Saint Raphael the Archangel
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Raphael (; he, רֵפָאֵל,
translit. Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#Latin, liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → , Cyr ...
''Rēp̄āʾēl'', lit. 'God has healed'; grc, Ραφαήλ, ''Raphaḗl''; cop, ⲣⲁⲫⲁⲏⲗ, ''Rafaêl''; ar, رافائيل, ''Rāfā’īl'', or , ''Isrāfīl''; am, ሩፋኤል, ''Rufaʾel'') is an
archangel An archangel is an angel An angel is a supernatural spiritual being who, according to various religions, is God's servant. Abrahamic religions often depict angels as wikt:benevolent, benevolent celestial intermediaries between God ( ...

archangel
mentioned in the
Book of Tobit The Book of Tobit () ''Tōbith'' or ''Tōbit'' ( and spellings are also attested) itself from he, טובי ''Tovi'' "my good"; Book of Tobias in the Vulgate from the Greek ''Tōbias'', itself from the Hebrew ''Tovyah'' "Jah, Yah is good" is ...
and in
1 Enoch The Book of Enoch (also 1 Enoch; gez, መጽሐፈ ሄኖክ, ) is an Second Temple Judaism, ancient Hebrew Apocalyptic literature, apocalyptic religious text, ascribed by tradition to Enoch (Biblical figure), Enoch, the great-grandfather of No ...
, both dating from the last few centuries before Christ. In later Jewish tradition, he became identified as one of the three heavenly visitors entertained by
Abraham Abraham, ''Ibrāhīm''; el, Ἀβραάμ, translit=Abraám, name=, group= (originally Abram) is the common patriarch of the , including , , and . In Judaism, he is the founding father of the , the special relationship between the and ; in C ...

Abraham
at the
Oak of Mamre The Oak of Mamre (also called the Oak of Sibta), at Khirbet es-Sibte (also as Ain Sibta), in Hebron in the West Bank The West Bank ( ar, الضفة الغربية '; he, הגדה המערבית ' or ') is a landlocked territory near the M ...
. He is not named in either the Christian
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
or the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or di ...

Quran
, but later Christian tradition identified him with healing and as the angel who stirred waters in the
Pool of Bethesda Model of the pools during the Second Temple Period (Israel Museum) The Pool of Bethesda was a Swimming pool, pool in Jerusalem known from the New Testament story of healing the paralytic at Bethesda, Jesus miraculously healing a paralysed man, fr ...

Pool of Bethesda
in John 5:2-4. In Islam, where his name is
Israfil Israfil in Islamic calligraphy Israfil ( ar, إِسْـرَافِـيْـل}, ''Isrāfīl''; or Israfeel or Rafail) Lewis, James R., Evelyn Dorothy Oliver, and S. Sisung Kelle, eds. 1996. ''Angels A to Z''. Visible Ink Press. . p. 224. is the angel ...

Israfil
, he is understood to be the unnamed angel of Quran 6:73, who stands eternally with a trumpet to his lips, ready to announce the
Day of Resurrection In Islamic eschatology Islamic eschatology is the aspect of Islamic theology incorporating the afterlife#Islam, afterlife and the end of the world, with special emphasis in the Quran on the inevitability of resurrection in Islam, resurrectio ...
.


Origins in post-exilic literature

In the Hebrew Bible (the
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the , which is based primarily upon the 24 books of the or Tanakh, a collection of ancient religious Hebrew writings by the . The second division of Christian Bibles is the , w ...
) the word () means a messenger, human or supernatural, and when used in the latter sense it is translated as "
angel An angel is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the laws of nature. This term is attributed to non-physical entities, such as angel An angel is a supernatural ...

angel
". The original mal'ak lacked both individuality and hierarchy, but after the
Babylonian exile The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. After the Battle of Carchemish in ...
they were graded into a Babylonian-style hierarchy and the word ''archangelos'',
archangel An archangel is an angel An angel is a supernatural spiritual being who, according to various religions, is God's servant. Abrahamic religions often depict angels as wikt:benevolent, benevolent celestial intermediaries between God ( ...

archangel
, first appears in the Greek text of 1 Enoch. At the same time the angels and archangels began to be given names, as attested in the Talmudic statement that "the names of the angels were brought by the Jews from Babylonia". Raphael first appears in two works of this period, 1 Enoch, a collection of originally independent texts from the 3rd century BCE, and the
Book of Tobit The Book of Tobit () ''Tōbith'' or ''Tōbit'' ( and spellings are also attested) itself from he, טובי ''Tovi'' "my good"; Book of Tobias in the Vulgate from the Greek ''Tōbias'', itself from the Hebrew ''Tovyah'' "Jah, Yah is good" is ...
, from the early 2nd century BCE. In the oldest stratum of 1 Enoch (1 Enoch 9:1) he is one of the four named archangels, and in Tobit 12:11-15 he is one of seven. His name derives from a Hebrew root meaning "to heal", and can be translated as "God healed". In Tobit he is both one who acts as a physician and expels demons, using an extraordinary fish to bind the demon
Asmodeus Asmodeus (; grc, Ἀσμοδαῖος, ''Asmodaios'') or Ashmedai (; he, אַשְמְדּאָי, ''ʾAšməddāy''), also Asmodevs, Ashema Deva or Amias (see below for other variations), is a ''prince of demons'',"Asmodeus" in '' The New Ency ...

Asmodeus
and to heal Tobit's eyes; in 1 Enoch he is "set over all disease and every wound of the children of the people", and binds the armies of
Azazel In the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans, Rastafari and others. It appears in the form of an antho ...

Azazel
and throws them into the valley of fire.


In later Judaism

According to the Babylonian
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of and the primary source of Jewish religious law (') and . Until the advent of , in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of and was foundation ...

Talmud
, Raphael was one of the three angels who appeared to
Abraham Abraham, ''Ibrāhīm''; el, Ἀβραάμ, translit=Abraám, name=, group= (originally Abram) is the common patriarch of the , including , , and . In Judaism, he is the founding father of the , the special relationship between the and ; in C ...

Abraham
in the oak grove of
Mamre Mamre (; he, מַמְרֵא), full Hebrew name ''Elonei Mamre'' ("Oaks/Terebinths of Mamre"), refers to an ancient religious site originally focused on a single holy tree, growing "since time immemorial" at Hebron in Canaan.Lukasz Niesiolowski-Sp ...
in the region of
Hebron Hebron ( ar, الخليل أو الخليل الرحمن ; he, חֶבְרוֹן ) is a Palestinian The Palestinian people ( ar, الشعب الفلسطيني, ''ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī''), also referred to as Palestinians ( ar, الف ...

Hebron
. (Gen. xviii; Bava Metzia 86b);
Michael / (Mikha'el) , nickname = Mic, Mich, Micha, Mick (disambiguation), Mick, Mickey (disambiguation), Mickey, Micki, Mickie, Mike, Mikey (disambiguation), Mikey, Miki, Mikki, Miko, Misha (disambiguation), Misha, Mitch, Mitt (name), Mitt , relat ...
, as the greatest, walked in the middle, with
Gabriel In the Abrahamic religions The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic people, Semitic-originated religions that claim descent from the Judaism of the anci ...

Gabriel
to his right and Raphael to his left (Yoma 37a). Each was commanded to carry out a specific mission, Gabriel to destroy Sodom, Michael to inform
Sarah Sarah (; ar, سَارَة ) born Sarai ( ''Sāray'') is a biblical matriarch and prophetess In religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, ...

Sarah
that she would give birth to
Isaac Isaac, ''Isaák''; ar, إسحٰق/إسحاق, ; am, ይስሐቅ is one of the three patriarchs The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is gener ...

Isaac
, Raphael to heal Abraham from his recent
circumcision Circumcision is the removal of the foreskin The foreskin is the double-layered fold of smooth muscle tissue, blood vessel The blood vessels are the components of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the human body. The ...

circumcision
and save
Lot Lot or LOT may refer to: Common meanings Areas *Land lot, an area of land *Parking lot, for automobiles *Backlot, in movie production Sets of items *Lot number, in batch production *Lot, a set of goods for sale together in an auction; or a quantit ...
.
Rashi Shlomo Yitzchaki ( he, רבי שלמה יצחקי; la, Salomon Isaacides; french: Salomon de Troyes, 22 February 1040 – 13 July 1105), today generally known by the acronym Rashi (see below), was a medieval French rabbi A rabbi is a spi ...
writes, "Although Raphael's mission included two tasks, they were considered a single mission since they were both acts that saved people." The ''
Life of Adam and Eve The ''Life of Adam and Eve'', also known, in its Greek version, as the ''Apocalypse of Moses'' (, ''Apokalypsis Mōuseōs''; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, ...
'' lists him with the archangels Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Raphael and Joel, and the medieval Jewish philosopher
Maimonides Moses ben Maimon ; (1138–1204), commonly known as Maimonides ( ) grc-gre, Μωυσής Μαϊμωνίδης ; la, Moses Maimonides and also referred to by the acronym Rambam ( he, רמב״ם),, for ''Rabbeinu Mōše bēn Maimun'', "Our Rab ...

Maimonides
included his name in his
Jewish angelic hierarchy In Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", via Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term itself is of Anglo-Latin origin c. 1400) is an Abrahamic primarily ethni ...
.


Christianity

The
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
names only two archangels or angels, Michael and Gabriel (Luke 1:9–26; Jude 1:9; Revelation 12:7), but Raphael, because of his association with healing, became identified with the unnamed angel of John 5:1–4 who periodically stirred the
pool of Bethesda Model of the pools during the Second Temple Period (Israel Museum) The Pool of Bethesda was a Swimming pool, pool in Jerusalem known from the New Testament story of healing the paralytic at Bethesda, Jesus miraculously healing a paralysed man, fr ...

pool of Bethesda
" d he that went down first into the pond after the motion of the water was made whole of whatsoever infirmity he lay under". The
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Catholic Church
accordingly links Raphael with Michael and Gabriel as saints whose intercession can be sought through prayer.


Patronage

Due to his actions in the Book of Tobit and the Gospel of John, Saint Raphael is considered patron of travelers, the blind, happy meetings, nurses, physicians, medical workers, matchmakers, Christian marriage, and Catholic studies. As a particular enemy of the devil, he was revered in Catholic Europe as a special protector of sailors: on a corner of the famous
Doge's Palace The Doge's Palace ( it, Palazzo Ducale; vec, Pałaso Dogal) is a palace , the official residence of Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officia ...

Doge's Palace
in
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, d ...

Venice
is a relief depicting Raphael holding a scroll on which is written: "''Efficia fretum quietum''" (“Keep the
Gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower opening than a bay (geography), bay, but that is not observable in all geographic areas so named. The term gulf was traditionally used for large highly-indented ...

Gulf
quiet”). On July 8, 1497, when
Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (, ; ; c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portugal in the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea. His initial voyage to India by way of Cape of Good Hope (1 ...

Vasco da Gama
set sail from
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a sovereign state, country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Penins ...

Lisbon
with his four-ship fleet to India, the flagship was named ''São Rafael'' at the insistence of
King King is the title given to a male in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is , which title is also given to the of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to . G ...
Manuel I of Portugal Manuel I (; 31 May 146913 December 1521), known as the Fortunate ( pt, O Venturoso), was King of Portugal This is a list of Portuguese monarchs who ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Por ...

Manuel I of Portugal
. When the flotilla reached the
Cape of Good Hope A cape is a sleeveless , which drapes the wearer's back, arms, and chest, and connects at the neck. History Capes were common in , especially when combined with a in the . They have had periodic returns to - for example, in nineteenth-cent ...

Cape of Good Hope
on October 22, the sailors disembarked and erected a column in the archangel's honor. The little statue of Raphael that accompanied Da Gama on the voyage is now in the Naval Museum in Lisbon.


Iconography

Raphael is said to guard pilgrims on their journeys, and is often depicted holding a staff. He is also often depicted holding or standing on a fish, which alludes to his healing of Tobit with the fish's gall. Early mosaics often show him and the other archangels in the clothing of a Byzantine courtier.


Feast day

The feast day of Raphael was included for the first time in the
General Roman Calendar The General Roman Calendar is the liturgical Liturgy is the customary public worship Worship is an act of religion, religious wikt:devotion, devotion usually directed towards a deity. For many, worship is not about an emotion, it is mor ...
in 1921, for celebration on October 24. With the 1969 revision of the
General Roman Calendar The General Roman Calendar is the liturgical Liturgy is the customary public worship Worship is an act of religion, religious wikt:devotion, devotion usually directed towards a deity. For many, worship is not about an emotion, it is mor ...
, the feast was transferred to September 29 for celebration together with archangels Saints Michael and Gabriel. Due to
Pope Benedict XVI Pope Benedict XVI ( la, Benedictus XVI; it, Benedetto XVI; german: Benedikt XVI.; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, , on 16 April 1927) is a retired prelate A prelate () is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ran ...

Pope Benedict XVI
's ''
Summorum Pontificum ''Summorum Pontificum'' (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually bec ...
'', the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Catholic Church
permits, within certain limits for public use, the
General Roman Calendar of 1960 This article lists the feast days of the General Roman Calendar as approved on 25 July 1960 by Pope John XXIII's '' motu proprio'' '' Rubricarum instructum'' and promulgated by the Sacred Congregation of Rites The Sacred Congregation of Rites was ...
, which has October 24 as Raphael's feast day. The
Coptic Orthodox Church The Coptic Orthodox Church ( cop, Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, translit=Ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, lit=the Egyptian Orthodox Church; ar, الكنيسة القبطية ...

Coptic Orthodox Church
celebrates his feast on Kouji Nabot 3 and
Koiak Koiak (; cop, Ⲕⲟⲓⲁⲕ, []), also known as Choiak ( grc-gre, Χοιάκ, ''Khoiák'') and Kiyahk. ( cop, Ⲕⲓⲁϩⲕ, ''Kiahk'', []; ar, كياك or ), is the fourth month of the ancient Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, ...
13.


Apparitions

The Archangel Raphael is said to have appeared in Cordova, Spain, during the 16th century; in response to the city's appeal,
Pope Innocent X Pope Innocent X ( la, Innocentius X; 6 May 1574 – 7 January 1655), born Giovanni Battista Pamphilj (or Pamphili), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 15 September 1644 to his death in 1655. Born in Rome of a f ...

Pope Innocent X
allowed the local celebration of a feast in the Archangel's honor on May 7, the date of the principal apparition. Saint
John of God John of God, Brothers Hospitallers of Saint John of God, O.H. (March 8, 1495 – March 8, 1550) ( pt, João de Deus, es, Juan de Dios, and lat, Joannes Dei) was a Portuguese People, Portuguese soldier turned health-care worker in Spain, whose f ...
, founder of the Hospital order that bears his name, is also said to have received visitations from Saint Raphael, who encouraged and instructed him. In tribute to this, many of the Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God's facilities are called “Raphael Centers” to this day. The 18th century Neapolitan nun, Saint Maria Francesca of the Five Wounds is also said to have seen apparitions of Raphael.


In Islam

Raphael ( ar, إسرافيل, Isrāfīl, alternate spellings: ''Israfel'', ''Esrafil'') is a venerated
archangel An archangel is an angel An angel is a supernatural spiritual being who, according to various religions, is God's servant. Abrahamic religions often depict angels as wikt:benevolent, benevolent celestial intermediaries between God ( ...

archangel
according to Islamic tradition. In Islamic eschatology, Israfil will blow the trumpet from a holy rock in Jerusalem to announce the Day of Resurrection (''Yawm al-Qiyāmah''). The trumpet is constantly poised at his lips, ready to be blown when God so orders. The name "Israfil" (or "Israfel", "Esrafil") is not specifically written in the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or di ...

Quran
, although there is mention of an unnamed trumpet-angel assumed to identify this figure: Certain Islamic sources indicate that, created at the beginning of time, Israfil possesses four wings, and is so tall as to be able to reach from the earth to the pillars of heaven. A beautiful angel who is a master of music, Israfil sings praises to God in a thousand different languages, the breath of which is used to inject life into hosts of angels who add to the songs themselves. Further he is probably the highest angel, since he also mediates between God and the other archangels, reading on the Tablet (religious)#In Islam, Preserved Tablet (''al-lawh al-mahfooz'') to transmit the commands of God. Although disputed, some reports assert, he visited Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad prior to the archangel Gabriel. According to Sufi traditions reported by Imam al-Suyuti, the Ghawth or Qutb ('perfect human being'), is someone who has a heart that resembles that of the archangel Israfil, signifying the loftiness of this angel. The next in rank are the saints who are known as the Umdah or Awtad, amongst whom the highest ones have their hearts resembling that of archangel Mikhail (archangel Michael), and the rest of the lower ranking saints having the heart of Jibrail (archangel Gabriel), and that of the previous prophets before the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The earth is believed to always have one of the Qutb.


Places named for Raphael

The following places have been named in honor of Raphael: Saint Raphaël, France; Saint Raphaël, Quebec, Canada; and San Rafaels in Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, Peru, and the Philippines; also San Rafael de El Moján and San Rafael de Orituco in Venezuela. * In the United States, San Rafaels inherited from Spain survive in California (where besides San Rafael, California, the city there are the San Rafael Mountains) * New Mexico, and Utah, where the San Rafael River flows seasonally in the San Rafael Desert. * St. Raphael's Cathedral, the seat of the Diocese of Madison, Wisconsin * St. Raphael's Cathedral (Dubuque), St. Raphael's Cathedral, the seat of the Archdiocese of Dubuque * Mission San Rafael Arcángel in San Rafael, California. * St. Raphael's Episcopal Church in Crossville, Tennessee, in the Episcopal Diocese of East Tennessee. * St. Raphael's Church, Huccaby, Hexworthy, Dartmoor National Park, Devon, England * San Rafael, Vecindario, Santa Lucia de Tirajana Gran Canaria * St. Raphael’s Catholic Church, Yeading, Hayes, Middlesex, England The Arcangelo Raffaello youth confraternity functioned in Florence, Italy from its founding in 1411 to its suppression in 1785. St. John of God Catholic Church in Chicago, IL, was disassembled, moved and reassembled as St. Raphael the Archangel Church in Mill Creek, IL.


In popular culture

Raphael, along with many other prominent angels, appears in John Milton's ''Paradise Lost'', in which he is assigned by God to re-warn Adam concerning the sin of eating of the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil. He also expounds to Adam the War in Heaven in which Lucifer and the demons fell, and the creation of the Earth. In Joseph Haydn's ''The Creation (Haydn), Creation'', Raphael (bass) is one of the three angelic narrators, along with Gabriel (soprano) and Uriel (tenor). He also appears as "Rafael" in the role-playing game ''Anima Beyond Fantasy'' as one of the seven Beryls (god-like spirits of light, all but one having taken female gender). She is identified by the humans with the archangel of the same name and incarnates life and nature. Characters associated with Angelic figures, at least by borrowing the names, also feature in the video game industry, as an example there is the title: ''El Shaddai: Ascension of the Metatron''. Raphael features as one of the four archangels in the TV series ''Supernatural (U.S. TV series), Supernatural''. In season 2 of the TV series ''Criminal Minds'' the archangel Raphael is brought up as being one of Tobias Hankel's personalities. In the The Yogscast, Yogscast Youtube series, ''Shadow of Israphel'', the main antagonist and titular character derives his namesake from that of St. Raphael.


Gallery

File:Saint Raphael Church San Rafael CA.jpg, File:Church of the St Raphael the Archangel in Vilnius5.jpg, File:Bonn, Bad Godesberg, Michaelskapelle, 2012-02 CN-01.jpg, File:Archangel Raphael - Brody.jpg, File:Interior of Chiesa dei Gesuiti (Venice) - Center of the transept - Archangel Raphael.jpg, File:3860Saint Raphael the Archangel Parish Church Tarlac 14.jpg,


See also

* List of angels in theology * Angels in Judaism * Feast of Saint Raphael, Ollur * Portal:Catholicism/Patron Archive/September 29, Saint Raphael, patron saint archive


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Raphael (Archangel) Archangels Archangels in Christianity Archangel in Judaism Archangels in Islam Christian saints from the Old Testament Individual angels Book of Tobit Theophoric names Angels in the Book of Enoch