
Gautamiputra Satakarni over some Shaka
Western Kshatrapa ) kings. Sircar also suggests that the association
of the northern king Vikramaditya with
Vikrama era (also historically
inaccurate) might have led the southern scholars to fabricate a
similar legend of their own. Another similar account claims that the
legendary emperor Vikramaditya defeated the Shakas in 78 CE, and the
Shaka era marks the day of this conquest. This legend has been
mentioned in the writings of
The earliest known users of the era are the
Western Satraps , the
Shaka (Indo-Scythian ) rulers of
The use of the calendar era survived into the
Gupta period and became
part of Hindu tradition following the decline of Buddhism in India .
It was in widespread use by the 6th to 7th centuries, e.g. in the
The calendar era remained in use in India and Southeast Asia
throughout the medieval period, the main alternative era in
traditional Hindu timekeeping being the
Vikram Samvat era (56 BC). It
was used by Javanese courts until 1633, when it was replaced by Anno
Javanico , a hybrid Javanese-Islamic system. It was adopted as the
era of the
Indian national calendar
The Shaka era is the vernal equinox of the year AD 78. The year of the modern Shaka Calendar is tied to the Gregorian date of 22 March every year, except in Gregorian leap years when it starts on 21 March.
* ^ A B C Richard Salomon (1998). Indian Epigraphy : A Guide to the
Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan
Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 182–184. ISBN 9780195356663
* ^ Richard Salomon (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study
of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan
Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 181–183. ISBN
* ^ Shailendra Bhandare (2006). "Numismatics and History: The
Maurya-Gupta interlude in the Gangetic Plains". In Patrick Olivelle.
Between the Empires : Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE: Society in
India 300 BCE to 400 CE. Oxford University Press. p. 69. ISBN
* ^ Adalbert J. Gail; Gerd J. R. Mevissen; Richard Salomon, eds.
(2006). Script and Image: Papers on Art and Epigraphy. Motilal
Banarsidass. p. 193.
* ^ Ladislav Stančo (2012). Greek Gods in the East. Karolinum
Press . p. 18.
* ^ A B Krishna Chandra Sagar (1992). Foreign Influence on Ancient
India. Northern Book Centre. pp. 135–136. ISBN 9788172110284 .
* ^ D. C. Sircar (1965). Indian Epigraphy.
* Jain, Kailash Chand (1991), Lord Mahāvīra and His Times, Motilal Banarsidass , ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8