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Saint Peter[a] (r. AD 30;[2] died between AD 64 and 68[3]) also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon (/ˈsmən/ (About this soundlisten)), Cephas, or Peter the Apostle, was one of the [a] (r. AD 30;[2] died between AD 64 and 68[3]) also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon (/ˈsmən/ (About this soundlisten)), Cephas, or Peter the Apostle, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, and one of the first leaders of the early Church.

According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero. He is traditionally counted as the first bishop of Rome‍—‌or pope‍—‌and also by Eastern Christian tradition as the first patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and as the founder of the Church of Antioch and the Diocese of Rome,[3] but differ in their attitudes regarding the authority of his successors. According to Catholic teaching, in Matthew 16 (Matthew 16:18) Jesus promised Peter a special position in the Church.

In the New Testament, Peter appears repeatedly and prominently in all four gospels as well the Acts of the Apostles. The Gospel of Mark in particular was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories. He is also mentioned, under either the name Peter or Cephas, in Paul's First Letter to the Corinthians and the Epistle to the Galatians. The New Testament also includes two general epistles, First Peter and Second Peter, that are traditionally attributed to him, but modern scholarship generally rejects the Petrine authorship of both.[7]

Outside of the New Testament, several apocryphal books were later attributed to him, in particular the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Apocalypse of Peter, and Judgment of Peter[8][9][10]