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SAINT PETER (Syriac/ Aramaic : ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa, Hebrew : שמעון בר יונה‎‎ Shim'on bar Yona, Greek : Πέτρος Petros, Latin
Latin
: Petrus; r. AD 30; d. between AD 64 and 68 ), also known as SIMON PETER, SIMEON, or SIMōN pronunciation (help ·info ), according to the New Testament
New Testament
, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus
Jesus
Christ , leaders of the early Christian Great Church . Hippolytus of Rome
Rome
, a 3rd-century theologian , gave him the title of " Apostle of the Apostles
Apostles
". According to Catholic teaching , Peter was ordained by Jesus
Jesus
in the "Rock of My Church " dialogue in Matthew 16:18. He is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Rome
Rome
‍—‌or pope ‍—‌and also by Eastern Christian tradition as the first Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch
Antioch
. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and as the founder of the Church of Antioch and the Roman Church , but differ in their attitudes regarding the authority of his present-day successors.

The New Testament
New Testament
indicates that Peter's father's name was John (or Jonah
Jonah
or Jona) and was from the village of Bethsaida
Bethsaida
in the province of Galilee
Galilee
or Gaulanitis
Gaulanitis
. His brother Andrew was also an apostle . According to New Testament
New Testament
accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus
Jesus
from his first disciples . Originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus
Jesus
during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration . According to the gospels , Peter confessed Jesus
Jesus
as the Messiah
Messiah
, was part of Jesus's inner circle, thrice denied Jesus
Jesus
and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, and preached on the day of Pentecost
Pentecost
.

According to Christian tradition , Peter was crucified in Rome
Rome
under Emperor Nero
Nero
Augustus Caesar . It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus. Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel . His remains are said to be those contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peter\'s Basilica , where Pope
Pope
Paul VI announced in 1968 the excavated discovery of a first-century Roman cemetery . Every 29 June since 1736, a statue of Saint
Saint
Peter in St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
is adorned with papal tiara , ring of the fisherman , and papal vestments , as part of the celebration of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul . According to Catholic doctrine , the direct papal successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope, currently Pope
Pope
Francis .

Two general epistles in the New Testament
New Testament
are ascribed to Peter, but modern scholars generally reject the Petrine authorship of both. The Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories. Several other books bearing his name‍—‌the Acts of Peter , Gospel of Peter , Preaching of Peter , Apocalypse of Peter , and Judgment of Peter ‍—‌are considered by Christian denominations as apocryphal , and are thus not included in their Bible
Bible
canons.

CONTENTS

* 1 Names and etymologies

* 2 New Testament
New Testament
account

* 2.1 "Rock" dialogue * 2.2 Denial of Jesus
Jesus
by Peter * 2.3 Resurrection appearances * 2.4 Position among the apostles * 2.5 Role in the early church

* 3 Connection to Rome
Rome

* 3.1 Road to Rome: Antioch
Antioch
and Corinth * 3.2 Rome
Rome
* 3.3 Death * 3.4 Status * 3.5 Burial and relics * 3.6 Epistles

* 4 Religious interpretations

* 4.1 Catholic Church
Catholic Church

* 4.1.1 Matthew 16:18 * 4.1.2 Feast days * 4.1.3 Meaning of Matthew 16:18 * 4.1.4 What did Peter begin?

* 4.2 Eastern Orthodox

* 4.2.1 Feast days

* 4.3 Syriac Orthodox Church * 4.4 New Apostolic Church * 4.5 Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints * 4.6 Islamic literature * 4.7 Bahá\'í Faith

* 5 Writings

* 5.1 New Testament
New Testament

* 5.1.1 Epistles * 5.1.2 Mark

* 5.2 Pseudepigrapha and apocrypha * 5.3 Non-canonical sayings of Peter

* 6 Iconography * 7 Patronage * 8 Revisionist views * 9 In art * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 External links

NAMES AND ETYMOLOGIES

Calling of Peter and Andrew, Caravaggio
Caravaggio

Peter's original name was "Shimon " or "Simeon" ("Simon" in modern English). He was later given the name "Peter", New Testament
New Testament
Greek Πέτρος (Petros) derived from πέτρα (petra), which means rock. In the Latin
Latin
translation of the Bible
Bible
this became Petrus, a masculine form of the feminine petra (f), which is a loanword from Greek still meaning "rock." Another version of this name is Aramaic : ‎‎ (Šimʻōn Kêpâ Sëmʻān Kêpâ), after his name in Hellenised Aramaic.

The English, Dutch and German "Peter", French "Pierre", the Italian "Pietro", the Spanish and Portuguese "Pedro", the Polish "Piotr" , Russian Пётр ("Pyotr") and Malayalam പത്രോസ് ("patros") are all derived from Petrus. ("Pierre" is also an ordinary French noun meaning "stone".)

The Syriac or Aramaic word for "rock" is kepa, which in Greek became Πέτρος, also meaning "rock". He is also known as Simon Peter, Cephas (Greek : Κηφᾶς) and Kepha (Hebrew : כיפא‎‎). Both Cephas and Kepha also mean rock.

Catholic theologian Rudolf Pesch argues that the Aramaic cepha means "stone, ball, clump, clew" and that "rock" is only a connotation; that in the Attic Greek petra denotes "grown rock, rocky range, cliff, grotto"; and that petros means "small stone, firestone, sling stone, moving boulder".

NEW TESTAMENT ACCOUNT

Ruins of ancient Capernaum on north side of the Sea of Galilee
Galilee

Peter's life story is told in the four canonical gospels , the Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
, New Testament
New Testament
letters, the non-canonical Gospel of the Hebrews and other Early Church
Early Church
accounts of his life and death. In the New Testament
New Testament
, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus' ministry. Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus
Jesus
in the early church.

Peter was a fisherman in Bethsaida
Bethsaida
. He was named Simon, son of Jonah or John. The three Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
recount how Peter's mother-in-law was healed by Jesus
Jesus
at their home in Capernaum ; this passage clearly depicts Peter as being married. 1 Cor. 9:5 has also been taken to imply that he was married. The Calling of the Apostles
Apostles
Peter and Andrew (from the Maestà), c. 1308-1311.

In the Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
, Peter (then Simon) was a fisherman along with his brother Andrew and the sons of Zebedee, James and John. The Gospel of John also depicts Peter fishing, even after the resurrection of Jesus, in the story of the Catch of 153 fish . In Matthew and Mark, Jesus
Jesus
called Simon and his brother Andrew to be "fishers of men ".

A Franciscan church is built upon the traditional site of Apostle Peter's house. In Luke , Simon Peter
Simon Peter
owns the boat that Jesus
Jesus
uses to preach to the multitudes who were pressing on him at the shore of Lake Gennesaret . Jesus
Jesus
then amazes Simon and his companions James and John (Andrew is not mentioned) by telling them to lower their nets, whereupon they catch a huge number of fish. Immediately after this, they follow him. The Gospel of John gives a comparable account of "The First Disciples". In John, we are told that it was two disciples of John the Baptist
John the Baptist
(Andrew and an unnamed disciple) who heard John the Baptist announce Jesus
Jesus
as the " Lamb of God
Lamb of God
" and then followed Jesus. Andrew then went to his brother Simon, saying, "We have found the Messiah
Messiah
", and then brought Simon to Jesus. Apostle Peter striking the High Priests ' servant Malchus with a sword in the Garden of Gethsemane
Gethsemane

Three of the four gospels – Matthew, Mark and John – recount the story of Jesus
Jesus
walking on water . Matthew additionally describes Peter walking on water for a moment but beginning to sink when his faith wavers.

At the beginning of the Last Supper
Last Supper
, Jesus
Jesus
washed his disciples' feet. Peter initially refused to let Jesus
Jesus
wash his feet, but when Jesus
Jesus
responded: "If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me", Peter replied: "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head". The washing of feet is often repeated in the service of worship on Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday
by some Christian denominations .

The three Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
all mention that, when Jesus
Jesus
was arrested, one of his companions cut off the ear of a servant of the High Priest. The Gospel of John also includes this event and names Peter as the swordsman and Malchus as the victim. Luke adds that Jesus
Jesus
touched the ear and miraculously healed it. This healing of the servant's ear is the last of the 37 miracles attributed to Jesus
Jesus
in the Bible.

"ROCK" DIALOGUE

In a dialogue between Jesus
Jesus
and his disciples (Matthew 16:13–19), Jesus
Jesus
asks, "Who do people say that the Son of Man is?" The disciples give various answers. When he asks, "Who do you say that I am?" Simon Peter answers, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God." Jesus then declares:

Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by flesh and blood, but by my Father in heaven. And I tell you that you are Cephas (Peter) (Petros), and on this rock (petra) I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.

A common view of Peter is provided by Jesuit Father Daniel J. Harrington , who suggests that Peter was an unlikely symbol of stability. While he was one of the first disciples called and was the spokesman for the group, Peter is also the exemplar of "little faith". In Matthew 14, Peter will soon have Jesus
Jesus
say to him, "O you of little faith, why did you doubt?", and he will eventually deny Jesus
Jesus
three times. Thus, in light of the Easter event, Peter became an exemplar of the forgiven sinner. Outside the Catholic Church, opinions vary as to the interpretation of this passage with respect to what authority and responsibility, if any, Jesus
Jesus
was giving to Peter.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church this passage is interpreted as not implying a special prominence to the person of Peter, but to Peter's position as representative of the Apostles. The word used for "rock" (petra) grammatically refers to "a small detachment of the massive ledge", not to a massive boulder. Thus, Orthodox Sacred Tradition understands Jesus' words as referring to the apostolic faith. Saint
Saint
Peter by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
(1617–1682)

Petros had not previously been used as a name, but in the Greek-speaking world it became a popular Christian name, after the tradition of Peter's prominence in the early Christian church had been established.

DENIAL OF JESUS BY PETER

The tears of Saint
Saint
Peter, by El Greco
El Greco
Main article: Denial of Peter The Denial of Saint
Saint
Peter, by Caravaggio
Caravaggio

All four canonical gospels recount that, during the Last Supper
Last Supper
, Jesus
Jesus
foretold that Peter would deny him three times before the following cockcrow ("before the cock crows twice" in Mark's account).

The three Synoptics and John describe the three denials as follows:

* A denial when a female servant of the high priest spots Simon Peter, saying that he had been with Jesus. According to Mark (but not in all manuscripts), "the rooster crowed". Only Luke and John mention a fire by which Peter was warming himself among other people: according to Luke, Peter was "sitting"; according to John, he was "standing". * A denial when Simon Peter
Simon Peter
had gone out to the gateway, away from the firelight, but the same servant girl (Mark) or another servant girl (Matthew) or a man (Luke and also John, for whom, though, this is the third denial) told the bystanders he was a follower of Jesus. According to John, "the rooster crowed". * A denial came when Peter's Galilean accent was taken as proof that he was indeed a disciple of Jesus. According to Matthew, Mark and Luke, "the rooster crowed". John, though, does not mention the Galilean accent.

Matthew adds that it was his accent that gave him away as coming from Galilee. Luke deviates slightly from this by stating that, rather than a crowd accusing Simon Peter, it was a third individual.

The Gospel of John places the second denial while Peter was still warming himself at the fire, and gives as the occasion of the third denial a claim by someone to have seen him in the garden of Gethsemane when Jesus
Jesus
was arrested .

In the Gospel of Luke is a record of Christ telling Peter: "Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: but I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren."

In a reminiscent scene in John's epilogue, Peter affirms three times that he loves Jesus.

RESURRECTION APPEARANCES

Church of the Primacy of St. Peter on the Sea of Galilee
Galilee

In John's gospel, Peter is the first person to enter the empty tomb , although the women and the beloved disciple see it before him. In Luke's account, the women's report of the empty tomb is dismissed by the apostles, and Peter is the only one who goes to check for himself, running to the tomb. After seeing the graveclothes he goes home, apparently without informing the other disciples.

Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians
First Epistle to the Corinthians
contains a list of resurrection appearances of Jesus
Jesus
, the first of which is an appearance to Peter. Here, Paul apparently follows an early tradition that Peter was the first to see the risen Christ, which, however, did not seem to have survived to the time when the gospels were written.

In the final chapter of the Gospel of John, Peter, in one of the resurrection appearances of Jesus, three times affirmed his love for Jesus
Jesus
, balancing his threefold denial, and Jesus
Jesus
reconfirmed Peter's position. The Church of the Primacy of St. Peter on the Sea of Galilee is seen as the traditional site where Jesus
Jesus
Christ appeared to his disciples after his resurrection and, according to Catholic tradition, established Peter's supreme jurisdiction over the Christian church.

POSITION AMONG THE APOSTLES

St. Peter Preaching the Gospel in the Catacombs by Jan Styka
Jan Styka

Peter is always listed first among the Twelve Apostles in the gospels and in the Book
Book
of Acts (Acts 1:13). He is also frequently mentioned in the gospels as forming with James the Elder and John a special group within the Twelve Apostles, present at incidents at which the others were not present, such as at the Transfiguration of Jesus
Jesus
, at the raising of Jairus\' daughter and at the agony in the Garden of Gethsemane. Peter often confesses his faith in Jesus
Jesus
as the Messiah.

Peter is often depicted in the gospels as spokesman of all the Apostles. Catholics refer to him as chief of the Apostles, as do the Eastern Orthodox and the Oriental Orthodox . In Coptic Orthodox Church liturgy, he is once referred to as "prominent" or "head" among the Apostles, a title shared with Paul in the text (The Fraction of Fast and Feast of the Apostles
Apostles
Peter and Paul in the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria). Some, including the Orthodox Churches, believe this is not the same as saying that the other Apostles
Apostles
were under Peter's orders. In contrast, Jewish Christians
Jewish Christians
are said to have argued that James the Just
James the Just
was the leader of the group. Some argue James the Just was bishop of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
whilst Peter was bishop of Rome
Rome
and that this position at times gave James privilege in some (but not all) situations. The early Church historian Eusebius (c. AD 325) records Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
(c. AD 190) as saying,

"For they say that Peter and James (the Greater) and John after the ascension of our Saviour, as if also preferred by our Lord, strove not after honor, but chose James the Just
James the Just
bishop of Jerusalem."

Peter was considered along with James the Just
James the Just
and John the Apostle as pillars of the Church (Galatians 2:9). Paul affirms that Peter had the special charge of being apostle to the Jews, just as he, Paul, was apostle to the Gentiles.

ROLE IN THE EARLY CHURCH

The Liberation of St. Peter from prison by an angel, by Giovanni Lanfranco

The author of the Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
portrays Peter as an extremely important figure within the early Christian community, with Peter delivering a significant open-air sermon during Pentecost
Pentecost
. According to the same book, Peter took the lead in selecting a replacement for Judas Iscariot
Judas Iscariot
.

He was twice arraigned, with John, before the Sanhedrin and directly defied them. He undertook a missionary journey to Lydda , Joppa and Caesarea , becoming instrumental in the decision to evangelise the Gentiles .

About halfway through, the Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
turns its attention away from Peter and to the activities of Paul, and the Bible
Bible
is mostly silent on what occurred to Peter afterwards.

John Vidmar , a Roman Catholic scholar, writes: "Catholic scholars agree that Peter had an authority that superseded that of the other apostles. Peter is their spokesman at several events, he conducts the election of Matthias, his opinion in the debate over converting Gentiles was crucial, etc.

According to Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
Peter and John were sent from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Samaria (Acts 8:14). Peter/Cephas is mentioned briefly in the opening chapter of Paul's Epistle to the Galatians
Epistle to the Galatians
, which mentions a trip by Paul to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
where he meets Peter (Galatians 1:18). Peter features again in Galatians, fourteen years later, when Paul (now with Barnabas and Titus) returned to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Galatians 2:7–9), and then, when Peter came to Antioch, Paul opposed Peter to his face "because he was in the wrong" (NIV ) (Galatians 2:11).

Acts 12 tells how Peter, who was in Jerusalem, was put into prison by King Herod (A.D. 42–44), but was rescued by an angel . After his liberation Peter left Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to go to "another place" (Acts 12:1–18). Concerning St. Peter's subsequent activity we receive no further connected information from the extant sources, although we possess short notices of certain individual episodes of his later life.

At the Council of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(c. 50), the early Church, Paul and the leaders of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
church met and decided to embrace Gentile converts. Acts portrays Peter and other leaders as successfully opposing the Christian Pharisees who insisted on circumcision .

The church in Rome
Rome
was already flourishing when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans about AD 57, he greets some fifty people in Rome
Rome
by name, but not Peter whom he knew . There is also no mention of Peter in Rome
Rome
later during Paul's two-year stay there in Acts 28, about AD 60–62. Some Church historians consider Peter and Paul to have been martyred under the reign of Nero, around AD 65.

CONNECTION TO ROME

The Apostles
Apostles
Peter and Paul, detail of cupola fresco by Correggio
Correggio

In a strong tradition of the Early Church
Early Church
, Peter is said to have founded the Church in Rome
Rome
with Paul, served as its bishop, authored two epistles, and then met martyrdom there along with Paul. Christians of different theological backgrounds are in disagreement as to the exact significance of Peter's ministry. For instance:

* Roman Catholics view Peter as the first pope. The Roman Catholic Church asserts that Peter's ministry, conferred upon him by Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth in the gospels, lays down the theological foundation for the pope's exercise of pastoral authority over the Church. * Eastern Orthodox also believe that Peter's ministry points to an underlying theology wherein a special primacy ought to be granted to Peter's successors above other Church leaders but see this as merely a "primacy of honor", rather than the right to exercise pastoral authority. * Protestant denominations assert that Peter's apostolic work in Rome
Rome
does not imply a connection between him and the papacy.

Similarly, historians of various backgrounds also offer differing interpretations of the Apostle's presence in Rome.

ROAD TO ROME: ANTIOCH AND CORINTH

According to the epistle to the Galatians 2:11, Peter went to Antioch where Paul rebuked him for separating himself from Gentiles (see the Incident at Antioch ). Galatians is accepted as authentic by almost all scholars. These may be the earliest mentions of Peter to be written. Later accounts expand on the brief biblical mention of his visit to Antioch
Antioch
. The Liber Pontificalis
Liber Pontificalis
(9th century) mentions Peter as having served as bishop of Antioch
Antioch
for seven years and having potentially left his family in the Greek city before his journey to Rome. Claims of direct blood lineage from Simon Peter
Simon Peter
among the old population of Antioch
Antioch
existed in the 1st century and continue to exist today, notably by certain Semaan families of modern-day Syria and Lebanon. Historians have furnished other evidence of Peter's sojourn in Antioch. Subsequent tradition held that Peter had been the first Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch
Antioch
. According to the writings of Origen
Origen
and Eusebius in his Church History (III, 36) Peter would have been the founder of the Church of Antioch and "after having first founded the church at Antioch, went away to Rome
Rome
preaching the Gospel, and he also, after the church in Antioch, presided over that of Rome
Rome
until his death".

After presiding over the church in Antioch
Antioch
by a while, Peter would have been succeeded by Evodius , and after by Ignatius , who was a student of John the Apostle .

Eusebius of Caesarea, in his "Historia Ecclesiastica (I,12:2)" while naming some of the Seventy Disciples of Jesus, says:

This is the account of Clement, in the fifth book of Hypotyposes (A.D. 190); in which he also says that Cephas was one of the seventy disciples, a man who bore the same name as the apostle Peter, and the one concerning whom Paul says, — Galatians 2:11

The Clementine literature
Clementine literature
, a group of related works written in the fourth century but believed to contain materials from earlier centuries, relate information about Peter that may come from earlier traditions. One is that Peter had a group of 12 to 16 followers, whom the Clementine writings name. Another is that it provides an itinerary of Peter's route from Caesarea Maritima
Caesarea Maritima
to Antioch, where he debated his adversary Simon Magus ; during this journey he ordained Zacchaeus as the first bishop of Caesarea and Maro as the first bishop of Tripolis . Fred Lapham suggests the route recorded in the Clementine writings may have been taken from an earlier document mentioned by Epiphanius of Salamis
Epiphanius of Salamis
in his Panarion called "The Itinerary of Peter".

Eusebius of Caesarea relates that when Peter confronts Simon Magus at Judea (mentioned in Acts 8), Simon flees to Rome
Rome
where the Romans got to regard him as a god. According to Eusebius, his luck did not last long since God sent Peter to Rome
Rome
and Simon was quenched and immediately destroyed.

An apocryphal work, the Actus Vercellenses (7th century), a Latin text preserved in only one manuscript copy published widely in translation under the title Acts of Peter, sets Peter's confrontation with Simon Magus in Rome.

Peter might have visited Corinth and maybe would have existed a party of "Cephas". First Corinthians suggests that perhaps Peter visited the city of Corinth, located at Greece, during their missions.

Dionysius, bishop of Corinth , in his Epistle
Epistle
to the Roman Church under Pope
Pope
Soter (A.D. 165–174) declares that Peter and Paul founded the Church of Rome
Rome
and the Church of Corinth, and they have lived in Corinth for some time and finally in Italy where they found death:

You have thus by such an admonition bound together the planting of Peter and of Paul at Rome
Rome
and Corinth. For both of them planted and likewise taught us in our Corinth. And they taught together in like manner in Italy, and suffered martyrdom at the same time.

ROME

Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons wrote in the 2nd century that Peter and Paul had been the founders of the Church in Rome
Rome
and had appointed Linus as succeeding bishop.

Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
states that "Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome. (A.D. 190)"

Lactantius
Lactantius
, in his book called Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died, written around 318, noted that “And while Nero reigned, the Apostle Peter came to Rome, and, through the power of God committed unto him, wrought certain miracles, and, by turning many to the true religion, built up a faithful and stedfast temple unto the Lord.”

The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
speaks of the pope, the bishop of Rome, as the successor of Saint
Saint
Peter. This is often interpreted to imply that Peter was the first Bishop of Rome. However, it is also said that the institution of the papacy is not dependent on the idea that Peter was Bishop of Rome
Rome
or even on his ever having been in Rome. While accepting that Peter came to Rome
Rome
and was martyred there, scholars find no historical evidence that he held episcopal office there.

While the church in Rome
Rome
was already flourishing when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans about AD 57, he greets some fifty people in Rome
Rome
by name, but not Peter whom he knew . There is also no mention of Peter in Rome
Rome
later during Paul's two-year stay there in Acts 28, about AD 60–62. Some church historians consider Peter and Paul to have been martyred under the reign of Nero, around AD 65 such as after the Great Fire of Rome. Presently, most Catholic scholars, and many scholars in general, hold the view that Peter was martyred in Rome
Rome
under Nero. There are no obvious biblical evidence that Peter was ever in Rome, but he does mention that "The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son" ( 1 Peter
1 Peter
5:13). It is not certain whether this refers to the actual Babylon
Babylon
or to Rome, for which Babylon
Babylon
was a common nickname at the time, or to the Jewish diaspora in general, as a recent theory has proposed. Marcus, however, is a very typical Roman name, which strengthens the theory that Peter refers to Rome
Rome
in his letter. In the preceding verse ( 1 Peter
1 Peter
5:12) he also mentions Silvanus, another typical Roman name.

In two extensive studies published respectively in 2009 and 2013 , Otto Zwierlein (de) held that "there is not a single piece of reliable literary evidence (and no archaeological evidence either) that Peter ever was in Rome." Zwierlein's thesis has caused debate. Zwierlein has made a summary of his view available online in English.

Clement of Rome\' First Letter , a document that has been dated from the 90s to the 120s, is one of the earliest sources adduced in support of Peter's stay in Rome, but Zwierlein questions the text's authenticity and whether it has any knowledge about Peter's life beyond what is contained in the New Testament
New Testament
Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
. A letter attributed to Ignatius of Antioch
Antioch
to the Romans might imply that Peter and Paul had special authority over the Roman church, telling the Roman Christians: "I do not command you, as Peter and Paul did" (ch. 4), although Zwierlein says he could be simply referring to the Epistles of the Apostles, or their mission work in the city, not a special authority given or bestowed. Zwierlein has questioned the authenticity of this document and its traditional dating to c. 105–10, who says it may date from the final decades of the 2nd century instead of from the beginning. Italic text

DEATH

Domine quo vadis? (1602) by Annibale Carracci
Annibale Carracci

In the epilogue of the Gospel of John, Jesus
Jesus
hints at the death by which Peter would glorify God, saying "when you are old you will stretch out your hands, and another will dress you and carry you where you do not want to go." This is interpreted by some as a reference to Peter's crucifixion. Theologians Donald Fay Robinson and Warren M. Smaltz have suggested that the incident in Acts 12:1–17, where Peter is "released by an angel" and goes to "another place", really represents an idealized account of his death, which may have occurred in a Jerusalem
Jerusalem
prison in as early as 44 AD.

The Muratorian fragment
Muratorian fragment
, dated to the second century A.D., notes that the primary eyewitness to Acts, Luke , was not present at Peter's death. However, early Church Tradition (as indicated below) says that Peter probably died by crucifixion (with arms outstretched) at the time of the Great Fire of Rome
Rome
in the year 64. The writings of the 1st century Church Father Ignatius of Antioch
Antioch
refer to Peter and Paul giving admonitions to the Romans, indicating Peter's presence in Rome. Margherita Guarducci , who led the research leading to the rediscovery of Peter's reputed tomb in its last stages (1963–1968), concludes Peter died on 13 October AD 64 during the festivities on the occasion of the "dies imperii" of Emperor Nero. This took place three months after the disastrous fire that destroyed Rome
Rome
for which the emperor (Nero) wished to blame the Christians. This "dies imperii" (regnal day anniversary) was an important one, exactly ten years after Nero
Nero
ascended to the throne, and it was 'as usual' accompanied by much bloodshed. Traditionally, Roman authorities sentenced him to death by crucifixion . According to the apocryphal Acts of Peter , he was crucified head down. Tradition also locates his burial place where the Basilica of Saint
Saint
Peter was later built, directly beneath the Basilica's high altar. The Crucifixion
Crucifixion
of Saint
Saint
Peter (1601) by Caravaggio
Caravaggio

According to the 1911 Catholic Encyclopedia, Peter labored in Rome during the last portion of his life, and there his life was ended by martyrdom.

Pope
Pope
Clement I , in his Letter to the Corinthians (Chapter 5), written c. 80–98, speaks of Peter's martyrdom in the following terms: "Let us take the noble examples of our own generation. Through jealousy and envy the greatest and most just pillars of the Church were persecuted, and came even unto death. … Peter, through unjust envy, endured not one or two but many labours, and at last, having delivered his testimony, departed unto the place of glory due to him."

The death of Peter is attested to by Tertullian
Tertullian
at the end of the 2nd century, in his Prescription Against Heretics, noting that Peter endured a passion like his Lord's: In his work Scorpiace 15, he also speaks of Peter's crucifixion: "The budding faith Nero
Nero
first made bloody in Rome. There Peter was girded by another, since he was bound to the cross".

Origen
Origen
in his Commentary on the Book
Book
of Genesis III, quoted by Eusebius of Caesaria in his Ecclesiastical History (III, 1), said: "Peter was crucified at Rome
Rome
with his head downwards, as he himself had desired to suffer." The Cross of St. Peter inverts the Latin cross based on this refusal, and his claim of being unworthy to die the same way as his Saviour.

Peter of Alexandria
Alexandria
, who was bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
and died around A.D. 311, wrote an epistle on Penance, in which he says: "Peter, the first of the apostles, having been often apprehended, and thrown into prison, and treated with ignominy, was last of all crucified at Rome".

The apocryphal Acts of Peter is also thought to be the source for the tradition about the famous phrase "Quo vadis, Domine? " (in Greek: Κύριε, ποῦ ὑπάγεις "Kyrie, pou hypageis?"), which means "Where are you going, Lord?". According to the story, Peter, fleeing Rome
Rome
to avoid execution, asked the question of a vision of Jesus, to which Jesus
Jesus
allegedly responded that he was "going to Rome to be crucified again." On hearing this, Peter decided to return to the city to accept martyrdom. This story is commemorated in an Annibale Carracci
Annibale Carracci
painting. The Church of Quo Vadis , near the Catacombs of Saint
Saint
Callistus , contains a stone in which Jesus' footprints from this event are supposedly preserved, though this was apparently an ex-voto from a pilgrim , and indeed a copy of the original, housed in the Basilica of St Sebastian .

The ancient historian Josephus
Josephus
describes how Roman soldiers would amuse themselves by crucifying criminals in different positions, and it is likely that this would have been known to the author of the Acts of Peter. The position attributed to Peter's crucifixion is thus plausible, either as having happened historically or as being an invention by the author of the Acts of Peter. Death, after crucifixion head down, is unlikely to be caused by suffocation , the usual "cause of death in ordinary crucifixion".

STATUS

St. Clement of Rome
Rome
identifies Peter and Paul as the outstanding heroes of the faith. Papias reported that the Gospel of Mark was based on Peter's memoirs, a tradition still accepted by some scholars today.

BURIAL AND RELICS

Looking down into the confessio near the tomb of Apostle Peter, St. Peter\'s Basilica , Rome
Rome

Catholic tradition holds that Peter's inverted crucifixion occurred at the spot now occupied by the Clementine Chapel in the grottoes of Saint
Saint
Peter's Basilica, with the burial in Saint
Saint
Peter\'s tomb nearby.

Caius in his Disputation Against Proclus (A.D. 198), preserved in part by Eusebius, relates this of the places in which the remains of the apostles Peter and Paul were deposited: "I can point out the trophies of the apostles. For if you are willing to go to the Vatican or to the Ostian Way, you will find the trophies of those who founded this Church".

According to Jerome
Jerome
, in his work De Viris Illustribus (A.D. 392), "Peter was buried at Rome
Rome
in the Vatican near the triumphal way where he is venerated by the whole world."

In the early 4th century, the Emperor Constantine I
Emperor Constantine I
decided to honour Peter with a large basilica . Because the precise location of Peter's burial was so firmly fixed in the belief of the Christians of Rome, the church to house the basilica had to be erected on a site that was not convenient to construction. The slope of the Vatican Hill had to be excavated, even though the church could much more easily have been built on level ground only slightly to the south. There were also moral and legal issues, such as demolishing a cemetery to make room for the building. The focal point of the Basilica, both in its original form and in its later complete reconstruction, is the altar located over what is said to be the point of Peter's burial. St. Peter\'s Basilica , believed to be the burial site of St. Peter , seen from the River Tiber

According to a letter quoted by Bede , Pope
Pope
Vitalian sent a cross containing filings said to be from Peter's chains to the queen of Oswy , Anglo-Saxon King of Northumbria
Northumbria
in 665, as well as unspecified relics of the saint to the king.

In 1950, human bones were found buried underneath the altar of St. Peter's Basilica. The bones have been claimed by many to have been those of Peter. An attempt to contradict these claims was made in 1953 by the excavation of what some believe to be St Peter\'s tomb in Jerusalem. However along with this supposed tomb in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
bearing his previous name Simon (but not Peter), tombs bearing the names of Jesus, Mary, James, John, and the rest of the apostles were also found at the same excavation—though all these names were very common among Jews at the time.

In the 1960s, some previously discarded debris from the excavations beneath St Peter\'s Basilica were re-examined, and the bones of a male person were identified. A forensic examination found them to be a male of about 61 years of age from the 1st century. This caused Pope
Pope
Paul VI in 1968 to announce them most likely to be the relics of Apostle Peter. On November 24, 2013, Pope
Pope
Francis revealed these relics of nine bone fragments for the first time in public during a Mass celebrated in St. Peter's Square.

EPISTLES

Saint
Saint
Peter's vision on the roof of the house

Church tradition ascribes the epistles First and Second Peter to the Apostle Peter, as does the text of Second Peter itself. First Peter implies the author is in " Babylon
Babylon
", which has been held to be a coded reference to Rome
Rome
( 1 Peter
1 Peter
5:13).

Many Biblical scholars believe that "Babylon" is a metaphor for the pagan Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at the time it persecuted Christians, before the Edict of Milan in 313: perhaps specifically referencing some aspect of Rome's rule (brutality, greed, paganism ).

In 4 Ezra , 2 Baruch and the Sibylline oracles , "Babylon" is a cryptic name for Rome. Reinhard Feldmeier speculates that "Babylon" is used to refer to Rome
Rome
in 1 Peter
1 Peter
5:13. In Revelation 17:9 it is said that she sits on "seven mountains", typically understood as the seven hills of Rome
Rome
. A Roman coin minted under the Emperor Vespasian (ca. 70 AD) depicts Rome
Rome
as a woman sitting on seven hills.

Eusebius of Caesarea also states:

Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
in the sixth of the Hypotyposeis cites the story, and the bishop of Hierapolis named Papias joins him in testifying that Peter mentions Mark in the first epistle, which they say he composed in Rome
Rome
herself, and that he indicates this, calling the city more figuratively Babylon
Babylon
by these: "She who is in Babylon, chosen together with you, sends you greetings and so does my son Mark." (1 Pet 5:13)

According to the International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia , "The characteristics ascribed to this Babylon
Babylon
apply to Rome
Rome
rather than to any other city of that age: (a) as ruling over the kings of the earth (Revelation 17:18); (b) as sitting on seven mountains (Revelation 17:9); (c) as the center of the world's merchandise (Revelation 18:3, 11–13); (d) as the corrupter of the nations (Revelation 17:2; 18:3; 19:2); (e) as the persecutor of the saints (Revelation 17:6)."

Another theory is that Babylon
Babylon
term refers to the Babylon
Babylon
in Egypt that was an important fortress city in Egypt, just north of today's Cairo and this, combined with the "greetings from Mark" (1 Peter 5:13), who may be Mark the Evangelist , regarded as the founder of the Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
(Egypt), has led some scholars to regard the First Peter epistle as having been written in Egypt.

If the reference is to Rome, it is the only biblical reference to Peter being there. Most scholars regard both First and Second Peter as not having been authored by him, partly because other parts of the Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
seem to describe Peter as an illiterate fisherman.

RELIGIOUS INTERPRETATIONS

Statue of St. Peter in St. Peter\'s Square at the Vatican Statue of St. Peter in the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran by Pierre-Étienne Monnot

CATHOLIC CHURCH

Main articles: Primacy of Simon Peter and Papal primacy

According to Catholic belief, Simon Peter
Simon Peter
was distinguished by Jesus to hold the first place of honor and authority . Also in Catholic belief, Peter was, as the first Bishop of Rome, the first Pope
Pope
. Furthermore, they consider every Pope
Pope
to be Peter's successor and the rightful superior of all other bishops . Although Peter never bore the title of " Pope
Pope
", or "Vicar of Christ", in this sense the Catholic Church considers Peter the first Pope.

The Catholic Church's recognition of Peter as head of its church on Earth (with Christ being its heavenly head) is based on its interpretation of two passages from the canonical gospels of the New Testament ; as well as sacred tradition . The first passage is John 21:15–17 which is: "Feed my lambs... feed my lambs... feed my sheep" (within the Greek it is Ποίμαινε i.e., to feed and rule ., v. 16 while Βόσκε i.e., to feed., for v.15 and consequently of his whole flock, that is, of his own church".

Matthew 16:18

The second passage is Matthew 16:18:

I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hell will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven". — Matthew 16:18–19 (NIV)

Jesus
Jesus
could have said the following phrase in Aramaic , which could have spoken:

ܐܳܦ݂ ܐܶܢܳܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܐ݈ܢܳܐ ܠܳܟ݂ ܕ݁ܰܐܢ݈ܬ݁ ܗ݈ܽܘ ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ ܘܥܰܠ ܗܳܕ݂ܶܐ ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ ܐܶܒ݂ܢܶܝܗ ܠܥܺܕ݈݁ܬ݁ܝ ܘܬ݂ܰܪܥܶܐ ܕ݁ܰܫܝܽܘܠ ܠܳܐ ܢܶܚܣܢܽܘܢܳܗ܂ — (Peshitta) ܡܬܝ ܝܘ. ܝܚ – ܟ

also I say I to you that you are Keepa (Cephas) and on this Keepa (Cephas) I will build my Church and the gates of Sheol not will subdue it.

You are a rock, and upon this rock will I build my Church and the gates of Sheol not will subdue it.

Paul of Tarsus called Peter as "Cephas", in the same way that Jesus did. This Hellenized Hebrew word of Aramaic ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ (Cephas), was not a proper name, but Paul assigns him as such.

Petros (Πέτρος) and petra (πέτρᾳ) are the Greek equivalent to the Syriac Cephas (ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ) which means "rock", and there is no difference at all between Petros and petra.

To better understand what Christ meant, St. Basil elaborates:

Though Peter be a rock, yet he is not a rock as Christ is. For Christ is the true unmoveable rock of himself, Peter is unmoveable by Christ the rock. For Jesus
Jesus
doth communicate and impart his dignities, not voiding himself of them, but holding them to himself, bestoweth them also upon others. He is the light, and yet 2. You are the light: he is the Priest, and yet he 3. maketh Priests: he is the rock, and he made a rock. — Basil li. De poenit. cƒ. Matt. v. 14 ; Luke 22:19

In reference to Peter's occupation before becoming an Apostle, the popes wear the Fisherman\'s Ring , which bears an image of the saint casting his nets from a fishing boat. The keys used as a symbol of the pope's authority refer to the "keys of the kingdom of Heaven" promised to Peter. The terminology of this "commission" of Peter is unmistakably parallel to the commissioning of Eliakim ben Hilkiah in Isaiah
Isaiah
22:15–23. Peter is often depicted in both Western and Eastern Christian art holding a key or a set of keys.

Though the authenticity of this account has been challenged, the general consensus is that these are Jesus' words.

Feast Days

The Roman Martyrology assigns 29 June as the feast day of both Peter and Paul , without thereby declaring that to be the day of their deaths. Augustine of Hippo says in his Sermon 295: "One day is assigned for the celebration of the martyrdom of the two apostles. But those two were one. Although their martyrdom occurred on different days, they were one."

This is also the feast of both Apostles
Apostles
in the calendar of the Eastern Orthodox Church .

In the Roman Rite , the feast of the Chair of Saint
Saint
Peter is celebrated on 22 February, and the anniversary of the dedication of the two papal basilicas of Saint
Saint
Peter\'s and Saint
Saint
Paul\'s outside the Walls is held on 18 November.

Before Pope
Pope
John XXIII 's revision in 1960, the Roman Calendar also included on 18 January another feast of the Chair of Saint
Saint
Peter (denominated the Chair of Saint
Saint
Peter in Rome, while the February feast was then called that of the Chair of Saint
Saint
Peter at Antioch), and on 1 August the feast of Saint
Saint
Peter in Chains .

Meaning Of Matthew 16:18

In the original Greek the word translated as "Peter" is Πέτρος (Petros) and that translated as "rock" is πέτρα (petra), two words that, while not identical, give an impression of one of many times when Jesus
Jesus
used a play on words. Furthermore, since Jesus presumably spoke to Peter in their native Aramaic language , he would have used kepha in both instances. The Peshitta Text and the Old Syriac texts use the word "kepha" for both "Peter" and "rock" in Matthew 16:18. John 1:42 says Jesus
Jesus
called Simon "Cephas", as Paul calls him in some letters. He was instructed by Christ to strengthen his brethren, i.e., the apostles. Peter also had a leadership role in the early Christian church at Jerusalem
Jerusalem
according to The Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
chapters 1–2, 10–11, and 15.

Early Catholic Latin
Latin
and Greek writers (such as St. John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
) considered the "foundation rock" as applying to both Peter personally and his confession of faith (or the faith of his confession) symbolically, as well as seeing Christ's promise to apply more generally to his twelve apostles and the Church at large. This "double meaning" interpretation is present in the current Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
.

Protestant counter-claims to the Catholic interpretation are largely based on the difference between the Greek words translated "Rock" in the Matthean passage. In classical Attic Greek petros (masculine) generally meant "pebble", while petra (feminine) meant "boulder" or "cliff". Accordingly, taking Peter's name to mean "pebble," they argue that the "rock" in question cannot have been Peter, but something else, either Jesus
Jesus
himself, or the faith in Jesus
Jesus
that Peter had just professed. However, the New Testament
New Testament
was written in Koiné Greek , not Attic Greek, and some authorities say no significant difference existed between the meanings of petros and petra.

So far from meaning a pebble was the word petros that Apollonius Rhodius used it to refer to "a huge round boulder, a terrible quoit of Ares
Ares
Enyalius ; four stalwart youths could not have raised it from the ground even a little". Christ Handing the Keys to St Peter, by Pietro Perugino
Pietro Perugino
(1481–82)

The feminine noun petra (πέτρα in Greek), translated as rock in the phrase "on this rock I will build my church", is also used at 1 Cor. 10:4 in describing Jesus
Jesus
Christ, which reads: "They all ate the same spiritual food and drank the same spiritual drink; for they drank from the spiritual rock that accompanied them, and that rock was Christ."

Although Matthew 16 is used as a primary proof-text for the Catholic doctrine of Papal supremacy, Protestant scholars say that prior to the Reformation
Reformation
of the 16th century, Matthew 16 was very rarely used to support papal claims. Their position is that most of the early and medieval Church interpreted the 'rock' as being a reference either to Christ or to Peter's faith, not Peter himself. They understand Jesus' remark to have been his affirmation of Peter's testimony that Jesus was the Son of God.

Despite this claim, many Fathers saw a connection between Matthew 16:18 and the primacy of Peter and his office, such as Tertullian
Tertullian
, writing: the Lord said to Peter, 'On this rock I will build my Church, I have given you the keys of the kingdom of heaven whatever you shall have bound or loosed on earth will be bound or loosed in heaven' . . . . Upon you, he says, I will build my Church; and I will give to you the keys, not to the Church.

What Did Peter Begin?

Other theologically conservative Christians, including Confessional Lutherans , also rebut comments made by Karl Keating and D.A. Carson who claim that there is no distinction between the words petros and petra in Koine Greek. The Lutheran theologians state that the dictionaries of Koine/NT Greek , including the authoritative Bauer-Danker-Arndt-Gingrich Lexicon , indeed list both words and the passages that give different meanings for each. The Lutheran theologians further note that:

We honor Peter and in fact some of our churches are named after him, but he was not the first pope, nor was he Roman Catholic. If you read his first letter, you will see that he did not teach a Roman hierarchy, but that all Christians are royal priests. The same keys given to Peter in Matthew 16 are given to the whole church of believers in Matthew 18. Saint
Saint
Peter by Dirck van Baburen
Dirck van Baburen

Oscar Cullmann , a Lutheran theologian and distinguished Church historian, disagrees with Luther and the Protestant reformers who held that by "rock" Christ did not mean Peter, but meant either himself or the faith of His followers. He believes the meaning of the original Aramaic is very clear: that "Kepha" was the Aramaic word for "rock", and that it was also the name by which Christ called Peter.

Yet, Cullmann sharply rejects the Catholic claim that Peter began the papal succession. He writes: "In the life of Peter there is no starting point for a chain of succession to the leadership of the church at large." While he believes the Matthew text is entirely valid and is in no way spurious, he says it cannot be used as "warrant of the papal succession."

Cullmann concludes that while Peter was the original head of the apostles, Peter was not the founder of any visible church succession.

There are other Protestant scholars who also partially defend the historical Catholic position about "Rock." Taking a somewhat different approach from Cullman, they point out that the Gospel of Matthew was not written in the classical Attic form of Greek, but in the Hellenistic Koine dialect in which there is no distinction in meaning between petros and petra. Moreover, even in Attic Greek, in which the regular meaning of petros was a smallish "stone," there are instances of its use to refer to larger rocks, as in Sophocles , Oedipus at Colonus v. 1595, where petros refers to a boulder used as a landmark, obviously something more than a pebble. In any case, a petros/petra distinction is irrelevant considering the Aramaic language in which the phrase might well have been spoken. In Greek, of any period, the feminine noun petra could not be used as the given name of a male, which may explain the use of Petros as the Greek word with which to translate Aramaic Kepha.

Yet, still other Protestant scholars believe that Jesus
Jesus
in fact did mean to single out Peter as the very rock which he will build upon, but that the passage does nothing to indicate a continued succession of Peter's implied position. They assert that Matthew uses the demonstrative pronoun taute, which allegedly means "this very" or this same, when he refers to the rock on which Jesus' church will be built. He also uses the Greek word for "and", kai. It is alleged that when a demonstrative pronoun is used with kai, the pronoun refers back to the preceding noun. The second rock Jesus
Jesus
refers to must then be the same rock as the first one; and if Peter is the first rock he must also be the second.

Unlike Oscar Cullmann, Confessional Lutherans and many other Protestant apologists agree that it's meaningless to elaborate the meaning of Rock by looking at the Aramaic language, this is true that the Jews spoke mostly Aramaic at home, however in public they usually spoke Greek. The few Aramaic words spoken by Jesus
Jesus
in public were unusual and that is why they are noted as such. And most importantly the New Testament
New Testament
was revealed in Koine Greek, not Aramaic.

Lutheran historians even report that the Catholic church itself didn't, at least unanimously, regard Peter as the Rock until the 1870s:

Rome’s rule for explaining the Scriptures and determining doctrine is the Creed of Pius IV . This Creed binds Rome
Rome
to explain the Scriptures only according to the unanimous consent of the Fathers. In the year 1870 when the Fathers gathered and the pope declared his infallibility, the cardinals were not in agreement on Matthew 16, 18. They had five different interpretations. Seventeen insisted, Peter is the rock. Sixteen held that Christ is the rock. Eight were emphatic that the whole apostolic college is the rock. Forty-four said, Peter’s faith is the rock, The remainder looked upon the whole body of believers as the rock. — And yet Rome
Rome
taught and still teaches that Peter is the rock.

EASTERN ORTHODOX

Icon
Icon
of Saint
Saint
Peter, c 1500

The Eastern Orthodox Church regards Apostle Peter, together with Apostle Paul, as "Preeminent Apostles". Another title used for Peter is Coryphaeus, which could be translated as "Choir-director", or lead singer. The church recognizes Apostle Peter's leadership role in the early church , especially in the very early days at Jerusalem, but does not consider him to have had any "princely" role over his fellow Apostles.

The New Testament
New Testament
is not seen by the Orthodox as supporting any extraordinary authority for Peter with regard to faith or morals. The Orthodox also hold that Peter did not act as leader at the Council of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, but as merely one of a number who spoke. The final decision regarding the non-necessity of circumcision (and certain prohibitions) was spelled out by James, the Brother of the Lord (though Catholics hold James merely reiterated and fleshed out what Peter had said, regarding the latter's earlier divine revelation regarding the inclusion of Gentiles).

Eastern and Oriental Orthodox do not recognize the Bishop of Rome
Rome
as the successor of St. Peter but the Ecumenical Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople sends a delegation each year to Rome
Rome
to participate in the celebration of the feast of Sts. Peter and Paul. In the Ravenna Document of 13 October 2007, the representatives of the Eastern Orthodox Church agreed that "Rome, as the Church that 'presides in love' according to the phrase of St. Ignatius of Antioch
Antioch
(To the Romans, Prologue), occupied the first place in the taxis, and that the bishop of Rome
Rome
was therefore the protos among the patriarchs, if the Papacy unites with the Orthodox Church. They disagree, however, on the interpretation of the historical evidence from this era regarding the prerogatives of the bishop of Rome
Rome
as protos, a matter that was already understood in different ways in the first millennium."

With regard to Jesus' words to Peter, "Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church", the Orthodox hold Christ is referring to the confession of faith, not the person of Peter as that upon which he will build the church. This is allegedly shown by the fact that the original Greek uses the feminine demonstrative pronoun when he says "upon this rock" (ταύτῃ τῇ πέτρᾳ); whereas, grammatically, if he had been referring to Peter, he would allegedly have used the masculine. This "gender distinction" argument is also held by some Protestants.

Feast Days

In the Orthodox Daily Office every Thursday throughout the year is dedicated to the Holy Apostles, including St. Peter. There are also two feast days in the year which are dedicated to him:

* June 29, Feast of Saints Peter and Paul —This is a major feast day and is preceded by a period of Lenten fasting known as the Apostles\' Fast * January 16, Veneration
Veneration
of the Precious Chains of the Holy and All-Glorious Apostle Peter —commemorating both the chains which Acts 12:1–11 says miraculously fell from him, and the chains in which he was held before his martyrdom by Nero
Nero
.

SYRIAC ORTHODOX CHURCH

Saint
Saint
Peter and the angel, by Antonio de Bellis
Antonio de Bellis

The Fathers of the Syriac Orthodox Church tried to give a theological interpretation to the primacy of Apostle Peter. They were fully convinced of the unique office of Peter in the primitive Christian community. Ephrem , Aphrahat and Maruthas who were supposed to have been the best exponents of the early Syriac tradition unequivocally acknowledge the office of Peter.

The Syriac Fathers, following the rabbinic tradition, call Jesus "Kepha" for they see "rock" in the Old Testament as a messianic Symbol (yet the Old Maronite Syriacs of Lebanon still refer to Saint
Saint
Peter as " Saint
Saint
Simon the Generous" or Simon Karam"). When Christ gave his own name "Kepha" to Simon he was giving him participation in the person and office of Christ. Christ who is the Kepha and shepherd made Simon the chief shepherd in his place and gave him the very name Kepha and said that on Kepha he would build the Church. Aphrahat shared the common Syriac tradition. For him Kepha is in fact another name of Jesus, and Simon was given the right to share the name. The person who receives somebody else's name also obtains the rights of the person who bestows the name. Aphrahat makes the stone taken from Jordan a type of Peter. He wrote: " Jesus
Jesus
son of Nun set up the stones for a witness in Israel; Jesus
Jesus
our Saviour called Simon Kepha Sarirto and set him as the faithful witness among nations".

Again he wrote in his commentary on Deuteronomy that Moses
Moses
brought forth water from "rock" (Kepha) for the people and Jesus
Jesus
sent Simon Kepha to carry his teachings among nations. God accepted him and made him the foundation of the Church and called him Kepha. When he speaks about the transfiguration of Christ he calls him Simon Peter
Simon Peter
, the foundation of the Church. Ephrem also shared the same view. In the Armenian version of De Virginitate records that Peter the rock shunned honour. In a mimro of Efrem found in Holy Week Liturgy points to the importance of Peter.

Both Aphrahat and Ephrem represent the authentic tradition of the Syrian Church. The different orders of liturgies used for sanctification of Church buildings, marriage, ordination etcetera, reveal that the primacy of Peter is a part of living faith of the Church.

NEW APOSTOLIC CHURCH

The New Apostolic Church , who believes in the re-established Apostle ministry, sees Peter as the first Chief Apostle .

CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS

Saint
Saint
Peter by Vasco Fernandes

The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) teaches that Peter was the first leader of the early Christian church after the death and resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. While Mormons accept apostolic succession from Peter, they reject papal successors as illegitimate.

In interpreting Matthew 16:13–19, LDS Church leader Bruce R. McConkie stated, "The things of God are known only by the power of his Spirit," and "that which the world calls Mormonism is based upon the rock of revelation." In his April 1981 general conference address, McConkie identified the rock of which Jesus
Jesus
spoke as the rock of revelation: "There is no other foundation upon which the Lord could build His Church and kingdom .... Revelation: Pure, perfect, personal revelation—this is the rock!" Joseph Smith , the founder of Mormonism , recorded in multiple revelations that Peter appeared to him and Oliver Cowdery in 1829, near Harmony Township, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania , in order to bestow the apostleship and keys of the kingdom as part of a restoration of priesthood authority .

ISLAMIC LITERATURE

Main article: Peter in Islam

Muslims consider Jesus
Jesus
a prophet of God. The Qur\'an also speaks of Jesus's disciples but does not mention their names, instead referring to them as "helpers to the prophet of God ". Muslim
Muslim
exegesis and Qur\'an commentary, however, names them and includes Peter among the disciples. An old tradition, which involves the legend of Habib the Carpenter , mentions that Peter was one of the three disciples sent to Antioch
Antioch
to preach to the people there.

Shia Muslims see a parallel in the figure of Peter to Ali
Ali
at Muhammad 's time. They look upon Ali
Ali
as being the vicegerent , with Muhammad being the prophet ; likewise, they see Peter as the vicegerent , behind Jesus
Jesus
the prophet and Masih . Peter's role as the first proper leader of the church is also seen by Shias to be a parallel to their belief in Ali
Ali
as the first caliph after Muhammad.

BAHá\'í FAITH

In his Advent of Divine Justice , Shoghi Effendi , the Guardian of the Bahá\'í Faith , refers to Peter: “Peter,” ‘Abdu’l-Bahá has testified, “according to the history of the Church, was also incapable of keeping count of the days of the week. Whenever he decided to go fishing, he would tie up his weekly food into seven parcels, and every day he would eat one of them, and when he had reached the seventh, he would know that the Sabbath had arrived, and thereupon would observe it.” If the Son of Man was capable of infusing into apparently so crude and helpless an instrument such potency as to cause, in the words of Bahá’u’lláh , “the mysteries of wisdom and of utterance to flow out of his mouth,” and to exalt him above the rest of His disciples, and render him fit to become His successor and the founder of His Church, how much more can the Father, Who is Bahá’u’lláh, empower the most puny and insignificant among His followers to achieve, for the execution of His purpose, such wonders as would dwarf the mightiest achievements of even the first apostle of Jesus
Jesus
Christ!

WRITINGS

Traditionally, two canonical epistles (1 and 2 Peter
2 Peter
) and several apocryphal works have been attributed to Peter.

NEW TESTAMENT

St Peter painted by Francesco del Cossa
Francesco del Cossa

Epistles

Main article: Authorship of the Petrine epistles
Authorship of the Petrine epistles

The New Testament
New Testament
includes two letters (epistles) ascribed to Peter. Both demonstrate a high quality of cultured and urban Greek, at odds with the linguistic skill that would ordinarily be expected of an Aramaic -speaking fisherman, who would have learned Greek as a second or third language. The textual features of these two epistles are such that a majority of scholars doubt that they were written by the same hand. Some scholars argue that theological differences imply different sources, and point to the lack of references to 2 Peter
2 Peter
among the early Church Fathers.

Daniel B. Wallace (who maintains that Peter was the author) writes that, for many scholars, "the issue of authorship is already settled, at least negatively: the apostle Peter did not write this letter" and that "the vast bulk of NT scholars adopts this perspective without much discussion". However, he later states, "Although a very strong case has been made against Petrine authorship of 2 Peter, we believe it is deficient... Taken together, these external and internal arguments strongly suggest the traditional view, viz., that Peter was indeed the author of the second epistle which bears his name."

Of the two epistles, the first epistle is considered the earlier. A number of scholars have argued that the textual discrepancies with what would be expected of the biblical Peter are due to it having been written with the help of a secretary or as an amanuensis .

Jerome
Jerome
explains:

The two Epistles attributed to St. Peter differ in style, character, and the construction of the words, which proves that according to the exigencies of the moment St. Peter made use of different interpreters" ( Epistle
Epistle
120 – To Hedibia)

Some have seen a reference to the use of a secretary in the sentence: "By Silvanus, a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose, I have written briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein ye stand". However New Testament
New Testament
scholar Bart D. Ehrman in his 2011 book Forged states that "scholars now widely recognize that when the author indicates that he wrote the book 'through Silvanus', he is indicating not the name of his secretary, but the person who was carrying his letter to the recipients." The letter refers to Roman persecution of Christians, apparently of an official nature. The Roman historian Tacitus
Tacitus
and the biographer Suetonius
Suetonius
do both record that Nero
Nero
persecuted Christians, and Tacitus
Tacitus
dates this to immediately after the fire that burned Rome
Rome
in 64. Christian tradition, for example Eusebius of Caesarea (History book 2, 24.1), has maintained that Peter was killed in Nero's persecution, and thus had to assume that the Roman persecution alluded to in First Peter must be this Neronian persecution. On the other hand, many modern scholars argue that First Peter refers to the persecution of Christians in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
during the reign of the emperor Domitian (81–96), as the letter is explicitly addressed to Jewish Christians from that region:

Peter, an apostle of Jesus
Jesus
Christ, to God's elect, strangers in the world, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia, who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus
Jesus
Christ and sprinkling by his blood: Grace and peace be yours in abundance.

Those scholars who believe that the epistle dates from the time of Domitian
Domitian
argue that Nero's persecution of Christians was confined to the city of Rome
Rome
itself, and did not extend to the Asian provinces mentioned in 1 Pet 1:1–2.

The Second Epistle of Peter
Second Epistle of Peter
, on the other hand, appears to have been copied, in part, from the Epistle of Jude
Epistle of Jude
, and some modern scholars date its composition as late as c. 150. Some scholars argue the opposite, that the Epistle of Jude
Epistle of Jude
copied Second Peter, while others contend an early date for Jude and thus observe that an early date is not incompatible with the text. Many scholars have noted the similarities between the apocryphal Second Epistle of Clement
Second Epistle of Clement
(2nd century) and Second Peter. Second Peter may be earlier than 150, there are a few possible references to it that date back to the 1st century or early 2nd century, e.g., 1 Clement written in c. AD 96, and the later church historian Eusebius wrote that Origen
Origen
had made reference to the epistle before 250.

Jerome
Jerome
says that Peter "wrote two epistles which are called Catholic, the second of which, on account of its difference from the first in style, is considered by many not to be by him". (De Viris Illustribus 1) But he himself received the epistle, and explained the difference in style and character and structure of words by the assumption that Peter used different interpreters in the composition of the two epistles; and from his time onward the epistle was generally regarded as a part of the New Testament.

Even in early times there was controversy over its authorship, and Second Peter was often not included in the biblical canon ; it was only in the 4th century that it gained a firm foothold in the New Testament, in a series of synods. In the east the Syrian Orthodox Church still did not admit it into the canon until the 6th century.

Mark

Traditionally, the Gospel of Mark was said to have been written by a person named John Mark
John Mark
, and that this person was an assistant to Peter, hence its content was traditionally seen as the closest to Peter's viewpoint. According to Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History, Papias recorded this belief from John the Presbyter :

Mark having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately whatsoever he remembered. It was not, however, in exact order that he related the sayings or deeds of Christ. For he neither heard the Lord nor accompanied Him. But afterwards, as I said, he accompanied Peter, who accommodated his instructions to the necessities , but with no intention of giving a normal or chronological narrative of the Lord's sayings. Wherefore Mark made no mistake in thus writing some things as he remembered them. For of one thing he took especial care, not to omit anything he had heard, and not to put anything fictional into the statements

Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
in the fragments of his work Hypotyposes (A.D. 190) preserved and cited by the historian Eusebius in his Church History (VI, 14: 6) writes that:

As Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome, and declared the Gospel by the Spirit, many who were present requested that Mark , who had followed him for a long time and remembered his sayings, should write them out. And having composed the Gospel he gave it to those who had requested it.

Also Irenaeus
Irenaeus
wrote about this tradition:

After their (Peter and Paul's) passing, Mark also, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, transmitted to us in writing the things preached by Peter.

Based on these quotes, and on the Christian tradition, the information in Mark's gospel about Peter would be based on eyewitness material. It should be noted, however, that most Biblical scholars (for differing reasons) don't buy the attribution of the Gospel of Mark to its traditional author. The gospel itself is anonymous , and the above passages are the oldest surviving written testimony to its authorship.

PSEUDEPIGRAPHA AND APOCRYPHA

The key as symbol of St. Peter

There are also a number of other apocryphal writings, that have been either attributed to or written about Peter. These include:

* Gospel of Peter , a partially Docetic narrative that has survived in part * Acts of Peter * Acts of Peter and Andrew * Acts of Peter and Paul * Acts of Peter and the Twelve * Gnostic Apocalypse of Peter * A Letter of Peter to Philip , which was preserved in the Nag Hammadi library * Apocalypse of Peter , which was considered as genuine by many Christians as late as the 4th century * The Epistula Petri, the introductory letter ascribed to the Apostle Peter that appears at the beginning of at least one version of the Clementine literature
Clementine literature

NON-CANONICAL SAYINGS OF PETER

Miraculous catch of fish

Two sayings are attributed to Peter in the gnostic Gospel of Thomas . In the first, Peter compares Jesus
Jesus
to a "just messenger." In the second, Peter asks Jesus
Jesus
to "make Mary leave us, for females don't deserve life." In the Apocalypse of Peter , Peter holds a dialogue with Jesus
Jesus
about the parable of the fig tree and the fate of sinners . In the Gospel of Mary , whose text is largely fragmented, Peter appears to be jealous of "Mary" (probably Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
). He says to the other disciples, "Did He really speak privately with a woman and not openly to us? Are we to turn about and all listen to her? Did He prefer her to us?" In reply to this, Levi says "Peter, you have always been hot tempered." Other noncanonical texts that attribute sayings to Peter include the Secret Book of James and the Acts of Peter .

In the Fayyum Fragment , which dates to the end of the 3rd century, Jesus
Jesus
predicts that Peter will deny him three times before a cock crows on the following morning. The account is similar to that of the canonical gospels, especially the Gospel of Mark . It is unclear whether the fragment is an abridged version of the accounts in the synoptic gospels , or a source text on which they were based, perhaps the apocryphal Gospel of Peter.

The fragmentary Gospel of Peter contains an account of the death of Jesus
Jesus
differing significantly from the canonical gospels. It contains little information about Peter himself, except that after the discovery of the empty tomb , "I, Simon Peter, and Andrew my brother, took our fishing nets and went to the sea."

ICONOGRAPHY

Saint
Saint
Peter sinking on water by Eero Järnefelt

The earliest portrait of Peter dates back to the 4th century and was located in 2010. In traditional iconography , Peter has been shown very consistently since early Christian art as an oldish thick-set man with a "slightly combative" face and a short beard, and usually white hair, sometimes balding. He thus contrasts with Paul the Apostle who is bald except at the sides, with a longer beard and often black hair, and thinner in the face. One exception to this is in Anglo-Saxon art , where he typically lacks a beard. Both Peter and Paul are shown thus as early as the 4th century Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter in Rome. Later in the Middle Ages his attribute is one or two large keys in his hand or hanging from his belt, first seen in the early 8th century. More than many medieval attributes, this continued to be depicted in the Renaissance and afterwards. By the 15th century Peter is more likely to be bald on the top of his head in the Western church, but he continues to have a good head of hair in Orthodox icons.

The depiction of Saint
Saint
Peter as literally the keeper of the gates of heaven, popular with modern cartoonists, is not found in traditional religious art, but Peter usually heads groups of saints flanking God in heaven, on the right hand side (viewer's left) of God. Narrative images of Peter include several scenes from the Life of Christ where he is mentioned in the gospels, and he is often identifiable in scenes where his presence is not specifically mentioned. Usually he stands nearest to Christ. In particular, depictions of the Arrest of Christ usually include Peter cutting off the ear of one of the soldiers. Scenes without Jesus
Jesus
include his distinctive martyrdom, his rescue from prison, and sometimes his trial. In the Counter-Reformation scenes of Peter hearing the cock crow for the third time became popular, as a representation of repentance and hence the Catholic sacrament of Confession or Repentance.

PATRONAGE

Medieval mosaic of Saint
Saint
Peter in the Chora Church
Chora Church
, Istanbul Icon
Icon
of Saint
Saint
Peter and Paul St. Peter, holding a key and a book, depicted in a medieval Welsh manuscript, 1390–1400

WORKERS

* Bakers * Bridge builders * Butchers * Fishermen * Harvesters

* Cordwainers * Horologists * Locksmiths * Cobblers

* Net makers * Shipwrights * Stationers

CALLED FOR AID IN

* Frenzy * Foot problems

* Fever

* Longevity

INSTITUTIONS

* The Papacy * The Patriarchate of Antioch
Antioch
* Bath Abbey
Bath Abbey
* Berchtesgaden Provostry * Bishop Cotton Boys\' School, Bangalore

* Exeter College, Oxford
Exeter College, Oxford
* Universalist Church

* Peterhouse, Cambridge
Peterhouse, Cambridge
, UK * St Peter\'s College, Oxford , UK * St Peter\'s College, Auckland , New Zealand
New Zealand
* St Peter\'s School, York , UK * Saint
Saint
Peter\'s University, New Jersey , USA

CHURCHES AND CATHEDRALS

* The Papal Basilica of Saint
Saint
Peter , Vatican City * York Minster * List of churches dedicated to St Peter

LOCATIONS

* Birżebbuġa * Bremen * Brgy. San Pedro, San Pablo City * Calatrava * Calbayog City * Chartres
Chartres
* Chimbote * Cologne
Cologne
* Davao * Dunajská Streda * Hinton on the Green * Ilovik i Sveti Petar * Jackson * Köpenick

* Las Vegas * Leuven
Leuven
* Leiden
Leiden
* Lessines
Lessines
* Maralal * Marquette * Moissac
Moissac
* Naumburg
Naumburg
* Obermarsberg
Obermarsberg
* Peterborough
Peterborough
* Philadelphia
Philadelphia
* Poznań * Providence * Pubnico

* Regensburg
Regensburg
* Rio Grande do Sul * Rome
Rome
* Póvoa de Varzim * Saint
Saint
Petersburg * Saint
Saint
Pierre and Miquelon * San Pedro, Laguna
San Pedro, Laguna
* San Pedro Soloma * Scranton * Seixal Municipality
Seixal Municipality
* Sunderland * Sintra
Sintra
* Sint-Pieters-Rode * Tielt * Toa Baja * Trier
Trier
* Umbria * Worms

REVISIONIST VIEWS

Many Protestant scholars accept the traditional story of Peter's martyrdom in Rome. Some Protestants, however, have rejected Peter's martyrdom as a later invention, arguing that evidence of Peter exists only in biblical accounts.

It has also been suggested that there was a serious division between Peter's Jewish Christian
Jewish Christian
party and Paul's Hellenizing party, seen in e.g. the Incident at Antioch , which later Christian accounts have downplayed.

Another revisionist view was developed by supporters of the Christ myth theory , which holds that the figure of Peter is largely a development from some mythological doorkeeper figures. According to Arthur Drews and G. A. Wells , if there was a historical Peter, then all that is known about him is the brief mentions in Galatians.

IN ART

* Depictions of Saint
Saint
Peter

*

Jesus
Jesus
calling to Peter when walking on water, by François Boucher
François Boucher
, 1766 *

An angel takes off Peter's chains by Bernardo Strozzi
Bernardo Strozzi
, 1635 *

Jesus
Jesus
gives Peter the keys to Heaven
Heaven
by Pieter Paul Rubens
Pieter Paul Rubens
, 1614 *

Statue of Saint
Saint
Peter Arnolfo di Cambio from the 13th century, found within St. Peter's Basilica, Rome
Rome
*

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes, by Raphael
Raphael
, 1515 *

Jesus
Jesus
calling Simon Peter
Simon Peter
and Andrew by Duccio di Buoninsegna
Duccio di Buoninsegna
, 1308-1311 *

An apparition of the Apostle Peter to Saint
Saint
Peter Nolasco, by Francisco Zurbarán , 1629 *

Alessandro Turchi
Alessandro Turchi
, Saint
Saint
Agatha Attended by Saint
Saint
Peter and an Angel in Prison *

Fresco by Pietro Perugino
Pietro Perugino
in the Sistine Chapel

SEE ALSO

Part of a series on

SAINT PETER

IN THE NEW TESTAMENT

* Walking on water * Confession * Servant\'s ear * Denial * Restoration * Vision of a sheet * Liberation * Incident at Antioch

* Epistles

* 1 Peter
1 Peter
* 2 Peter
2 Peter

OTHER

* Cross * Sword * Tomb * Quo vadis? * Primacy * In Judaism * In Islam

* v * t * e

* List of Catholic saints * List of popes * Peter and Paul * Quo Vadis * Saint
Saint
Peter and Islam * Saint
Saint
Peter and Judaism * Saint
Saint
Peter\'s Square * Saint
Saint
Peter\'s tomb * San Pietro in Vincoli * St. Peter\'s Basilica * Sword of Saint
Saint
Peter * The Big Fisherman

NOTES

* ^ A B C O'Connor, Daniel William (2013). " Saint
Saint
Peter the Apostle". Encyclopædia Britannica . Encyclopædia Britannica Online. p. 5. Retrieved 12 April 2013. * ^ A B C D "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles". * ^ Jn 1:42 * ^ Matthew 16:16 * ^ Mark 5:37 * ^ Luke 22:54–62 * ^ Acts 2:14–40 * ^ A B C Dale Martin 2009 (lecture). "24. Apocalyptic and Accommodation" on YouTube
YouTube
. Yale University
Yale University
. Accessed July 22, 2013. Lecture 24 (transcript). * ^ Chapman, Henry Palmer (1913). "Fathers of the Church". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
. New York: Robert Appleton Company. * ^ Thomas Patrick Halton, On Illustrious Men, v. 100, CUA Press, 1999, pp 5–7 ISBN 0-8132-0100-4 . * ^ "The Early Church
Early Church
Fathers", Chapter 1, New Advent * ^ " Bible
Bible
Lexicon". Bible
Bible
Lexicon. Retrieved 2010-09-12. * ^ Cepha or cephah is a Syriac word (Syriac : ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ‎ Kîpâ);see John Maclean, M.A., F.R.G.S. A Dictionary of the Dialects of Vernacular Syriac as Spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, Northwest Persia, and the Plain of Moṣul Cambridge at the University Press, 1895. Accessed Jun. 16, 2011: p. 124. However, a "loose language" modern Aramaic dictionary may define Cepha Hebrew : כֵּיפׇא כֵּיף‎ yet not explain the origin of the word, e.g., Marcus Jastrow "Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature", 1903. Accessed Jun. 16, 2011: P. 634 It is unlikely that one will find this particular word ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ in any non-Syriac dictionary of Aramaic. For instance, the Hebrew equivalent of Cepha (כֵּיפׇא‎) would not be present, while סֶלַֽע‎ (ßĕ'lặᵉ); i.e., rock, cliff, Petra; Karl Feyerabend, PhD "A complete Hebrew-English pocket-dictionary to the Old Testament", Cöthen, Germany, 1910. Accessed Jun. 16, 2011: P. 233 would, for סֶלַֽע‎ is a native Hebrew word. Within a "strict language" dictionary the word will be in its native and original form, thus "rock" will be translated into the language that is being used, e.g., "English-Hebrew dictionary". See: A. S. Waldstein "English-Hebrew dictionary", Jerusalem, 1920. Accessed Jun. 16, 2011: P. 442, where the word(s) for rock is translated as such: (הִתְנַדְנֵד−.פ, הִתְנוֹעֵעַ, הׇנֵעַ, נַדְנֵד, סֶלַע, צוּר, ש. (ריִֹק‎ and not כֵּיפׇא כֵּיף‎. * ^ A B (Hebrew : כֵּיפׇא כֵּיף‎‎) is an indirect transliteration of the Syriac (ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ), (Greek : Κηφᾶς) is a direct transliteration of the Syriac (ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ), and (Hebrew : כֵּיפׇא כֵּיף‎‎) is a direct transliteration of the Greek. The Hebrew word (Hebrew : כאפא‎‎) is also a direct transliteration of the Syriac. (cƒ. Interlinear Peshitta Aramaic New Testament
New Testament
Bible
Bible
Matthew xvi. 18). * ^ Pesch, Rudolf (1980). Simon-Petrus. Hiersemann, Stuttgart. p. 29 * ^ A B C D E F "Peter, St. " F. L., Cross, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, 2005 * ^ His father's name is given as 'Jonah', although some manuscripts of John give his father's name as John. * ^ Metzger, Bruce M.; Coogan, Michael D. (7 June 2001). The Oxford Guide to People & Places of the Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-19-976057-2 . * ^ "2BackToHomePage3". * ^ Matt. 26:51, Mk. 14:47, Lk. 22:50 * ^ Harrington, Daniel J. "Peter the Rock." America, August 18–25, 2008. Accessed Oct. 9, 2009: p. 30. * ^ "What did Jesus
Jesus
mean when he said, "Upon this rock I will build my church"?". Bible.org. Retrieved 10 February 2015. * ^ Rienecker, Fritz ; Rogers, Cleon (1976). Linguistic key to the Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids MI: Regency Reference Library ( Zondervan Publishing House ). p. 49. ISBN 0-310-32050-X . * ^ A B May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible
Bible
with the Apocrypha. 1977. * ^ 1Cor 15 * ^ 1Cor 15:3–7 * ^ See Matthew 28:8–10, John 20:16 and Luke 24:13–16. * ^ Matt. 10:2–4, Mk. 3:16–19, Lk. 6:14–16 * ^ Matthew 17:1; Mark 9:2; Luke 9:28 * ^ Mark 5:37; Luke 8:51 * ^ Matthew 26:37; Mark 14:33 * ^ Matthew 15:15; 19:27; Luke 12:41; John 6:67–68 * ^ A B "Sermon by Leo the Great (440–461)". Ccel.org. 2005-07-13. Retrieved 2010-09-12. * ^ "Archbishop Stylianos of Australia". Retrieved 2010-09-12. * ^ " Patriarch
Patriarch
H.H.Ignatius Zakka I Iwas". Syrianchurch.org. Retrieved 2010-09-12. * ^ "Syriac Orthodox Church in Canada – Identity of the Church". * ^ Myllykoski, Matti. " James the Just
James the Just
in History and Tradition: Perspectives of Past and Present Scholarship (Part I)". Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, Finland. Retrieved 2014-04-02. James the Just, the brother of Jesus, is known from the New Testament
New Testament
as the chief apostle of the Torah-obedient Christians. * ^ "Church History Book
Book
II, Chapter I, quoting Clement of Alexandria\'s Sixth book of Hypotyposes". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 2010-09-12. * ^ John Vidmar, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
through the ages: a history. pp. 39–40. Books.google.com. July 2005. ISBN 978-0-8091-4234-7 . Retrieved 2010-09-12. * ^ see Incident at Antioch ; see also the section below headed "Road to Rome: Antioch
Antioch
and Corinth" * ^ A B C Harris, Stephen L. , Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. (2002 edition) * ^ A B Franzen, p.26 * ^ A B 16 * ^ A B "Paul, St" Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005 * ^ A B Pennington, p. 2 * ^ A B " Papal Basilica Saint
Saint
Paul Outside-the-Walls". Archived from the original on 20 July 2009. * ^ A B Historians debate whether the Roman government distinguished between Christians and Jews prior to Nerva's modification of the Fiscus Judaicus in 96. From then on, practising Jews paid the tax, Christians did not * ^ A B Wylen, pp.190–192 * ^ A B Dunn, pp. 33–34 * ^ Louise Ropes Loomis, The Book
Book
of Popes (Liber Pontificalis). Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-86-8 (Reprint of the 1916 edition). * ^ This is provided in Downey, A History of Antioch, pp. 583–586. This evidence is accepted by M. Lapidge, among others, see Bischoff and Lapidge, Biblical Commentaries from the Canterbury School (Cambridge, 1994) p. 16. Lastly, see Finegan, The Archaeology of the New Testament, pp. 63–71. * ^ Origen's homilies on Luke VI, 4. Patrologia Graeca 13:1814 * ^ Eusebius. "Church History Book
Book
III, Chapter 36". Retrieved 1 June 2015. * ^ Eusebius, in his Chronicle (A.D. 303) . * ^ Eusebius. "Church History Book
Book
III Chapter 36:2". newadvent.org. Retrieved 5 June 2015. * ^ Eusebius. "Church History Book
Book
III Chapter 22". newadvent.org. Retrieved 5 June 2015. * ^ Eusebius. "Church History Book
Book
I, Chapter 12:2". Retrieved 1 June 2015. * ^ (ἡ δ᾿ ἱστορία παρὰ Κλήμεντι κατὰ τὴν πέμπτην τῶν Ὑποτυπώσεων· ἐν ᾗ καὶ Κηφᾶν, περὶ οὗ φησιν ὁ Παῦλος· «ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν Κηφᾶς εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν, κατὰ πρόσωπον αὐτῷ ἀντέστην», ἕνα φησὶ γεγονέναι τῶν ἑβδομήκοντα μαθητῶν, ὁμώνυμον Πέτρῳ τυγχάνοντα τῷ ἀποστόλῳ.) * ^ Homilies, 2.1; Recognitions, 2.1 * ^ Lapham, An Introduction to the New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha (London: T&T Clark International, 2003), p. 76 * ^ Eusebius. "Church History Book
Book
II, Chapter 14–15". Retrieved 1 June 2015. * ^ Lapham, Introduction, p. 72 * ^ "The Acts of Peter". * ^ of Corinth, Dionysius. "Fragments from a Letter to the Roman Church Chapter III". www.earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved 1 June 2015. * ^ "ANF01. The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr
Martyr
and Irenaeus".

* ^ A B Eusebius of Caesarea. "Church History Book
Book
VI, Chapter 14:6". Retrieved 1 June 2015. * ^ Lucius Caecilius Firmianus, Lactantius. "Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died Chapter 2". ccel.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015. * ^ "Was Peter in Rome?". Catholic Answers. August 10, 2004. Retrieved 9 November 2014. if Peter never made it to the capital, he still could have been the first pope, since one of his successors could have been the first holder of that office to settle in Rome. After all, if the papacy exists, it was established by Christ during his lifetime, long before Peter is said to have reached Rome. There must have been a period of some years in which the papacy did not yet have its connection to Rome. * ^ Brown, Raymond E. & Meier, John P. (1983). Antioch
Antioch
and Rome: New Testament
New Testament
Cradles of Christianity. Paulist Press. p. 98. ISBN 0-8091-0339-7 . As for Peter, we have no knowledge at all of when he came to Rome
Rome
and what he did there before he was martyred. Certainly he was not the original missionary who brought Christianity to Rome (and therefore not the founder of the church of Rome
Rome
in that sense). There is no serious proof that he was the bishop (or local ecclesiastical officer) of the Roman church—a claim not made till the third century. Most likely he did not spend any major time at Rome before 58 when Paul wrote to the Romans, and so it may have been only in the 60s and relatively shortly before his martyrdom that Peter came to the capital. * ^ Cullmann, Oscar (1962). Peter: Disciple, Apostle, Martyr, 2nd ed. Westminster Press. p. 234. In the New Testament
New Testament
is the only church of which we hear that Peter stood at its head. Of other episcopates of Peter we know nothing certain. Concerning Antioch, indeed… there is a tradition, first appearing in the course of the second century, according to which Peter was its bishop. The assertion that he was Bishop of Rome
Rome
we first find at a much later time. From the second half of the second century we do possess texts that mention the apostolic foundation of Rome, and at this time, which is indeed rather late, this foundation is traced back to Peter and Paul, an assertion that cannot be supported historically. Even here, however, nothing is said as yet of an episcopal office of Peter. * ^ Chadwick, Henry (1993). The Early Church, rev. ed. Penguin Books. p. 18. No doubt Peter's presence in Rome
Rome
in the sixties must indicate a concern for Gentile Christianity, but we have no information whatever about his activity or the length of his stay there. That he was in Rome
Rome
for twenty-five years is third-century legend. * ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of the Popes (Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 6. "Ignatius assumed that Peter and Paul wielded special authority over the Roman church, while Irenaeus
Irenaeus
claimed that they jointly founded it and inaugurated its succession of bishops. Nothing, however, is known of their constitutional roles, least of all Peter's as presumed leader of the community." * ^ Building Unity, Ecumenical Documents IV (Paulist Press, 1989), p. 130. "There is increasing agreement that Peter went to Rome
Rome
and was martyred there, but we have no trustworthy evidence that Peter ever served as the supervisor or bishop of the local church in Rome." * ^ "most scholars, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, concur that Peter died in Rome" Keener, Craig S., The Gospel of Matthew: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary, p. 425, n. 74, 2009 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company * ^ O'Connor, Daniel William (2013). " Saint
Saint
Peter the Apostle". Encyclopædia Britannica . Encyclopædia Britannica Online. p. 5. Retrieved 12 April 2013. any scholars… accept Rome
Rome
as the location of the martyrdom and the reign of Nero
Nero
as the time. * ^ A B C D Pieter Willem van der Horst , review of Otto Zwierlein, Petrus in Rom: die literarischen Zeugnisse. Mit einer kritischen Edition der Martyrien des Petrus und Paulus auf neuer handschriftlicher Grundlage, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2009, in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2010.03.25. * ^ A B Vision staff, "'Petrus im Rom' or Peter in Rome
Rome
revisited" * ^ http://biblehub.com/kjv/1_peter/5.htm * ^ Zwierlein, Otto: Petrus in Rom: Due literarischen Zeugnisse, 2nd edition. Berlin, Walter de Gruyter, 2010) * ^ Zwierlein, Otto: Petrus und Paulus in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
und Rom. Vom Neuen Testament zu den apokryphen Apostelakten. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2013. ISBN 978-3110303315 . * ^ James Dunn , review of Zwierlein 2009, in Review of Biblical Literature 2010. * ^ A. Edward Siecienski, The Papacy and the Orthodox: Sources and History of a Debate (Oxford University Press 2017), pp. 48–49 * ^ Has St. Peter ever been in Rome? * ^ Robinson, D. F., 'Where and When did Peter die?', Journal of Biblical Literature Vol 64 (1945), supported by Smaltz, W. M., Did Peter die in Jerusalem?, Journal of Biblical Literature Vol. 71, No. 4 (Dec., 1952), pp. 211–216 accessed 31 August 2015 * ^ Muratorian fragment
Muratorian fragment
at Wikisource
Wikisource
* ^ Ignatius of Antioch. "The Epistle
Epistle
of Ignatius to the Romans". newadvent.org. Retrieved 15 August 2016. * ^ Rainer Riesner, Paul's Early Period: Chronology, Mission Strategy, Theology
Theology
(Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1998) p65 * ^ Apocryphal Acts of Peter. * ^ Kirsch, Johann Peter (1911). "St. Peter". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company. * ^ of Rome, Clement. "The First Epistle
Epistle
of Clement to the Corinthians". earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved 1 June 2015. * ^ Quintus Septimius Florens, Tertullian. "Prescription Against Heretics Chapter XXXVI". ccel.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015. "Since, moreover, you are close upon Italy, you have Rome, from which there comes even into our own hands the very authority (of apostles themselves). How happy is its church, on which apostles poured forth all their doctrine along with their blood; where Peter endures a passion like his Lord's; where Paul wins his crown in a death like John's; where the Apostle John was first plunged, unhurt, into boiling oil, and thence remitted to his island-exile." * ^ Quintus Septimius Florens, Tertullian. "Scorpiace Chapter 15". newadvent.org. Retrieved 6 June 2015. * ^ Granger Ryan & Helmut Ripperger, The Golden Legend Of Jacobus De Voragine Part One, 1941. * ^ of Alexandria, Peter. "Canonical Epistle
Epistle
on Penitence Canon 9". newadvent.org. Retrieved 3 June 2015. * ^ Flavius, Josephus. "Jewish War, Book
Book
V Chapter 11". ccel.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015. * ^ The Holy Bible, according to the authorized version (A.D. 1611) – Frederic Charles Cook – J. Murray, 1881 – page 350 * ^ Vatican Cardinal Angelo Comastri (interviewee) (2011). Secret Access: The Vatican (Video) (in English and Italian). Vatican City, Rome, Italy: A&E Studio Entertainment. Event occurs at 94 minutes. This is the holiest site in the Basilica, where the Apostle Peter was crucified and his blood shed to the ground * ^ presbyter, Caius (Gaius). "Dialogue or Disputation Against Proclus (A.D. 198) in Eusebius, Church History Book
Book
II Chapter 25:6–7". newadvent.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015. * ^ saint, Jerome. "De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men) Chapter 1". newadvent.org. Retrieved 5 June 2015. * ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Tomb of St. Peter". * ^ "The Papacy and the Vatican Palace". * ^ Wall, J. Charles. (1912), Porches and Fonts. Pub. London: Wells Gardner and Darton. P. 295; "Venerable Bede,Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum: The Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Book
Book
III, Chapter 29". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 2010-09-12. * ^ Walsh, The Bones of St. Peter: A 1st Full Account of the Search for the Apostle's Body * ^ Finegan, The Archeology of the New Testament, pp. 368–370. * ^ "The Bones of St. Peter". Saintpetersbasilica.org. Retrieved 2010-09-12. * ^ Associated Press
Associated Press
(2013-11-24). "Vatican displays Saint
Saint
Peter\'s bones for the first time". The Guardian
The Guardian
. Retrieved 2013-11-24. * ^ Women in scripture: a dictionary of named and unnamed women in the Hebrew

* ^

* L. Michael White , Understanding the Book
Book
of Revelation, PBS * Helmut Köster , Introduction to the New Testament, Volume 2, 260 * Pheme Perkins, First and Second Peter, James, and Jude, 16 * James L. Resseguie , Revelation unsealed: a narrative critical approach to John's Apocalypse, 138 * Watson E. Mills, Mercer Commentary on the New Testament, 1340 * Nancy McDarby, The Collegeville Bible
Bible
Handbook, 349 * Carol L. Meyers, Toni Craven, Ross Shepard Kraemer Women in scripture: a dictionary of named and unnamed women in the Hebrew, p. 528 * David
David
M. Carr, Colleen M. Conway, Introduction to the Bible: Sacred Texts and Imperial Contexts, 353 * Larry Joseph Kreitzer Gospel images in fiction and film: on reversing the hermeneutical flow, 61 * By Mary Beard, John A. North, S. R. F. Price Religions of Rome: A history, * David
David
M. Rhoads, From every people and nation: the book of Revelation in intercultural perspective, 174 * Charles T. Chapman, The message of the book of Revelation, 114 * Norman Cheadle, The ironic apocalypse in the novels of Leopoldo Marechal, 36 * Peter M. J. Stravinskas, The Catholic answer book, Volume 1, 18 * Catherine Keller, God and power: counter-apocalyptic journeys, 59 * Brian K. Blount, Revelation: A Commentary, 346 * Frances Carey, The Apocalypse and the shape of things to come, 138 * Richard Dellamora, Postmodern apocalypse: theory and cultural practice at the end, 117 * A. N. Wilson, Paul: The Mind of the Apostle, 11 * Gerd Theissen, John Bowden, Fortress introduction to the New Testament , 166

* ^ 2 Esdras/4 Esdras; see the article on the naming conventions of the Books of Ezra * ^ "Bible, King James Version". * ^ "THE BOOK OF THE APOCALYPSE OF BARUCH THE". * ^ " Book
Book
V.". * ^ "Knowing the End From the Beginning". google.ca. * ^ "The First Letter of Peter". google.ca. * ^ (the King James Version Bible—the New International Version Bible
Bible
uses the words "seven hills") * ^ Wall, R. W. (1991). New International biblical commentary: Revelation (207). Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers. * ^ Bratcher, R. G., Helps for translators (248). New York: United Bible
Bible
Societies. * ^ Davis, C. A. (2000). Revelation. The College Press NIV commentary (322). Joplin, Mo.: College Press Pub. * ^ Mounce, R. H. (1997). The Book
Book
of Revelation. The New International Commentary on the New Testament
New Testament
(315). Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. * ^ Beckwith, Isbon T. The Apocalypse of John. New York: MacMillan, 1919; reprinted, Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2001. * ^ "She Who Restores the Roman Empire". google.ca. * ^ Eusebius. "Church History Book
Book
II Chapter 15:2". hypotyposeis.org & newadvent.org. Retrieved 4 June 2015. * ^ " Babylon
Babylon
in the New Testament". International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Online. * ^ Brown, Raymond E., Introduction to the New Testament, Anchor Bible, 1997, ISBN 0-385-24767-2 . p. 767 "the pseudonymity of II Pet is more certain than that of any other NT work." * ^ A B Joyce, G. H. (1913). "Pope". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
. New York: Robert Appleton Company. * ^ Wilken, p. 281, quote: "Some (Christian communities) had been founded by Peter, the disciple Jesus
Jesus
designated as the founder of his church. ... Once the position was institutionalized, historians looked back and recognized Peter as the first pope of the Christian church in Rome" * ^ "Greek New Testament" Greek New Testament. John xxi 11 Jun. 2010. * ^ Allen C. Myers, ed. (1987). "Aramaic". The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans. p. 72. ISBN 0-8028-2402-1 . It is generally agreed that Aramaic was the common language of Palestine in the first century AD. Jesus
Jesus
and his disciples spoke the Galilean dialect, which was distinguished from that of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Matt. 26:73) * ^ Peshitta Matthew 16 * ^ "Strong\'s Greek: 2786. Κηφᾶς (Képhas) – 9 Occurrences". * ^ "John 1:42 Greek Text Analysis". * ^ * ^ http://www.catholic.com/tracts/peter-the-rock "And what does Kepha mean? It means a rock, the same as petra (It doesn’t mean a little stone or a pebble) What Jesus
Jesus
said to Simon in Matthew 16:18 was this: ‘You are Kepha, and on this kepha I will build my Church.’ * ^ Basil li. De poenit. cƒ. Matth. v. 14 ; Luke xxii. 19 * ^ A B "Peter the Rock". Catholic.com. 2004-08-10. Retrieved 2010-09-12. * ^ "The Preaching of Mattai, chapter 16", Peshitta Aramaic/English Interlinear New Testament
New Testament
(PDF), retrieved 2014-04-02 * ^ Veselin Kesich (1992). "Peter's Primacy in the New Testament and the Early Tradition" in The Primacy of Peter. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. pp. 61–6. * ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, Articles 424 and 552 * ^ translation by R.C. Seaton of Apollonius Rhodius , Argonautica , 3:1365–1367: λάζετο δ᾽ ἐκ πεδίοιο μέγαν περιηγέα πέτρον, δεινὸν Ἐνυαλίου σόλον Ἄρεος: οὔ κέ μιν ἄνδρες αἰζηοὶ πίσυρες γαίης ἄπο τυτθὸν ἄειραν. * ^ Mathison, Keith A., The Shape of Sola Scriptura, pp. 184–5. * ^ "Peter\'s Primacy". * ^ Rykle Borger, "Remarks of an Outsider about Bauer's Worterbuch, BAGD, BDAG, and Their Textual Basis," Biblical Greek Language and Lexicography: Essays in Honor of Frederick W. Danker, Bernard A. Tayler (et al. eds.) pp. 32–47. * ^ "WELS Topical Q&A: Responses to previous questions". Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. 8 August 2013. Archived from the original on 8 August 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2015. * ^ A B C Monday, Dec. 07, 1953 (1953-12-07). "Religion: Peter & the Rock". TIME. Retrieved 2010-09-12. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ D. A. Carson in The Expositor's Bible
Bible
Commentary (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984). * ^ Jesus, Peter & the Keys: A Scriptural Handbook on the Papacy * ^ The Doctrine of Church and Ministry in the Life of the Church Today Archived 3 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Cross-Cultural And Multicultural Ministry In the New Testament Archived 3 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "SOME THOUGHTS ON MATTHEW 16:18". * ^ Eckert, Harold H. "The Specific Functions of the Church in the World" (PDF). Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015. * ^ John Meyendorff , et al. (1963), The Primacy of Peter in the Orthodox Church (St. Vladimir\'s Seminary Press, Crestwood NY, ISBN 978-0-88141-125-6 ) * ^ Holy Apostles
Apostles
Convent (1999) The Orthodox New Testament, Vol. I: The Holy Gospels (Dormition Skete, Buena Vista CO, ISBN 0-944359-13-2 ) p. 105 * ^ ""Primacy of St. Peter" – by Dr. Thomas Athanasius". Syrianchurch.org. Retrieved 2010-09-12. * ^ McConkie, Bruce R. (May 1981), "Upon This Rock", Ensign , LDS Church * ^ McConkie, Bruce R. (July 1973), "The Rock of Revelation", Ensign, LDS Church * ^ "Christ built Church on rock of revelation", Church News , March 30, 1991 * ^ " Doctrine & Covenants 27:12–13". Scriptures.lds.org. Retrieved 2010-09-12. * ^ " Doctrine & Covenants 128:20–21". Scriptures.lds.org. Retrieved 2010-09-12. * ^ Qur'an 3:49–53 * ^ Historical Dictionary of Prophets In Islam And Judaism, Brandon M. Wheeler, Disciples of Christ: " Muslim
Muslim
exegesis identifies the disciples as Peter, Andrew, Matthew, Thomas, Philip, John, James, Bartholomew, and Simon" * ^ Hughes Dictionary of Islam, Habib the Carpenter * ^ No god but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam , Reza Aslan , Dictionary: Simon Peter * ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1938). "Dearly beloved friends! I have attempted, in the beginning …". The Advent of Divine Justice. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-195-7 . * ^ Second Peter: Introduction, Argument, and Outline. Archive date: 9 December 2003. Access date: 19 August 2013. * ^ A B C D E F G Vander Heeren, Achille (1911). "Epistles of St. Peter". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company. * ^ A B saint, Jerome. " Epistle
Epistle
120 – To Hedibia Question 11". tertullian.org. Retrieved 9 June 2015. * ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2011). Forged. HarperOne, HarperCollins
HarperCollins
. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-06-201262-3 . * ^ Eusebius. "Church History Book
Book
VI, Chapter 25". newadvent.org. Retrieved 11 June 2015. * ^ saint, Jerome. "De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men) Chapter 1". newadvent.org. Retrieved 9 June 2015. * ^ Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3.39.14–16 * ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III. 1.2.; quoted by Eusebius in Ecclesiastical History, book 5, 7.6 * ^ " Gospel of Thomas 13". Archived from the original on 13 August 2007. * ^ " Gospel of Thomas 114". Archived from the original on 13 August 2007. * ^ "Apocalypse of Peter". * ^ " Gospel of Mary 9:4". * ^ " Gospel of Mary 9:6". * ^ Das Evangelium nach Petrus. Text, Kontexte, Intertexte. Edited by Thomas J. Kraus and Tobias Nicklas. (Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur. Archiv für die Ausgabe der Griechischen Christlichen Schiftsteller der ersten Jahrhunderte (TU), 158.) VIII-384 pages. Berlin–New York: Walter de Gruyter , 2007. ISBN 978-3-11-019313-8 . * ^ " Gospel of Peter 14:3". Cygnus-study.com. Retrieved 2010-09-12.

* ^ "Oldest known images of apostles found". CNN.com. Retrieved 17 November 2013. * ^ Higgitt, John, "The Iconography of Saint
Saint
Peter in Anglo-Saxon England, and Saint
Saint
Cuthbert's Coffin", pp. 267–272, 270 quoted, in: Bonner, Gerald, Rollason, David