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SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST (Latin : Mārcus; Greek : Μᾶρκος; Coptic : Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ Markos; Hebrew : מרקוס‎‎ Marqos; Amharic : ማርቆስ? Marḳos; Berber : ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria , one of the most important episcopal sees of Early Christianity
Early Christianity
. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion .

CONTENTS

* 1 Mark\'s identity * 2 Biblical and traditional information * 3 Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark * 4 In art * 5 Major shrines * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

MARK\'S IDENTITY

Mark the Evangelist's symbol is the winged lion , the Lion
Lion
of Saint
Saint
Mark . Inscription: PAX TIBI MARCE EVANGELISTA MEVS. The same lion is also symbol of Venice
Venice
(on illustration)

According to William Lane (1974), an "unbroken tradition" identifies Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark , and John Mark as the cousin of Barnabas . However, Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
in On the Seventy Apostles distinguishes Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(2 Tim 4:11), John Mark (Acts 12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37), and Mark the cousin of Barnabas (Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24). According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus
Jesus
to disseminate the gospel (Luke 10:1ff.) in Judea
Judea
. A Coptic icon of St. Mark.

According to Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
(Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1–4), Herod Agrippa I , in his first year of reign over the whole of Judea
Judea
(AD 41), killed James, son of Zebedee and arrested Peter, planning to kill him after the Passover
Passover
. Peter was saved miraculously by angels , and escaped out of the realm of Herod (Acts 12:1–19).

Peter went to Antioch
Antioch
, then through Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(visiting the churches in Pontus , Galatia
Galatia
, Cappadocia
Cappadocia
, Asia , and Bithynia
Bithynia
, as mentioned in 1 Pet 1:1), and arrived in Rome
Rome
in the second year of Emperor Claudius
Emperor Claudius
(AD 42; Eusebius, Eccl, Hist. 2.14.6). Somewhere on the way, Peter encountered Mark and took him as travel companion and interpreter. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
wrote down the sermons of Peter, thus composing the Gospel
Gospel
according to Mark (Eccl. Hist. 15–16), before he left for Alexandria
Alexandria
in the third year of Claudius (43).

In AD 49, about 19 years after the Ascension of Jesus
Jesus
, Mark travelled to Alexandria
Alexandria
and founded the Church of Alexandria – today, the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
, the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
, and the Coptic Catholic Church
Coptic Catholic Church
claim to be successors to this original community. Aspects of the Coptic liturgy can be traced back to Mark himself. He became the first bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
and he is honored as the founder of Christianity in Africa
Africa
.

According to Eusebius
Eusebius
(Eccl. Hist. 2.24.1), Mark was succeeded by Annianus as the bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the eighth year of Nero (62/63), probably, but not definitely, due to his coming death. Later Coptic tradition says that he was martyred in 68.

Most modern scholars argue the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
was written by an anonymous author, rather than direct witnesses to the reported events.

BIBLICAL AND TRADITIONAL INFORMATION

Evidence for Mark the Evangelist's authorship of the Gospel
Gospel
that bears his name originates with Papias . Scholars of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School are "almost certain" that Papias is referencing John Mark . Catholic scholars have argued that identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark and Mark the Cousin of Barnabas has led to the downgrading of the character of Barnabas from truly a "Son of Comfort" to one who favored his blood relative over principles.

Identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark also led to identifying him as the man who carried water to the house where the Last Supper
Last Supper
took place (Mark 14:13), or as the young man who ran away naked when Jesus
Jesus
was arrested (Mark 14:51–52).

The Coptic Church accords with identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark , as well as that he was one of the Seventy Disciples sent out by Christ (Luke 10:1), as Hippolytus confirmed. Coptic tradition also holds that Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
hosted the disciples in his house after Jesus' death, that the resurrected Jesus
Jesus
Christ came to Mark's house (John 20), and that the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descended on the disciples at Pentecost
Pentecost
in the same house. Furthermore, Mark is also believed to have been among the servants at the Marriage at Cana
Marriage at Cana
who poured out the water that Jesus
Jesus
turned to wine (John 2:1–11).

According to the Coptic tradition, Saint
Saint
Mark was born in Cyrene , a city in the Pentapolis of North Africa
Africa
(now Libya
Libya
). This tradition adds that Mark returned to Pentapolis later in life, after being sent by Paul to Colossae ( Colossians 4:10; Philemon 24. Some, however, think these actually refer to Mark the Cousin of Barnabas ), and serving with him in Rome
Rome
(2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he made his way to Alexandria
Alexandria
. When Mark returned to Alexandria, the pagans of the city resented his efforts to turn the Alexandrians away from the worship of their traditional gods. In AD 68, they placed a rope around his neck and dragged him through the streets until he was dead.

Where Saint
Saint
John Mark (son of Mary) is distinguished from Saint
Saint
Mark, the composer of the earliest Gospel
Gospel
that we have, Saint
Saint
John Mark is celebrated on September 27 (as in the Roman Martyrology) and the writer of the Gospel
Gospel
on April 25. In addition to Saint
Saint
John Mark's in Jerusalem, the Parish Church of Chester Hill with Sefton in the Diocese of Sydney (Anglican Church of Australia) is Saint
Saint
John Mark's and it celebrated its patronal festival on September 27. An icon of Saint
Saint
John Mark on Cyprus, painted by a Russian Orthodox monk at Walsingham, was formerly in that church and is now in Christ Church Saint
Saint
Laurence in Sydney.

RELICS OF SAINT MARK

A mosaic of St Marks body welcomed into Venice, at St Mark\'s Basilica , Venice. Saint
Saint
Mark by Donatello
Donatello
( Orsanmichele , Florence
Florence
).

In 828, relics believed to be the body of Saint
Saint
Mark were stolen from Alexandria
Alexandria
(at the time controlled by the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
) by two Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks and taken to Venice
Venice
. A mosaic in St Mark\'s Basilica depicts sailors covering the relics with a layer of pork and cabbage leaves. Since Muslims are not permitted to touch pork, this was done to prevent the guards from inspecting the ship's cargo too closely.

Donald Nicol explained this act as "motivated as much by politics as by piety", and "a calculated stab at the pretensions of the Patriarchate of Aquileia
Patriarchate of Aquileia
." Instead of being used to adorn the church of Grado , which claimed to possess the throne of Saint
Saint
Mark, it was kept secretly by Doge Giustiniano Participazio in his modest palace. Possession of Saint
Saint
Mark's remains was, in Nicol's words, "the symbol not of the Patriarchate of Grado, nor of the bishopric of Olivolo, but of the city of Venice." In his will, Doge Giustiniano asked his widow to build a basilica dedicated to Saint
Saint
Mark, which was erected between the palace and the chapel of Saint
Saint
Theodore Stratelates
Theodore Stratelates
, who until then had been patron saint of Venice.

In 1063, during the construction of a new basilica in Venice
Venice
, Saint Mark's relics could not be found. However, according to tradition, in 1094, the saint himself revealed the location of his remains by extending an arm from a pillar. The newfound remains were placed in a sarcophagus in the basilica.

Copts believe that the head of Saint
Saint
Mark remains in a church named after him in Alexandria, and parts of his relics are in Saint
Saint
Mark\'s Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral, Cairo
Cairo
. The rest of his relics are in Venice. Every year, on the 30th day of the month of Paopi , the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
celebrates the commemoration of the consecration of the church of Saint
Saint
Mark, and the appearance of the head of the saint in the city of Alexandria. This takes place inside St Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral in Alexandria.

In June 1968, Pope
Pope
Cyril VI of Alexandria
Alexandria
sent an official delegation to Rome
Rome
to receive a relic of Saint
Saint
Mark from Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
. The delegation consisted of ten metropolitans and bishops, seven of whom were Coptic and three Ethiopian, and three prominent Coptic lay leaders.

The relic was said to be a small piece of bone that had been given to the Roman pope by Giovanni Cardinal Urbani , Patriarch
Patriarch
of Venice. Pope Paul, in an address to the delegation, said that the rest of the relics of the saint remained in Venice.

The delegation received the relic on June 22, 1968. The next day, the delegation celebrated a pontifical liturgy in the Church of Saint Athanasius the Apostolic in Rome. The metropolitans, bishops, and priests of the delegation all served in the liturgy. Members of the Roman papal delegation, Copts who lived in Rome, newspaper and news agency reporters, and many foreign dignitaries attended the liturgy.

IN ART

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is most often depicted writing or holding his gospel. In Christian tradition, Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel is symbolized by a lion – a figure of courage and monarchy.

Some Christian legends refer to Saint
Saint
Mark as " Saint
Saint
Mark The Lionhearted". These legends say that he was thrown to the Lions and the animals refused to attack or eat him. Instead the Lions slept at his feet while he petted them. When the Romans saw this, they released him, impressed by this sight.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert ; he can be depicted as a bishop on a throne decorated with lions; as a man helping Venetian sailors.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is often depicted holding a book with "pax tibi Marce" written on it or holding a palm and book. Mark the Evangelist attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert . Other depictions of Mark show him as a man with a book or scroll, accompanied by a winged lion. The lion might also be associated with Jesus' Resurrection
Resurrection
because lions were believed to sleep with open eyes, thus a comparison with Christ in his tomb, and Christ as king .

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
can be depicted as a man with a halter around his neck and as Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
rescuing Christian slaves from Saracens
Saracens
.

* Depictions of Mark the Evangelist

*

Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks take Mark the Evangelist's body to Venice
Venice
, by Tintoretto
Tintoretto
. *

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
listening to the winged lion , Mark, image 21 of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch
Codex Aureus of Lorsch
or Borsch Gospels. *

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
looking at the lion, c.823. *

A Coptic Egyptian portrait painting of St. Mark. *

The martyrdom of Saint
Saint
Mark. Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry ( Musée Condé , Chantilly ), c. 1412 and 1416. *

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Andrea Mantegna
Andrea Mantegna
, 1450. *

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with the lion, 1524. *

A painted miniature in an Armenian Gospel
Gospel
manuscript from 1609, held by the Bodleian Library
Bodleian Library
. *

Saint
Saint
Mark on a 17th-century naive painting by unknown artist in the choir of St Mary church (Sankta Maria kyrka) in Åhus
Åhus
, Sweden. *

Saint
Saint
Mark writes his Evangelium at the dictation of St. Peter, by Pasquale Ottino , 17th century, Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux. *

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Il Pordenone
Il Pordenone
(c. 1484 – 1539). *

Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Icon
Icon
from the royal gates of the central iconostasis of the Kazan Cathedral in Saint
Saint
Petersburg, 1804. *

An icon of Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist, 1657.

MAJOR SHRINES

* Basilica di San Marco ( Venice
Venice
, Italy) * Saint
Saint
Mark\'s Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral ( Alexandria
Alexandria
, Egypt
Egypt
) * Saint
Saint
Mark\'s Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral ( Cairo
Cairo
, Egypt
Egypt
) * St. Mark\'s Church in-the-Bowery , New York City
New York City

SEE ALSO

* Book: Gospel
Gospel

* Baucalis * Feast of Saint Mark * Gospel
Gospel
of John * Gospel
Gospel
of Luke * Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
* Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew * John the Evangelist
John the Evangelist
* Luke the Evangelist
Luke the Evangelist
* Matthew the Evangelist
Matthew the Evangelist

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C "St. Mark The Apostle, Evangelist". Coptic Orthodox Church Network. Retrieved November 21, 2012. * ^ Senior, Donald P. (1998), "Mark", in Ferguson, Everett, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity
Early Christianity
(2nd ed.), New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., p. 720, ISBN 0-8153-3319-6 * ^ Lane, William L. (1974). "The Author of the Gospel". The Gospel According to Mark. New International Commentary on the New Testament . Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. pp. 21–3. ISBN 978-0-8028-2502-5 . * ^ Mark: Images of an Apostolic Interpreter p55 C. Clifton Black – 2001 –"... infrequent occurrence in the Septuagint (Num 36:11; Tob 7:2) to its presence in Josephus (JW 1.662; Ant 1.290, 15.250) and Philo (On the Embassy to Gaius 67), anepsios consistently carries the connotation of "cousin," though ..." * ^ Hippolytus . "The same Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles". Ante-Nicene Fathers . * ^ Finegan, Jack (1998). Handbook of Biblical Chronology. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. p. 374. ISBN 978-1-56563-143-4 . * ^ "Egypt". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs . Retrieved December 14, 2011. See drop-down essay on "Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire" * ^ Bunson, Matthew; Bunson, Margaret; Bunson, Stephen (1998). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division. p. 401. ISBN 0-87973-588-0 . * ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Mark". Retrieved March 1, 2013. * ^ "Acts 15:36–40". Bible Gateway. * ^ "2timothy 4:11 NASB – Only Luke is with me. Pick up Mark and – Bible Gateway". Bible Gateway. * ^ "Philemon 1:24". Bible Gateway. * ^ E P Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, (Penguin, 1995) page 63 – 64. * ^ Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman
(2000:43) The New Testament: a historical introduction to early Christian writings. Oxford University Press. * ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-19-518249-1 . * ^ Nickle, Keith Fullerton (January 1, 2001). The Synoptic Gospels: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-664-22349-6 . * ^ Witherington, Ben (June 2, 2004). The Gospel
Gospel
Code: Novel Claims About Jesus, Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
and Da Vinci. InterVarsity Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8308-3267-5 . Note: Witherington, while not agreeing that the author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew is unknown, he recognizes that this is what most scholars think. * ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (November 1, 2004). Truth and Fiction in The Da Vinci Code : A Historian Reveals What We Really Know about Jesus, Mary Magdalene, and Constantine. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-19-534616-9 . * ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (September 1, 2006). The Lost Gospel
Gospel
of Judas Iscariot : A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed: A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-971104-8 . * ^ Hierapolis, Papias of . "Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord". newadvent.org. * ^ Harrington, Daniel J. (1990), "The Gospel
Gospel
According to Mark", in Brown, Raymond E. ; Fitzmyer, Joseph A. ; Murphy, Roland E., The New Jerome
Jerome
Biblical Commentary, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 596, ISBN 0-13-614934-0 * ^ D. A. Carson , Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris , An Introduction to the New Testament (Apollos, 1992), 93. * ^ University of Navarre (1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark's Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 55–56, ISBN 1-85182-092-2 * ^ University of Navarre (1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 172, ISBN 1-85182-092-2 * ^ University of Navarre (1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 179, ISBN 1-85182-092-2 * ^ A B C Pope
Pope
Shenouda III , The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter One. Tasbeha.org * ^ "About the Diocese". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Diocese of the Southern United States. * ^ " Saint
Saint
Mark". Retrieved May 14, 2009. * ^ Pope
Pope
Shenouda III . The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter Seven. Tasbeha.org * ^ Donald M. Nicol, Byzantium and Venice: A Study in diplomatic and cultural relations (Cambridge: University Press, 1988), p. 24 * ^ "St. Marks Basilica". Avventure Bellissime – Italy Tours. Retrieved November 21, 2