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Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(Latin: Mārcus; Greek: Μᾶρκος; Coptic: Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ Markos; Hebrew: מרקוס‎ Marqos; Amharic: ማርቆስ Marḳos; Berber languages: ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the most important episcopal sees of Early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.[2]

Contents

1 Mark's identity 2 Biblical and traditional information 3 Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark 4 In art 5 Major shrines 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Mark's identity[edit]

Mark the Evangelist's symbol is the winged lion, the Lion
Lion
of Saint Mark. Inscription: PAX TIBI MARCE EVANGELISTA MEVS. The same lion is also symbol of Venice
Venice
(on illustration)

According to William Lane (1974), an "unbroken tradition" identifies Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark,[3] and John Mark
John Mark
as the cousin of Barnabas.[4] However, Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
in On the Seventy Apostles distinguishes Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(2 Tim 4:11), John Mark
John Mark
(Acts 12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37), and Mark the cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
(Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24).[5] According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus
Jesus
to disseminate the gospel (Luke 10:1ff.) in Judea.

A Coptic icon of St. Mark.

According to Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
(Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1–4), Herod Agrippa I, in his first year of reign over the whole of Judea
Judea
(AD 41), killed James, son of Zebedee
James, son of Zebedee
and arrested Peter, planning to kill him after the Passover. Peter was saved miraculously by angels, and escaped out of the realm of Herod (Acts 12:1–19). Peter went to Antioch, then through Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(visiting the churches in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, as mentioned in 1 Peter 1:1), and arrived in Rome
Rome
in the second year of Emperor Claudius (AD 42; Eusebius, Eccl, Hist. 2.14.6). Somewhere on the way, Peter encountered Mark and took him as travel companion and interpreter. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
wrote down the sermons of Peter, thus composing the Gospel
Gospel
according to Mark (Eccl. Hist. 15–16), before he left for Alexandria
Alexandria
in the third year of Claudius (43).[6] In AD 49, about 19 years after the Ascension of Jesus, Mark travelled to Alexandria
Alexandria
[cf. c. 49 [cf. Acts 15:36–41] and founded the Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
– today, the Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, and the Coptic Catholic Church
Coptic Catholic Church
claim to be successors to this original community.[7] Aspects of the Coptic liturgy can be traced back to Mark himself.[8] He became the first bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
and he is honored as the founder of Christianity in Africa.[9] According to Eusebius
Eusebius
(Eccl. Hist. 2.24.1), Mark was succeeded by Annianus
Annianus
as the bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the eighth year of Nero (62/63), probably, but not definitely, due to his coming death. Later Coptic tradition says that he was martyred in 68.[1][10][11][12][13] Most modern scholars argue the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
was written by an anonymous author, rather than direct witnesses to the reported events.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20] Biblical and traditional information[edit] Evidence for Mark the Evangelist's authorship of the Gospel
Gospel
that bears his name originates with Papias.[21][22] Scholars of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School are "almost certain" that Papias is referencing John Mark.[23] Catholic scholars have argued that identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
and Mark the Cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
has led to the downgrading of the character of Barnabas
Barnabas
from truly a "Son of Comfort" to one who favored his blood relative over principles.[24] Identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
also led to identifying him as the man who carried water to the house where the Last Supper took place (Mark 14:13),[25] or as the young man who ran away naked when Jesus
Jesus
was arrested (Mark 14:51–52).[26] The Coptic Church accords with identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark, as well as that he was one of the Seventy Disciples sent out by Christ (Luke 10:1), as Hippolytus confirmed.[27] Coptic tradition also holds that Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
hosted the disciples in his house after Jesus' death, that the resurrected Jesus
Jesus
Christ came to Mark's house (John 20), and that the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descended on the disciples at Pentecost
Pentecost
in the same house.[27] Furthermore, Mark is also believed to have been among the servants at the Marriage at Cana who poured out the water that Jesus
Jesus
turned to wine (John 2:1–11).[27] According to the Coptic tradition, Saint
Saint
Mark was born in Cyrene, a city in the Pentapolis of North Africa
Africa
(now Libya). This tradition adds that Mark returned to Pentapolis later in life, after being sent by Paul to Colossae ( Colossians
Colossians
4:10; Philemon 24. Some, however, think these actually refer to Mark the Cousin of Barnabas), and serving with him in Rome
Rome
(2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he made his way to Alexandria.[28][29] When Mark returned to Alexandria, the pagans of the city resented his efforts to turn the Alexandrians away from the worship of their traditional gods.[citation needed] In AD 68, they placed a rope around his neck and dragged him through the streets until he was dead.[30] Where Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
(son of Mary) is distinguished from Saint
Saint
Mark, the composer of the earliest Gospel
Gospel
that we have, Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
is celebrated on September 27 (as in the Roman Martyrology) and the writer of the Gospel
Gospel
on April 25. In addition to Saint
Saint
John Mark's in Jerusalem, the Parish Church of Chester Hill with Sefton in the Diocese of Sydney (Anglican Church of Australia) is Saint
Saint
John Mark's and it celebrated its patronal festival on September 27. An icon of Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
on Cyprus, painted by a Russian Orthodox monk at Walsingham, was formerly in that church and is now in Christ Church Saint
Saint
Laurence in Sydney. Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark[edit]

A mosaic of St Marks body welcomed into Venice, at St Mark's Basilica, Venice.

Saint
Saint
Mark by Donatello
Donatello
(Orsanmichele, Florence).

In 828, relics believed to be the body of Saint
Saint
Mark were stolen from Alexandria
Alexandria
(at the time controlled by the Abbasid Caliphate) by two Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks and taken to Venice.[31] A mosaic in St Mark's Basilica
St Mark's Basilica
depicts sailors covering the relics with a layer of pork and cabbage leaves. Since Muslims are not permitted to touch pork, this was done to prevent the guards from inspecting the ship's cargo too closely.[32] Donald Nicol explained this act as "motivated as much by politics as by piety", and "a calculated stab at the pretensions of the Patriarchate of Aquileia." Instead of being used to adorn the church of Grado, which claimed to possess the throne of Saint
Saint
Mark, it was kept secretly by Doge Giustiniano Participazio in his modest palace. Possession of Saint
Saint
Mark's remains was, in Nicol's words, "the symbol not of the Patriarchate of Grado, nor of the bishopric of Olivolo, but of the city of Venice." In his will, Doge Giustiniano asked his widow to build a basilica dedicated to Saint
Saint
Mark, which was erected between the palace and the chapel of Saint
Saint
Theodore Stratelates, who until then had been patron saint of Venice.[33] In 1063, during the construction of a new basilica in Venice, Saint Mark's relics could not be found. However, according to tradition, in 1094, the saint himself revealed the location of his remains by extending an arm from a pillar.[34] The newfound remains were placed in a sarcophagus in the basilica.[35] Copts believe that the head of Saint
Saint
Mark remains in a church named after him in Alexandria, and parts of his relics are in Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral, Cairo. The rest of his relics are in Venice.[1] Every year, on the 30th day of the month of Paopi, the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
celebrates the commemoration of the consecration of the church of Saint
Saint
Mark, and the appearance of the head of the saint in the city of Alexandria. This takes place inside St Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral in Alexandria.[36] In June 1968, Pope
Pope
Cyril VI of Alexandria
Alexandria
sent an official delegation to Rome
Rome
to receive a relic of Saint
Saint
Mark from Pope
Pope
Paul VI. The delegation consisted of ten metropolitans and bishops, seven of whom were Coptic and three Ethiopian, and three prominent Coptic lay leaders. The relic was said to be a small piece of bone that had been given to the Roman pope by Giovanni Cardinal Urbani, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Venice. Pope Paul, in an address to the delegation, said that the rest of the relics of the saint remained in Venice. The delegation received the relic on June 22, 1968. The next day, the delegation celebrated a pontifical liturgy in the Church of Saint Athanasius
Athanasius
the Apostolic in Rome. The metropolitans, bishops, and priests of the delegation all served in the liturgy. Members of the Roman papal delegation, Copts who lived in Rome, newspaper and news agency reporters, and many foreign dignitaries attended the liturgy. In art[edit] Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is most often depicted writing or holding his gospel. In Christian tradition, Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel is symbolized by a lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. Some Christian legends refer to Saint
Saint
Mark as " Saint
Saint
Mark The Lionhearted". These legends say that he was thrown to the Lions and the animals refused to attack or eat him. Instead the Lions slept at his feet while he petted them. When the Romans saw this, they released him, impressed by this sight. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert; he can be depicted as a bishop on a throne decorated with lions; as a man helping Venetian sailors. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is often depicted holding a book with "pax tibi Marce" written on it or holding a palm and book. Mark the Evangelist attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert. Other depictions of Mark show him as a man with a book or scroll, accompanied by a winged lion. The lion might also be associated with Jesus' Resurrection
Resurrection
because lions were believed to sleep with open eyes, thus a comparison with Christ in his tomb, and Christ as king. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
can be depicted as a man with a halter around his neck and as Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
rescuing Christian slaves from Saracens.

Depictions of Mark the Evangelist

Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks take Mark the Evangelist's body to Venice, by Tintoretto.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
listening to the winged lion, Mark, image 21 of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch
Codex Aureus of Lorsch
or Borsch Gospels.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
looking at the lion, c.823.

A Coptic Egyptian portrait painting of St. Mark.

The martyrdom of Saint
Saint
Mark. Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé, Chantilly), c. 1412 and 1416.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Andrea Mantegna, 1450.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with the lion, 1524.

A painted miniature in an Armenian Gospel
Gospel
manuscript from 1609, held by the Bodleian Library.

Saint
Saint
Mark on a 17th-century naive painting by unknown artist in the choir of St Mary church (Sankta Maria kyrka) in Åhus, Sweden.

Saint
Saint
Mark writes his Evangelium at the dictation of St. Peter, by Pasquale Ottino, 17th century, Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Il Pordenone
Il Pordenone
(c. 1484 – 1539).

Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Icon
Icon
from the royal gates of the central iconostasis of the Kazan Cathedral in Saint
Saint
Petersburg, 1804.

An icon of Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist, 1657.

Major shrines[edit]

Basilica di San Marco
Basilica di San Marco
(Venice, Italy) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Alexandria, Egypt) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Cairo, Egypt) St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, New York City

See also[edit]

Book: Gospel

Baucalis Feast of Saint
Saint
Mark Gospel
Gospel
of John Gospel
Gospel
of Luke Gospel
Gospel
of Mark Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew John the Evangelist Luke the Evangelist Matthew the Evangelist

References[edit]

^ a b c "St. Mark The Apostle, Evangelist". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church Network. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Senior, Donald P. (1998), "Mark", in Ferguson, Everett, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity
Early Christianity
(2nd ed.), New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., p. 720, ISBN 0-8153-3319-6  ^ Lane, William L. (1974). "The Author of the Gospel". The Gospel According to Mark. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. pp. 21–3. ISBN 978-0-8028-2502-5.  ^ Mark: Images of an Apostolic Interpreter p55 C. Clifton Black – 2001 –"... infrequent occurrence in the Septuagint (Num 36:11; Tob 7:2) to its presence in Josephus (JW 1.662; Ant 1.290, 15.250) and Philo (On the Embassy to Gaius 67), anepsios consistently carries the connotation of "cousin," though ..." ^ Hippolytus. "The same Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles". Ante-Nicene Fathers.  ^ Finegan, Jack (1998). Handbook of Biblical Chronology. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. p. 374. ISBN 978-1-56563-143-4.  ^ "Egypt". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 14, 2011.  See drop-down essay on "Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire" ^ "The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
Of Egypt". Encyclopedia Coptica. Archived from the original on August 31, 2005. Retrieved 26 January 2018.  ^ Bunson, Matthew; Bunson, Margaret; Bunson, Stephen (1998). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division. p. 401. ISBN 0-87973-588-0.  ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Mark". Retrieved March 1, 2013.  ^ "Acts 15:36–40". Bible Gateway.  ^ "2timothy 4:11 NASB – Only Luke is with me. Pick up Mark and – Bible Gateway". Bible Gateway.  ^ "Philemon 1:24". Bible Gateway.  ^ E P Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, (Penguin, 1995) page 63 – 64. ^ Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman
(2000:43) The New Testament: a historical introduction to early Christian writings. Oxford University Press. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-19-518249-1.  ^ Nickle, Keith Fullerton (January 1, 2001). The Synoptic Gospels: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-664-22349-6.  ^ Witherington, Ben (June 2, 2004). The Gospel
Gospel
Code: Novel Claims About Jesus, Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
and Da Vinci. InterVarsity Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8308-3267-5.  Note: Witherington, while not agreeing that the author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew is unknown, he recognizes that this is what most scholars think. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (November 1, 2004). Truth and Fiction in The Da Vinci Code : A Historian Reveals What We Really Know about Jesus, Mary Magdalene, and Constantine. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-19-534616-9.  ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (September 1, 2006). The Lost Gospel
Gospel
of Judas Iscariot : A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed: A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-971104-8.  ^ Hierapolis, Papias of. "Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord". newadvent.org.  ^ Harrington, Daniel J. (1990), "The Gospel
Gospel
According to Mark", in Brown, Raymond E.; Fitzmyer, Joseph A.; Murphy, Roland E., The New Jerome
Jerome
Biblical Commentary, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 596, ISBN 0-13-614934-0  ^ D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris, An Introduction to the New Testament (Apollos, 1992), 93. ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark's Gospel (2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 55–56, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 172, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 179, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ a b c Pope
Pope
Shenouda III, The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter One. Tasbeha.org ^ "About the Diocese". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Diocese of the Southern United States.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Mark". Retrieved May 14, 2009.  ^ Pope
Pope
Shenouda III. The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter Seven. Tasbeha.org ^ Donald M. Nicol, Byzantium and Venice: A Study in diplomatic and cultural relations (Cambridge: University Press, 1988), p. 24 ^ "St. Marks Basilica". Avventure Bellissime – Italy Tours. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Nicol, Byzantium and Venice, pp. 24–6 ^ Okey, Thomas (1904), Venice
Venice
and Its Story, London: J. M. Dent & Co.  ^ "Section dedicated to the recovery of St. Mark's body". Basilicasanmarco.it. Retrieved February 17, 2010.  ^ Meinardus, Otto F.A. (March 21, 2006). "About the Laity of the Coptic Church" (PDF). Coptic Church Review. 27 (1): 11–12. Retrieved November 22, 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint
Saint
Mark.

Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Mark". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.   Schem, A. J. (1879). "Mark, Saint". The American Cyclopædia.  "St. Mark in the New Testament", "St. Mark in Early Tradition"; two articles by Henry Barclay Swete Works by Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

Titles of the Great Christian Church

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and Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria 43–68 Succeeded by Anianus

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Jesus
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Penitent thief
("Dismas") Elizabeth Gabriel Impenitent thief
Impenitent thief
("Gestas") Jairus' daughter Joanna John the Baptist Joseph Joseph of Arimathea Joses Jude Lazarus Legion Luke Lysanias Malchus Martha Mary, mother of Jesus Mary Magdalene Mary, mother of James Mary of Bethany Mary of Clopas Naked fugitive Son of Nain's widow Nathanael Nicodemus ( Nicodemus
Nicodemus
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Groups

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Andrew Bartholomew James of Alphaeus (James the Less) James of Zebedee John

Evangelist Patmos "Disciple whom Jesus
Jesus
loved"

Judas Iscariot Jude Thaddeus Matthew Philip Simon Peter Simon the Zealot Thomas

Acts

Aeneas Agabus Ananias (Damascus) Ananias (Judaea) Ananias son of Nedebeus Apollos Aquila Aristarchus Barnabas Blastus Cornelius Demetrius Dionysius Dorcas Elymas Egyptian Ethiopian eunuch Eutychus Gamaliel James, brother of Jesus Jason Joseph Barsabbas Judas Barsabbas Judas of Galilee Lucius Luke Lydia Manaen (John) Mark

Evangelist cousin of Barnabas

Mary, mother of (John) Mark Matthias Mnason Nicanor Nicholas Parmenas Paul Philip Priscilla Prochorus Publius Rhoda Sapphira Sceva Seven Deacons Silas / Silvanus Simeon Niger Simon Magus Sopater Sosthenes Stephen Theudas Timothy Titus Trophimus Tychicus Zenas

Romans Herod's family

Gospels

Antipas Archelaus Herod the Great Herodias Longinus Philip Pilate Pilate's wife Quirinius Salome Tiberius

Acts

Agrippa Agrippa II Berenice Cornelius Drusilla Felix Festus Gallio Lysias Paullus

Epistles

Achaicus Alexander Andronicus Archippus Aretas IV Carpus Claudia Crescens Demas Diotrephes Epaphras Epaphroditus Erastus Eunice Euodia and Syntyche Herodion Hymenaeus Jesus
Jesus
Justus John the Presbyter Junia Lois Mary Michael Nymphas Olympas Onesimus Onesiphorus Pudens Philemon Philetus Phoebe Quartus Sosipater Tertius

Revelation

Antipas Four Horsemen Apollyon Two witnesses Woman Beast Three Angels Whore of Babylon

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Popes and Patriarchs of Alexandria
Alexandria
of the See of Saint
Saint
Mark

Patriarchs prior to the Chalcedonian schism (43–451)

Mark I the Evangelist (founder) Anianus Avilius Kedronos Primus Justus Eumenius Markianos* Celadion Agrippinus Julian Demetrius I Heraclas Dionysius Maximus Theonas Peter I Achillas Alexander I Athanasius
Athanasius
I Peter II Timothy I Theophilus I Cyril I Dioscorus I

Coptic Orthodox Popes and Patriarchs (451–present)

Timothy II Peter III Athanasius
Athanasius
II John I John II Dioscorus II Timothy III Theodosius I Peter IV Damian Anastasius Andronicus Benjamin I Agathon John III Isaac Simeon I Alexander II Cosmas I Theodore I Michael I Mina I John IV Mark II James Simeon II Joseph I Michael II Cosmas II Shenouda I Michael III Gabriel
Gabriel
I Cosmas III Macarius I Theophilus II (AKA Theophanes) Mina II Abraham Philotheos Zacharias Shenouda II Christodolos Cyril II Michael IV Macarius II Gabriel
Gabriel
II Michael V John V Mark III John VI Cyril III Athanasius
Athanasius
III John VII Gabriel
Gabriel
III John VII Theodosius III John VIII John IX Benjamin II Peter V Mark IV John X Gabriel
Gabriel
IV Matthew I Gabriel
Gabriel
V John XI Matthew II Gabriel
Gabriel
VI Michael VI John XII John XIII Gabriel
Gabriel
VII John XIV Gabriel
Gabriel
VIII Mark V John XV Matthew III Mark VI Matthew IV John XVI Peter VI John XVII Mark VII John XVIII Mark VIII Peter VII Cyril IV Demetrius II Cyril V John XIX Macarius III Joseph II Cyril VI Shenouda III Tawadros II (current)

Greek Orthodox Popes and Patriarchs (451–present)

Proterius Timothy II Timothy III John I Peter III Athanasius
Athanasius
II John II John III Dioscorus II Timothy IV Theodosius I Gainas Paul Zoilus Apollinarius John IV Eulogius Theodore I John V George I Cyrus Peter IV Peter V Peter VI Cosmas I Politianus Eustatius Christopher I Sophronius I Michael I Michael II Christodoulos Eutychius Sophronius II Isaac Job Elias I Arsenius Theophilus II George II Leontius Alexander II John VI Cyril II Sabbas Sophronius III Elias II Eleutherius Mark III* Nicholas I Gregory I Nicholas II Athanasius
Athanasius
III Gregory II Gregory III Niphon Mark IV Nicholas III Gregory IV Nicholas IV Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Mark V Philotheus Mark VI Gregory V Joachim I Silvester Meletius I Pegas Cyril III Gerasimus I Metrophanes Nicephorus Joannicius Paisius Parthenius I Gerasimus II Samuel Cosmas II Cosmas III Matthew Cyprian Gerasimus III Parthenius II Theophilus III Hierotheus I Artemius Hierotheus II Callinicus Jacob Nicanor Sophronius IV Photius Meletius II Nicholas V Christopher II Nicholas VI Parthenius III Peter VII Theodore II (current)

Latin Catholic Patriarchs (1276 –1954 )

Atanasio (Athanasius) Egidio da Ferrara (Giles)  ?Humbert II, Dauphin of Vienne Juan (John) Guillaume de Chanac Arnaud Bernard du Pouget (Arnaldo Bernardi) uncanonical Jean de Cardaillac Pietro Amely di Brunac  ? Johannes Walteri von Sinten uncanonical Simon of Cramaud Pietro Amely di Brunac Leonardo Dolfin Ugo Roberti Pietro Amaury di Lordat Lancelotus de Navarra Giovanni Contarini Pietro Vitalis di Mauléon Giovanni Vitelleschi Marco Condulmer Jean d’Harcourt Arnaldo Rogerii de Palas Pedro de Urrea Pedro González de Mendoza Diego Hurtado de Mendoza Alonso de Fonseca y Acevedo Bernardino Carafa Cesare Riario Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora Ottaviano Maria Sforza Julius Gonzaga Cristoforo Guidalotti Ciocchi del Monte Jacques Cortès Tommaso Alessandro Riario Enrico Caetani Giovanni Battista Albani Camillo Caetani Séraphin Olivier-Razali Alessandro di Sangro Honoratus Caetani Federico Borromeo Allesandro Crescenzi Aloysius Bevilacqua Pietro Draghi Bartoli Gregorio Giuseppe Gaetani de Aragonia Carlo Ambrosio Mezzabarba Filippo Carlo Spada Girolamo Crispi Giuseppe Antonio Davanzati Lodovico Agnello Anastasi Francisco Mattei Augustus Foscolo Paolo Angelo Ballerini Domenico Marinangeli Paolo de Huyn Luca Ermenegildo Pasetto

Melkite Catholic Titular Patriarchs (1724–present)

Cyril VI Tanas Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Jawhar Maximos II Hakim Theodosius V Dahan Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Jawhar Cyril VII Siaj Agapius II Matar Ignatius IV Sarrouf Athanasius
Athanasius
V Matar Macarius IV Tawil Ignatius V Qattan Maximos III Mazloum Clement Bahouth Gregory II Youssef-Sayur Peter IV Jaraijiry Cyril VIII Geha Demetrius I Qadi Cyril IX Moghabghab Maximos IV Sayegh Maximos V Hakim Gregory III Laham Youssef I Absi

Coptic Catholic Patriarchs (1824–present)

Maximos Jouwed Kyrillos Makarios Stéphanos I Sidarouss Stéphanos II Ghattas Antonios I Naguib Ibrahim Isaac
Isaac
Sidrak

*Markianos is considered Mark II on the Greek side of the subsequent schism, hence this numbering of Mark III. Category Commons

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Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
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Theotokos

Our Lady of Assiut Our Lady of Warraq Our Lady of Zeitoun

,

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,

Seven Archangels

Michael Gabriel Raphael Suriel Zedekiel Sarathiel Aniel

Patriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph

Prophets

Moses Job Samuel David Hosea Amos Micah Joel Obadiah Jonah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi Isaiah Jeremiah Baruch Ezekiel Daniel John the Baptist

Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James, son of Alphaeus James, son of Zebedee John Jude Matthew Matthias Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Disciples

Apollos Barnabas Mary Magdalene Philemon Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Martyrs

21 martyrs in Libya Abāmūn Abāmūn Abanoub Abaskhiron Alexandrian Martyrs Apollonia Barbara Bashnouna Basilides Catherine Chiaffredo Theodore Stratelates Chrysanthus Colluthus Cyprian Cyrus Sarah Damian Daria Dasya George Demiana Dorothea Epimachus Faustus, Abibus and Dionysius Felix Gallicanus George el-Mozahem Gereon Theban Legion Varus Theodora and Didymus Hor, Besoy, and Daydara Otimus Memnon Rais Imbaba Martyrs John Moura John of Senhout Elias and four companions Justina Kosheh Martyrs Saint
Saint
Marina the Martyr Malati Maspero Martyrs Maurice Menas Mohrael Nah Hammadi Philotheos Potamiana Regula Sidhom Bishay Thecla Theoclia Veronica Wanas Wadamoun

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Athanasius
I Peter II Timothy I Theophilus I Cyril I Dioscorus I Timothy II Peter III Athanasius
Athanasius
II John I John II Dioscorus II Timothy III Theodosius I Peter IV Damian Anastasius Andronicus Benjamin I Agathon John III Isaac Simeon I Alexander II Cosmas I Theodore I Michael I Mina I John IV Mark II James Simeon II Joseph I Michael II Cosmas II Shenouda I Michael III Gabriel
Gabriel
I Cosmas III Macarius I Theophanes Mina II Abraham Philotheos Zacharias Shenouda II Christodolos Cyril II Michael IV Macarius II Gabriel
Gabriel
II Michael V John V Mark III John VI Cyril III Athanasius
Athanasius
III John VII Gabriel
Gabriel
III John VII Theodosius III John VIII John IX Benjamin II Peter V Mark IV John X Gabriel
Gabriel
IV Matthew I Cyril VI Shenouda III Tawadros II (current)

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Athanasius
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Eusebius
of Caesarea Gregory of Nyssa Gregory of Neocaesarea Hadra of Aswan Ignatius of Antioch Isidorus of Hermonpolis Jacob
Jacob
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Polycarp
of Smyrna Porphyry of Gaza Ptolemy of Minuf Psote
Psote
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Anchorites

Annasimon Babnuda Balamon Elisa Ezekiel Ghalion Hedra Hermina Karas Keriakos Latsoun Mary Misael Olaghi Onuphrius Paphnutius Paul Pijimi Shenouda Silas Stephanos Stratios Timothy Thomas Yousab Zosimas

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Ababius Abdel Messih El-Makari Abib and Apollo Abraham
Abraham
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Abraham
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Isaac
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Moses
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Samuel
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Saint Patapios
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Saint Mark The Evangelist
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Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(Latin: Mārcus; Greek: Μᾶρκος; Coptic: Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ Markos; Hebrew: מרקוס‎ Marqos; Amharic: ማርቆስ Marḳos; Berber languages: ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the most important episcopal sees of Early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.[2]

Contents

1 Mark's identity 2 Biblical and traditional information 3 Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark 4 In art 5 Major shrines 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Mark's identity[edit]

Mark the Evangelist's symbol is the winged lion, the Lion
Lion
of Saint Mark. Inscription: PAX TIBI MARCE EVANGELISTA MEVS. The same lion is also symbol of Venice
Venice
(on illustration)

According to William Lane (1974), an "unbroken tradition" identifies Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark,[3] and John Mark
John Mark
as the cousin of Barnabas.[4] However, Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
in On the Seventy Apostles distinguishes Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(2 Tim 4:11), John Mark
John Mark
(Acts 12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37), and Mark the cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
(Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24).[5] According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus
Jesus
to disseminate the gospel (Luke 10:1ff.) in Judea.

A Coptic icon of St. Mark.

According to Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
(Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1–4), Herod Agrippa I, in his first year of reign over the whole of Judea
Judea
(AD 41), killed James, son of Zebedee
James, son of Zebedee
and arrested Peter, planning to kill him after the Passover. Peter was saved miraculously by angels, and escaped out of the realm of Herod (Acts 12:1–19). Peter went to Antioch, then through Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(visiting the churches in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, as mentioned in 1 Peter 1:1), and arrived in Rome
Rome
in the second year of Emperor Claudius (AD 42; Eusebius, Eccl, Hist. 2.14.6). Somewhere on the way, Peter encountered Mark and took him as travel companion and interpreter. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
wrote down the sermons of Peter, thus composing the Gospel
Gospel
according to Mark (Eccl. Hist. 15–16), before he left for Alexandria
Alexandria
in the third year of Claudius (43).[6] In AD 49, about 19 years after the Ascension of Jesus, Mark travelled to Alexandria
Alexandria
[cf. c. 49 [cf. Acts 15:36–41] and founded the Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
– today, the Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, and the Coptic Catholic Church
Coptic Catholic Church
claim to be successors to this original community.[7] Aspects of the Coptic liturgy can be traced back to Mark himself.[8] He became the first bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
and he is honored as the founder of Christianity in Africa.[9] According to Eusebius
Eusebius
(Eccl. Hist. 2.24.1), Mark was succeeded by Annianus
Annianus
as the bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the eighth year of Nero (62/63), probably, but not definitely, due to his coming death. Later Coptic tradition says that he was martyred in 68.[1][10][11][12][13] Most modern scholars argue the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
was written by an anonymous author, rather than direct witnesses to the reported events.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20] Biblical and traditional information[edit] Evidence for Mark the Evangelist's authorship of the Gospel
Gospel
that bears his name originates with Papias.[21][22] Scholars of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School are "almost certain" that Papias is referencing John Mark.[23] Catholic scholars have argued that identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
and Mark the Cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
has led to the downgrading of the character of Barnabas
Barnabas
from truly a "Son of Comfort" to one who favored his blood relative over principles.[24] Identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
also led to identifying him as the man who carried water to the house where the Last Supper took place (Mark 14:13),[25] or as the young man who ran away naked when Jesus
Jesus
was arrested (Mark 14:51–52).[26] The Coptic Church accords with identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark, as well as that he was one of the Seventy Disciples sent out by Christ (Luke 10:1), as Hippolytus confirmed.[27] Coptic tradition also holds that Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
hosted the disciples in his house after Jesus' death, that the resurrected Jesus
Jesus
Christ came to Mark's house (John 20), and that the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descended on the disciples at Pentecost
Pentecost
in the same house.[27] Furthermore, Mark is also believed to have been among the servants at the Marriage at Cana who poured out the water that Jesus
Jesus
turned to wine (John 2:1–11).[27] According to the Coptic tradition, Saint
Saint
Mark was born in Cyrene, a city in the Pentapolis of North Africa
Africa
(now Libya). This tradition adds that Mark returned to Pentapolis later in life, after being sent by Paul to Colossae ( Colossians
Colossians
4:10; Philemon 24. Some, however, think these actually refer to Mark the Cousin of Barnabas), and serving with him in Rome
Rome
(2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he made his way to Alexandria.[28][29] When Mark returned to Alexandria, the pagans of the city resented his efforts to turn the Alexandrians away from the worship of their traditional gods.[citation needed] In AD 68, they placed a rope around his neck and dragged him through the streets until he was dead.[30] Where Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
(son of Mary) is distinguished from Saint
Saint
Mark, the composer of the earliest Gospel
Gospel
that we have, Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
is celebrated on September 27 (as in the Roman Martyrology) and the writer of the Gospel
Gospel
on April 25. In addition to Saint
Saint
John Mark's in Jerusalem, the Parish Church of Chester Hill with Sefton in the Diocese of Sydney (Anglican Church of Australia) is Saint
Saint
John Mark's and it celebrated its patronal festival on September 27. An icon of Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
on Cyprus, painted by a Russian Orthodox monk at Walsingham, was formerly in that church and is now in Christ Church Saint
Saint
Laurence in Sydney. Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark[edit]

A mosaic of St Marks body welcomed into Venice, at St Mark's Basilica, Venice.

Saint
Saint
Mark by Donatello
Donatello
(Orsanmichele, Florence).

In 828, relics believed to be the body of Saint
Saint
Mark were stolen from Alexandria
Alexandria
(at the time controlled by the Abbasid Caliphate) by two Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks and taken to Venice.[31] A mosaic in St Mark's Basilica
St Mark's Basilica
depicts sailors covering the relics with a layer of pork and cabbage leaves. Since Muslims are not permitted to touch pork, this was done to prevent the guards from inspecting the ship's cargo too closely.[32] Donald Nicol explained this act as "motivated as much by politics as by piety", and "a calculated stab at the pretensions of the Patriarchate of Aquileia." Instead of being used to adorn the church of Grado, which claimed to possess the throne of Saint
Saint
Mark, it was kept secretly by Doge Giustiniano Participazio in his modest palace. Possession of Saint
Saint
Mark's remains was, in Nicol's words, "the symbol not of the Patriarchate of Grado, nor of the bishopric of Olivolo, but of the city of Venice." In his will, Doge Giustiniano asked his widow to build a basilica dedicated to Saint
Saint
Mark, which was erected between the palace and the chapel of Saint
Saint
Theodore Stratelates, who until then had been patron saint of Venice.[33] In 1063, during the construction of a new basilica in Venice, Saint Mark's relics could not be found. However, according to tradition, in 1094, the saint himself revealed the location of his remains by extending an arm from a pillar.[34] The newfound remains were placed in a sarcophagus in the basilica.[35] Copts believe that the head of Saint
Saint
Mark remains in a church named after him in Alexandria, and parts of his relics are in Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral, Cairo. The rest of his relics are in Venice.[1] Every year, on the 30th day of the month of Paopi, the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
celebrates the commemoration of the consecration of the church of Saint
Saint
Mark, and the appearance of the head of the saint in the city of Alexandria. This takes place inside St Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral in Alexandria.[36] In June 1968, Pope
Pope
Cyril VI of Alexandria
Alexandria
sent an official delegation to Rome
Rome
to receive a relic of Saint
Saint
Mark from Pope
Pope
Paul VI. The delegation consisted of ten metropolitans and bishops, seven of whom were Coptic and three Ethiopian, and three prominent Coptic lay leaders. The relic was said to be a small piece of bone that had been given to the Roman pope by Giovanni Cardinal Urbani, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Venice. Pope Paul, in an address to the delegation, said that the rest of the relics of the saint remained in Venice. The delegation received the relic on June 22, 1968. The next day, the delegation celebrated a pontifical liturgy in the Church of Saint Athanasius
Athanasius
the Apostolic in Rome. The metropolitans, bishops, and priests of the delegation all served in the liturgy. Members of the Roman papal delegation, Copts who lived in Rome, newspaper and news agency reporters, and many foreign dignitaries attended the liturgy. In art[edit] Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is most often depicted writing or holding his gospel. In Christian tradition, Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel is symbolized by a lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. Some Christian legends refer to Saint
Saint
Mark as " Saint
Saint
Mark The Lionhearted". These legends say that he was thrown to the Lions and the animals refused to attack or eat him. Instead the Lions slept at his feet while he petted them. When the Romans saw this, they released him, impressed by this sight. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert; he can be depicted as a bishop on a throne decorated with lions; as a man helping Venetian sailors. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is often depicted holding a book with "pax tibi Marce" written on it or holding a palm and book. Mark the Evangelist attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert. Other depictions of Mark show him as a man with a book or scroll, accompanied by a winged lion. The lion might also be associated with Jesus' Resurrection
Resurrection
because lions were believed to sleep with open eyes, thus a comparison with Christ in his tomb, and Christ as king. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
can be depicted as a man with a halter around his neck and as Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
rescuing Christian slaves from Saracens.

Depictions of Mark the Evangelist

Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks take Mark the Evangelist's body to Venice, by Tintoretto.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
listening to the winged lion, Mark, image 21 of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch
Codex Aureus of Lorsch
or Borsch Gospels.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
looking at the lion, c.823.

A Coptic Egyptian portrait painting of St. Mark.

The martyrdom of Saint
Saint
Mark. Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé, Chantilly), c. 1412 and 1416.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Andrea Mantegna, 1450.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with the lion, 1524.

A painted miniature in an Armenian Gospel
Gospel
manuscript from 1609, held by the Bodleian Library.

Saint
Saint
Mark on a 17th-century naive painting by unknown artist in the choir of St Mary church (Sankta Maria kyrka) in Åhus, Sweden.

Saint
Saint
Mark writes his Evangelium at the dictation of St. Peter, by Pasquale Ottino, 17th century, Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Il Pordenone
Il Pordenone
(c. 1484 – 1539).

Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Icon
Icon
from the royal gates of the central iconostasis of the Kazan Cathedral in Saint
Saint
Petersburg, 1804.

An icon of Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist, 1657.

Major shrines[edit]

Basilica di San Marco
Basilica di San Marco
(Venice, Italy) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Alexandria, Egypt) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Cairo, Egypt) St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, New York City

See also[edit]

Book: Gospel

Baucalis Feast of Saint
Saint
Mark Gospel
Gospel
of John Gospel
Gospel
of Luke Gospel
Gospel
of Mark Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew John the Evangelist Luke the Evangelist Matthew the Evangelist

References[edit]

^ a b c "St. Mark The Apostle, Evangelist". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church Network. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Senior, Donald P. (1998), "Mark", in Ferguson, Everett, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity
Early Christianity
(2nd ed.), New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., p. 720, ISBN 0-8153-3319-6  ^ Lane, William L. (1974). "The Author of the Gospel". The Gospel According to Mark. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. pp. 21–3. ISBN 978-0-8028-2502-5.  ^ Mark: Images of an Apostolic Interpreter p55 C. Clifton Black – 2001 –"... infrequent occurrence in the Septuagint (Num 36:11; Tob 7:2) to its presence in Josephus (JW 1.662; Ant 1.290, 15.250) and Philo (On the Embassy to Gaius 67), anepsios consistently carries the connotation of "cousin," though ..." ^ Hippolytus. "The same Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles". Ante-Nicene Fathers.  ^ Finegan, Jack (1998). Handbook of Biblical Chronology. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. p. 374. ISBN 978-1-56563-143-4.  ^ "Egypt". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 14, 2011.  See drop-down essay on "Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire" ^ "The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
Of Egypt". Encyclopedia Coptica. Archived from the original on August 31, 2005. Retrieved 26 January 2018.  ^ Bunson, Matthew; Bunson, Margaret; Bunson, Stephen (1998). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division. p. 401. ISBN 0-87973-588-0.  ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Mark". Retrieved March 1, 2013.  ^ "Acts 15:36–40". Bible Gateway.  ^ "2timothy 4:11 NASB – Only Luke is with me. Pick up Mark and – Bible Gateway". Bible Gateway.  ^ "Philemon 1:24". Bible Gateway.  ^ E P Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, (Penguin, 1995) page 63 – 64. ^ Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman
(2000:43) The New Testament: a historical introduction to early Christian writings. Oxford University Press. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-19-518249-1.  ^ Nickle, Keith Fullerton (January 1, 2001). The Synoptic Gospels: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-664-22349-6.  ^ Witherington, Ben (June 2, 2004). The Gospel
Gospel
Code: Novel Claims About Jesus, Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
and Da Vinci. InterVarsity Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8308-3267-5.  Note: Witherington, while not agreeing that the author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew is unknown, he recognizes that this is what most scholars think. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (November 1, 2004). Truth and Fiction in The Da Vinci Code : A Historian Reveals What We Really Know about Jesus, Mary Magdalene, and Constantine. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-19-534616-9.  ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (September 1, 2006). The Lost Gospel
Gospel
of Judas Iscariot : A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed: A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-971104-8.  ^ Hierapolis, Papias of. "Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord". newadvent.org.  ^ Harrington, Daniel J. (1990), "The Gospel
Gospel
According to Mark", in Brown, Raymond E.; Fitzmyer, Joseph A.; Murphy, Roland E., The New Jerome
Jerome
Biblical Commentary, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 596, ISBN 0-13-614934-0  ^ D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris, An Introduction to the New Testament (Apollos, 1992), 93. ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark's Gospel (2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 55–56, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 172, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 179, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ a b c Pope
Pope
Shenouda III, The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter One. Tasbeha.org ^ "About the Diocese". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Diocese of the Southern United States.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Mark". Retrieved May 14, 2009.  ^ Pope
Pope
Shenouda III. The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter Seven. Tasbeha.org ^ Donald M. Nicol, Byzantium and Venice: A Study in diplomatic and cultural relations (Cambridge: University Press, 1988), p. 24 ^ "St. Marks Basilica". Avventure Bellissime – Italy Tours. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Nicol, Byzantium and Venice, pp. 24–6 ^ Okey, Thomas (1904), Venice
Venice
and Its Story, London: J. M. Dent & Co.  ^ "Section dedicated to the recovery of St. Mark's body". Basilicasanmarco.it. Retrieved February 17, 2010.  ^ Meinardus, Otto F.A. (March 21, 2006). "About the Laity of the Coptic Church" (PDF). Coptic Church Review. 27 (1): 11–12. Retrieved November 22, 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint
Saint
Mark.

Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Mark". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.   Schem, A. J. (1879). "Mark, Saint". The American Cyclopædia.  "St. Mark in the New Testament", "St. Mark in Early Tradition"; two articles by Henry Barclay Swete Works by Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

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Patriarch
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Alphaeus Anna the Prophetess Annas Barabbas Bartimaeus Blind man (Bethsaida) Caiaphas Man born blind ("Celidonius") Cleopas Clopas Devil Penitent thief
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("Dismas") Elizabeth Gabriel Impenitent thief
Impenitent thief
("Gestas") Jairus' daughter Joanna John the Baptist Joseph Joseph of Arimathea Joses Jude Lazarus Legion Luke Lysanias Malchus Martha Mary, mother of Jesus Mary Magdalene Mary, mother of James Mary of Bethany Mary of Clopas Naked fugitive Son of Nain's widow Nathanael Nicodemus ( Nicodemus
Nicodemus
ben Gurion) Salome Samaritan woman Satan Simeon Simon, brother of Jesus Simon of Cyrene Simon the Leper Simon the Pharisee Susanna Syrophoenician woman Theophilus Zacchaeus Zebedee Zechariah

Groups

Angels Jesus's brothers Demons Disciples Evangelists Female disciples of Jesus God-fearers Herodians Magi Myrrhbearers Nameless Pharisees Proselytes Sadducees Samaritans Sanhedrin Scribes Seventy disciples Shepherds Zealots

Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James of Alphaeus (James the Less) James of Zebedee John

Evangelist Patmos "Disciple whom Jesus
Jesus
loved"

Judas Iscariot Jude Thaddeus Matthew Philip Simon Peter Simon the Zealot Thomas

Acts

Aeneas Agabus Ananias (Damascus) Ananias (Judaea) Ananias son of Nedebeus Apollos Aquila Aristarchus Barnabas Blastus Cornelius Demetrius Dionysius Dorcas Elymas Egyptian Ethiopian eunuch Eutychus Gamaliel James, brother of Jesus Jason Joseph Barsabbas Judas Barsabbas Judas of Galilee Lucius Luke Lydia Manaen (John) Mark

Evangelist cousin of Barnabas

Mary, mother of (John) Mark Matthias Mnason Nicanor Nicholas Parmenas Paul Philip Priscilla Prochorus Publius Rhoda Sapphira Sceva Seven Deacons Silas / Silvanus Simeon Niger Simon Magus Sopater Sosthenes Stephen Theudas Timothy Titus Trophimus Tychicus Zenas

Romans Herod's family

Gospels

Antipas Archelaus Herod the Great Herodias Longinus Philip Pilate Pilate's wife Quirinius Salome Tiberius

Acts

Agrippa Agrippa II Berenice Cornelius Drusilla Felix Festus Gallio Lysias Paullus

Epistles

Achaicus Alexander Andronicus Archippus Aretas IV Carpus Claudia Crescens Demas Diotrephes Epaphras Epaphroditus Erastus Eunice Euodia and Syntyche Herodion Hymenaeus Jesus
Jesus
Justus John the Presbyter Junia Lois Mary Michael Nymphas Olympas Onesimus Onesiphorus Pudens Philemon Philetus Phoebe Quartus Sosipater Tertius

Revelation

Antipas Four Horsemen Apollyon Two witnesses Woman Beast Three Angels Whore of Babylon

v t e

Popes and Patriarchs of Alexandria
Alexandria
of the See of Saint
Saint
Mark

Patriarchs prior to the Chalcedonian schism (43–451)

Mark I the Evangelist (founder) Anianus Avilius Kedronos Primus Justus Eumenius Markianos* Celadion Agrippinus Julian Demetrius I Heraclas Dionysius Maximus Theonas Peter I Achillas Alexander I Athanasius
Athanasius
I Peter II Timothy I Theophilus I Cyril I Dioscorus I

Coptic Orthodox Popes and Patriarchs (451–present)

Timothy II Peter III Athanasius
Athanasius
II John I John II Dioscorus II Timothy III Theodosius I Peter IV Damian Anastasius Andronicus Benjamin I Agathon John III Isaac Simeon I Alexander II Cosmas I Theodore I Michael I Mina I John IV Mark II James Simeon II Joseph I Michael II Cosmas II Shenouda I Michael III Gabriel
Gabriel
I Cosmas III Macarius I Theophilus II (AKA Theophanes) Mina II Abraham Philotheos Zacharias Shenouda II Christodolos Cyril II Michael IV Macarius II Gabriel
Gabriel
II Michael V John V Mark III John VI Cyril III Athanasius
Athanasius
III John VII Gabriel
Gabriel
III John VII Theodosius III John VIII John IX Benjamin II Peter V Mark IV John X Gabriel
Gabriel
IV Matthew I Gabriel
Gabriel
V John XI Matthew II Gabriel
Gabriel
VI Michael VI John XII John XIII Gabriel
Gabriel
VII John XIV Gabriel
Gabriel
VIII Mark V John XV Matthew III Mark VI Matthew IV John XVI Peter VI John XVII Mark VII John XVIII Mark VIII Peter VII Cyril IV Demetrius II Cyril V John XIX Macarius III Joseph II Cyril VI Shenouda III Tawadros II (current)

Greek Orthodox Popes and Patriarchs (451–present)

Proterius Timothy II Timothy III John I Peter III Athanasius
Athanasius
II John II John III Dioscorus II Timothy IV Theodosius I Gainas Paul Zoilus Apollinarius John IV Eulogius Theodore I John V George I Cyrus Peter IV Peter V Peter VI Cosmas I Politianus Eustatius Christopher I Sophronius I Michael I Michael II Christodoulos Eutychius Sophronius II Isaac Job Elias I Arsenius Theophilus II George II Leontius Alexander II John VI Cyril II Sabbas Sophronius III Elias II Eleutherius Mark III* Nicholas I Gregory I Nicholas II Athanasius
Athanasius
III Gregory II Gregory III Niphon Mark IV Nicholas III Gregory IV Nicholas IV Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Mark V Philotheus Mark VI Gregory V Joachim I Silvester Meletius I Pegas Cyril III Gerasimus I Metrophanes Nicephorus Joannicius Paisius Parthenius I Gerasimus II Samuel Cosmas II Cosmas III Matthew Cyprian Gerasimus III Parthenius II Theophilus III Hierotheus I Artemius Hierotheus II Callinicus Jacob Nicanor Sophronius IV Photius Meletius II Nicholas V Christopher II Nicholas VI Parthenius III Peter VII Theodore II (current)

Latin Catholic Patriarchs (1276 –1954 )

Atanasio (Athanasius) Egidio da Ferrara (Giles)  ?Humbert II, Dauphin of Vienne Juan (John) Guillaume de Chanac Arnaud Bernard du Pouget (Arnaldo Bernardi) uncanonical Jean de Cardaillac Pietro Amely di Brunac  ? Johannes Walteri von Sinten uncanonical Simon of Cramaud Pietro Amely di Brunac Leonardo Dolfin Ugo Roberti Pietro Amaury di Lordat Lancelotus de Navarra Giovanni Contarini Pietro Vitalis di Mauléon Giovanni Vitelleschi Marco Condulmer Jean d’Harcourt Arnaldo Rogerii de Palas Pedro de Urrea Pedro González de Mendoza Diego Hurtado de Mendoza Alonso de Fonseca y Acevedo Bernardino Carafa Cesare Riario Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora Ottaviano Maria Sforza Julius Gonzaga Cristoforo Guidalotti Ciocchi del Monte Jacques Cortès Tommaso Alessandro Riario Enrico Caetani Giovanni Battista Albani Camillo Caetani Séraphin Olivier-Razali Alessandro di Sangro Honoratus Caetani Federico Borromeo Allesandro Crescenzi Aloysius Bevilacqua Pietro Draghi Bartoli Gregorio Giuseppe Gaetani de Aragonia Carlo Ambrosio Mezzabarba Filippo Carlo Spada Girolamo Crispi Giuseppe Antonio Davanzati Lodovico Agnello Anastasi Francisco Mattei Augustus Foscolo Paolo Angelo Ballerini Domenico Marinangeli Paolo de Huyn Luca Ermenegildo Pasetto

Melkite Catholic Titular Patriarchs (1724–present)

Cyril VI Tanas Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Jawhar Maximos II Hakim Theodosius V Dahan Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Jawhar Cyril VII Siaj Agapius II Matar Ignatius IV Sarrouf Athanasius
Athanasius
V Matar Macarius IV Tawil Ignatius V Qattan Maximos III Mazloum Clement Bahouth Gregory II Youssef-Sayur Peter IV Jaraijiry Cyril VIII Geha Demetrius I Qadi Cyril IX Moghabghab Maximos IV Sayegh Maximos V Hakim Gregory III Laham Youssef I Absi

Coptic Catholic Patriarchs (1824–present)

Maximos Jouwed Kyrillos Makarios Stéphanos I Sidarouss Stéphanos II Ghattas Antonios I Naguib Ibrahim Isaac
Isaac
Sidrak

*Markianos is considered Mark II on the Greek side of the subsequent schism, hence this numbering of Mark III. Category Commons

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Coptic Orthodox
Saints

Theotokos

Our Lady of Assiut Our Lady of Warraq Our Lady of Zeitoun

,

,

,

Seven Archangels

Michael Gabriel Raphael Suriel Zedekiel Sarathiel Aniel

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Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph

Prophets

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Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James, son of Alphaeus James, son of Zebedee John Jude Matthew Matthias Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Disciples

Apollos Barnabas Mary Magdalene Philemon Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Martyrs

21 martyrs in Libya Abāmūn Abāmūn Abanoub Abaskhiron Alexandrian Martyrs Apollonia Barbara Bashnouna Basilides Catherine Chiaffredo Theodore Stratelates Chrysanthus Colluthus Cyprian Cyrus Sarah Damian Daria Dasya George Demiana Dorothea Epimachus Faustus, Abibus and Dionysius Felix Gallicanus George el-Mozahem Gereon Theban Legion Varus Theodora and Didymus Hor, Besoy, and Daydara Otimus Memnon Rais Imbaba Martyrs John Moura John of Senhout Elias and four companions Justina Kosheh Martyrs Saint
Saint
Marina the Martyr Malati Maspero Martyrs Maurice Menas Mohrael Nah Hammadi Philotheos Potamiana Regula Sidhom Bishay Thecla Theoclia Veronica Wanas Wadamoun

Popes

Mark I Anianus Avilius Kedron Primus Justus Eumenes Markianos Celadion Agrippinus Julian Demetrius I Heraclas Dionysius Maximus Theonas Peter I Achillas Alexander I Athanasius
Athanasius
I Peter II Timothy I Theophilus I Cyril I Dioscorus I Timothy II Peter III Athanasius
Athanasius
II John I John II Dioscorus II Timothy III Theodosius I Peter IV Damian Anastasius Andronicus Benjamin I Agathon John III Isaac Simeon I Alexander II Cosmas I Theodore I Michael I Mina I John IV Mark II James Simeon II Joseph I Michael II Cosmas II Shenouda I Michael III Gabriel
Gabriel
I Cosmas III Macarius I Theophanes Mina II Abraham Philotheos Zacharias Shenouda II Christodolos Cyril II Michael IV Macarius II Gabriel
Gabriel
II Michael V John V Mark III John VI Cyril III Athanasius
Athanasius
III John VII Gabriel
Gabriel
III John VII Theodosius III John VIII John IX Benjamin II Peter V Mark IV John X Gabriel
Gabriel
IV Matthew I Cyril VI Shenouda III Tawadros II (current)

Bishops

Abadiu of Antinoe Abraam of Faiyum Alexander of Jerusalem Amun of Scetes Athanasius
Athanasius
of Beni Suef Basil of Caesarea Cyril of Jerusalem Epiphanius of Cyprus Eusebius
Eusebius
of Caesarea Gregory of Nyssa Gregory of Neocaesarea Hadra of Aswan Ignatius of Antioch Isidorus of Hermonpolis Jacob
Jacob
of Nisibis James of Cairo James of Jerusalem John of Nikiu John of Jerusalem Karas of California Macarius of Edkow Mikhaeil of Asyut Narcissus of Jerusalem Nicholas of Myra Paphnutius of Scetes Paphnutius of Thebes Peter Elrahawy of Gaza Pisentius of Qift Pisentius of Hermonthis Pisora of Masil Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Porphyry of Gaza Ptolemy of Minuf Psote
Psote
of Ebsay Sarapamon of Monufia Sarapamon of Niku Serapion of Thmuis Severian of Gabala Yousab el-Abah of Girga Timothy of Ansena Zacharias of Sakha

Anchorites

Annasimon Babnuda Balamon Elisa Ezekiel Ghalion Hedra Hermina Karas Keriakos Latsoun Mary Misael Olaghi Onuphrius Paphnutius Paul Pijimi Shenouda Silas Stephanos Stratios Timothy Thomas Yousab Zosimas

Monks

Ababius Abdel Messih El-Makari Abib and Apollo Abraham
Abraham
of Farshut Abraham
Abraham
of Scetes Amun Anthony the Great Awgin Bashnouna Hilarion Isaac
Isaac
of Nineveh Isidore of Pelusium John Climacus John the Dwarf Macarius of Alexandria Macarius of Egypt Moses
Moses
the Black Mother Irini Hospitius Nilus of Sinai Pachomius the Great Pambo Parsoma Paul of Thebes Paul of Tammah Paul the Simple Patapios of Thebes Pishoy Poemen Samuel
Samuel
the Confessor Saint Patapios
Saint Patapios
of Thebes Tekle Haymanot Clement of Alexandria Sisoes the Great Theodorus of Tabennese Theodora of Alexandria

Other Saints

Ambrose Didymus the Blind Euphrosyne Freig Candidus Simon the Tanner Verena

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Virgin Mary

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Titles of Mary

Apostles

Andrew Barnabas Bartholomew James of Alphaeus James the Greater John Jude Matthew Matthias Paul Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Archangels

Gabriel Michael Raphael

Confessors

Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius
Athanasius
of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius
Athanasius
of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert
Desert
Fathers Desert
Desert
Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

Martyrs

Canadian Martyrs Carthusian Martyrs Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs

Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 264405984 LCCN: n50044098 ISNI: 0000 0003 8214 8035 GND: 118578030 SUDOC: 034721770 BNF:

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Saint Mark The Evangelist
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Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(Latin: Mārcus; Greek: Μᾶρκος; Coptic: Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ Markos; Hebrew: מרקוס‎ Marqos; Amharic: ማርቆስ Marḳos; Berber languages: ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the most important episcopal sees of Early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.[2]

Contents

1 Mark's identity 2 Biblical and traditional information 3 Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark 4 In art 5 Major shrines 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Mark's identity[edit]

Mark the Evangelist's symbol is the winged lion, the Lion
Lion
of Saint Mark. Inscription: PAX TIBI MARCE EVANGELISTA MEVS. The same lion is also symbol of Venice
Venice
(on illustration)

According to William Lane (1974), an "unbroken tradition" identifies Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark,[3] and John Mark
John Mark
as the cousin of Barnabas.[4] However, Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
in On the Seventy Apostles distinguishes Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(2 Tim 4:11), John Mark
John Mark
(Acts 12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37), and Mark the cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
(Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24).[5] According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus
Jesus
to disseminate the gospel (Luke 10:1ff.) in Judea.

A Coptic icon of St. Mark.

According to Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
(Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1–4), Herod Agrippa I, in his first year of reign over the whole of Judea
Judea
(AD 41), killed James, son of Zebedee
James, son of Zebedee
and arrested Peter, planning to kill him after the Passover. Peter was saved miraculously by angels, and escaped out of the realm of Herod (Acts 12:1–19). Peter went to Antioch, then through Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(visiting the churches in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, as mentioned in 1 Peter 1:1), and arrived in Rome
Rome
in the second year of Emperor Claudius (AD 42; Eusebius, Eccl, Hist. 2.14.6). Somewhere on the way, Peter encountered Mark and took him as travel companion and interpreter. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
wrote down the sermons of Peter, thus composing the Gospel
Gospel
according to Mark (Eccl. Hist. 15–16), before he left for Alexandria
Alexandria
in the third year of Claudius (43).[6] In AD 49, about 19 years after the Ascension of Jesus, Mark travelled to Alexandria
Alexandria
[cf. c. 49 [cf. Acts 15:36–41] and founded the Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
– today, the Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, and the Coptic Catholic Church
Coptic Catholic Church
claim to be successors to this original community.[7] Aspects of the Coptic liturgy can be traced back to Mark himself.[8] He became the first bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
and he is honored as the founder of Christianity in Africa.[9] According to Eusebius
Eusebius
(Eccl. Hist. 2.24.1), Mark was succeeded by Annianus
Annianus
as the bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the eighth year of Nero (62/63), probably, but not definitely, due to his coming death. Later Coptic tradition says that he was martyred in 68.[1][10][11][12][13] Most modern scholars argue the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
was written by an anonymous author, rather than direct witnesses to the reported events.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20] Biblical and traditional information[edit] Evidence for Mark the Evangelist's authorship of the Gospel
Gospel
that bears his name originates with Papias.[21][22] Scholars of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School are "almost certain" that Papias is referencing John Mark.[23] Catholic scholars have argued that identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
and Mark the Cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
has led to the downgrading of the character of Barnabas
Barnabas
from truly a "Son of Comfort" to one who favored his blood relative over principles.[24] Identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
also led to identifying him as the man who carried water to the house where the Last Supper took place (Mark 14:13),[25] or as the young man who ran away naked when Jesus
Jesus
was arrested (Mark 14:51–52).[26] The Coptic Church accords with identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark, as well as that he was one of the Seventy Disciples sent out by Christ (Luke 10:1), as Hippolytus confirmed.[27] Coptic tradition also holds that Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
hosted the disciples in his house after Jesus' death, that the resurrected Jesus
Jesus
Christ came to Mark's house (John 20), and that the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descended on the disciples at Pentecost
Pentecost
in the same house.[27] Furthermore, Mark is also believed to have been among the servants at the Marriage at Cana who poured out the water that Jesus
Jesus
turned to wine (John 2:1–11).[27] According to the Coptic tradition, Saint
Saint
Mark was born in Cyrene, a city in the Pentapolis of North Africa
Africa
(now Libya). This tradition adds that Mark returned to Pentapolis later in life, after being sent by Paul to Colossae ( Colossians
Colossians
4:10; Philemon 24. Some, however, think these actually refer to Mark the Cousin of Barnabas), and serving with him in Rome
Rome
(2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he made his way to Alexandria.[28][29] When Mark returned to Alexandria, the pagans of the city resented his efforts to turn the Alexandrians away from the worship of their traditional gods.[citation needed] In AD 68, they placed a rope around his neck and dragged him through the streets until he was dead.[30] Where Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
(son of Mary) is distinguished from Saint
Saint
Mark, the composer of the earliest Gospel
Gospel
that we have, Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
is celebrated on September 27 (as in the Roman Martyrology) and the writer of the Gospel
Gospel
on April 25. In addition to Saint
Saint
John Mark's in Jerusalem, the Parish Church of Chester Hill with Sefton in the Diocese of Sydney (Anglican Church of Australia) is Saint
Saint
John Mark's and it celebrated its patronal festival on September 27. An icon of Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
on Cyprus, painted by a Russian Orthodox monk at Walsingham, was formerly in that church and is now in Christ Church Saint
Saint
Laurence in Sydney. Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark[edit]

A mosaic of St Marks body welcomed into Venice, at St Mark's Basilica, Venice.

Saint
Saint
Mark by Donatello
Donatello
(Orsanmichele, Florence).

In 828, relics believed to be the body of Saint
Saint
Mark were stolen from Alexandria
Alexandria
(at the time controlled by the Abbasid Caliphate) by two Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks and taken to Venice.[31] A mosaic in St Mark's Basilica
St Mark's Basilica
depicts sailors covering the relics with a layer of pork and cabbage leaves. Since Muslims are not permitted to touch pork, this was done to prevent the guards from inspecting the ship's cargo too closely.[32] Donald Nicol explained this act as "motivated as much by politics as by piety", and "a calculated stab at the pretensions of the Patriarchate of Aquileia." Instead of being used to adorn the church of Grado, which claimed to possess the throne of Saint
Saint
Mark, it was kept secretly by Doge Giustiniano Participazio in his modest palace. Possession of Saint
Saint
Mark's remains was, in Nicol's words, "the symbol not of the Patriarchate of Grado, nor of the bishopric of Olivolo, but of the city of Venice." In his will, Doge Giustiniano asked his widow to build a basilica dedicated to Saint
Saint
Mark, which was erected between the palace and the chapel of Saint
Saint
Theodore Stratelates, who until then had been patron saint of Venice.[33] In 1063, during the construction of a new basilica in Venice, Saint Mark's relics could not be found. However, according to tradition, in 1094, the saint himself revealed the location of his remains by extending an arm from a pillar.[34] The newfound remains were placed in a sarcophagus in the basilica.[35] Copts believe that the head of Saint
Saint
Mark remains in a church named after him in Alexandria, and parts of his relics are in Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral, Cairo. The rest of his relics are in Venice.[1] Every year, on the 30th day of the month of Paopi, the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
celebrates the commemoration of the consecration of the church of Saint
Saint
Mark, and the appearance of the head of the saint in the city of Alexandria. This takes place inside St Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral in Alexandria.[36] In June 1968, Pope
Pope
Cyril VI of Alexandria
Alexandria
sent an official delegation to Rome
Rome
to receive a relic of Saint
Saint
Mark from Pope
Pope
Paul VI. The delegation consisted of ten metropolitans and bishops, seven of whom were Coptic and three Ethiopian, and three prominent Coptic lay leaders. The relic was said to be a small piece of bone that had been given to the Roman pope by Giovanni Cardinal Urbani, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Venice. Pope Paul, in an address to the delegation, said that the rest of the relics of the saint remained in Venice. The delegation received the relic on June 22, 1968. The next day, the delegation celebrated a pontifical liturgy in the Church of Saint Athanasius
Athanasius
the Apostolic in Rome. The metropolitans, bishops, and priests of the delegation all served in the liturgy. Members of the Roman papal delegation, Copts who lived in Rome, newspaper and news agency reporters, and many foreign dignitaries attended the liturgy. In art[edit] Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is most often depicted writing or holding his gospel. In Christian tradition, Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel is symbolized by a lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. Some Christian legends refer to Saint
Saint
Mark as " Saint
Saint
Mark The Lionhearted". These legends say that he was thrown to the Lions and the animals refused to attack or eat him. Instead the Lions slept at his feet while he petted them. When the Romans saw this, they released him, impressed by this sight. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert; he can be depicted as a bishop on a throne decorated with lions; as a man helping Venetian sailors. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is often depicted holding a book with "pax tibi Marce" written on it or holding a palm and book. Mark the Evangelist attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert. Other depictions of Mark show him as a man with a book or scroll, accompanied by a winged lion. The lion might also be associated with Jesus' Resurrection
Resurrection
because lions were believed to sleep with open eyes, thus a comparison with Christ in his tomb, and Christ as king. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
can be depicted as a man with a halter around his neck and as Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
rescuing Christian slaves from Saracens.

Depictions of Mark the Evangelist

Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks take Mark the Evangelist's body to Venice, by Tintoretto.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
listening to the winged lion, Mark, image 21 of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch
Codex Aureus of Lorsch
or Borsch Gospels.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
looking at the lion, c.823.

A Coptic Egyptian portrait painting of St. Mark.

The martyrdom of Saint
Saint
Mark. Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé, Chantilly), c. 1412 and 1416.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Andrea Mantegna, 1450.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with the lion, 1524.

A painted miniature in an Armenian Gospel
Gospel
manuscript from 1609, held by the Bodleian Library.

Saint
Saint
Mark on a 17th-century naive painting by unknown artist in the choir of St Mary church (Sankta Maria kyrka) in Åhus, Sweden.

Saint
Saint
Mark writes his Evangelium at the dictation of St. Peter, by Pasquale Ottino, 17th century, Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Il Pordenone
Il Pordenone
(c. 1484 – 1539).

Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Icon
Icon
from the royal gates of the central iconostasis of the Kazan Cathedral in Saint
Saint
Petersburg, 1804.

An icon of Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist, 1657.

Major shrines[edit]

Basilica di San Marco
Basilica di San Marco
(Venice, Italy) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Alexandria, Egypt) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Cairo, Egypt) St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, New York City

See also[edit]

Book: Gospel

Baucalis Feast of Saint
Saint
Mark Gospel
Gospel
of John Gospel
Gospel
of Luke Gospel
Gospel
of Mark Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew John the Evangelist Luke the Evangelist Matthew the Evangelist

References[edit]

^ a b c "St. Mark The Apostle, Evangelist". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church Network. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Senior, Donald P. (1998), "Mark", in Ferguson, Everett, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity
Early Christianity
(2nd ed.), New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., p. 720, ISBN 0-8153-3319-6  ^ Lane, William L. (1974). "The Author of the Gospel". The Gospel According to Mark. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. pp. 21–3. ISBN 978-0-8028-2502-5.  ^ Mark: Images of an Apostolic Interpreter p55 C. Clifton Black – 2001 –"... infrequent occurrence in the Septuagint (Num 36:11; Tob 7:2) to its presence in Josephus (JW 1.662; Ant 1.290, 15.250) and Philo (On the Embassy to Gaius 67), anepsios consistently carries the connotation of "cousin," though ..." ^ Hippolytus. "The same Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles". Ante-Nicene Fathers.  ^ Finegan, Jack (1998). Handbook of Biblical Chronology. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. p. 374. ISBN 978-1-56563-143-4.  ^ "Egypt". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 14, 2011.  See drop-down essay on "Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire" ^ "The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
Of Egypt". Encyclopedia Coptica. Archived from the original on August 31, 2005. Retrieved 26 January 2018.  ^ Bunson, Matthew; Bunson, Margaret; Bunson, Stephen (1998). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division. p. 401. ISBN 0-87973-588-0.  ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Mark". Retrieved March 1, 2013.  ^ "Acts 15:36–40". Bible Gateway.  ^ "2timothy 4:11 NASB – Only Luke is with me. Pick up Mark and – Bible Gateway". Bible Gateway.  ^ "Philemon 1:24". Bible Gateway.  ^ E P Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, (Penguin, 1995) page 63 – 64. ^ Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman
(2000:43) The New Testament: a historical introduction to early Christian writings. Oxford University Press. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-19-518249-1.  ^ Nickle, Keith Fullerton (January 1, 2001). The Synoptic Gospels: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-664-22349-6.  ^ Witherington, Ben (June 2, 2004). The Gospel
Gospel
Code: Novel Claims About Jesus, Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
and Da Vinci. InterVarsity Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8308-3267-5.  Note: Witherington, while not agreeing that the author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew is unknown, he recognizes that this is what most scholars think. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (November 1, 2004). Truth and Fiction in The Da Vinci Code : A Historian Reveals What We Really Know about Jesus, Mary Magdalene, and Constantine. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-19-534616-9.  ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (September 1, 2006). The Lost Gospel
Gospel
of Judas Iscariot : A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed: A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-971104-8.  ^ Hierapolis, Papias of. "Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord". newadvent.org.  ^ Harrington, Daniel J. (1990), "The Gospel
Gospel
According to Mark", in Brown, Raymond E.; Fitzmyer, Joseph A.; Murphy, Roland E., The New Jerome
Jerome
Biblical Commentary, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 596, ISBN 0-13-614934-0  ^ D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris, An Introduction to the New Testament (Apollos, 1992), 93. ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark's Gospel (2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 55–56, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 172, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 179, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ a b c Pope
Pope
Shenouda III, The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter One. Tasbeha.org ^ "About the Diocese". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Diocese of the Southern United States.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Mark". Retrieved May 14, 2009.  ^ Pope
Pope
Shenouda III. The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter Seven. Tasbeha.org ^ Donald M. Nicol, Byzantium and Venice: A Study in diplomatic and cultural relations (Cambridge: University Press, 1988), p. 24 ^ "St. Marks Basilica". Avventure Bellissime – Italy Tours. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Nicol, Byzantium and Venice, pp. 24–6 ^ Okey, Thomas (1904), Venice
Venice
and Its Story, London: J. M. Dent & Co.  ^ "Section dedicated to the recovery of St. Mark's body". Basilicasanmarco.it. Retrieved February 17, 2010.  ^ Meinardus, Otto F.A. (March 21, 2006). "About the Laity of the Coptic Church" (PDF). Coptic Church Review. 27 (1): 11–12. Retrieved November 22, 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint
Saint
Mark.

Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Mark". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.   Schem, A. J. (1879). "Mark, Saint". The American Cyclopædia.  "St. Mark in the New Testament", "St. Mark in Early Tradition"; two articles by Henry Barclay Swete Works by Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

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*Markianos is considered Mark II on the Greek side of the subsequent schism, hence this numbering of Mark III. Category Commons

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Saint Mark The Evangelist
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Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(Latin: Mārcus; Greek: Μᾶρκος; Coptic: Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ Markos; Hebrew: מרקוס‎ Marqos; Amharic: ማርቆስ Marḳos; Berber languages: ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the most important episcopal sees of Early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.[2]

Contents

1 Mark's identity 2 Biblical and traditional information 3 Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark 4 In art 5 Major shrines 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Mark's identity[edit]

Mark the Evangelist's symbol is the winged lion, the Lion
Lion
of Saint Mark. Inscription: PAX TIBI MARCE EVANGELISTA MEVS. The same lion is also symbol of Venice
Venice
(on illustration)

According to William Lane (1974), an "unbroken tradition" identifies Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark,[3] and John Mark
John Mark
as the cousin of Barnabas.[4] However, Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
in On the Seventy Apostles distinguishes Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(2 Tim 4:11), John Mark
John Mark
(Acts 12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37), and Mark the cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
(Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24).[5] According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus
Jesus
to disseminate the gospel (Luke 10:1ff.) in Judea.

A Coptic icon of St. Mark.

According to Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
(Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1–4), Herod Agrippa I, in his first year of reign over the whole of Judea
Judea
(AD 41), killed James, son of Zebedee
James, son of Zebedee
and arrested Peter, planning to kill him after the Passover. Peter was saved miraculously by angels, and escaped out of the realm of Herod (Acts 12:1–19). Peter went to Antioch, then through Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(visiting the churches in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, as mentioned in 1 Peter 1:1), and arrived in Rome
Rome
in the second year of Emperor Claudius (AD 42; Eusebius, Eccl, Hist. 2.14.6). Somewhere on the way, Peter encountered Mark and took him as travel companion and interpreter. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
wrote down the sermons of Peter, thus composing the Gospel
Gospel
according to Mark (Eccl. Hist. 15–16), before he left for Alexandria
Alexandria
in the third year of Claudius (43).[6] In AD 49, about 19 years after the Ascension of Jesus, Mark travelled to Alexandria
Alexandria
[cf. c. 49 [cf. Acts 15:36–41] and founded the Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
– today, the Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, and the Coptic Catholic Church
Coptic Catholic Church
claim to be successors to this original community.[7] Aspects of the Coptic liturgy can be traced back to Mark himself.[8] He became the first bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
and he is honored as the founder of Christianity in Africa.[9] According to Eusebius
Eusebius
(Eccl. Hist. 2.24.1), Mark was succeeded by Annianus
Annianus
as the bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the eighth year of Nero (62/63), probably, but not definitely, due to his coming death. Later Coptic tradition says that he was martyred in 68.[1][10][11][12][13] Most modern scholars argue the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
was written by an anonymous author, rather than direct witnesses to the reported events.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20] Biblical and traditional information[edit] Evidence for Mark the Evangelist's authorship of the Gospel
Gospel
that bears his name originates with Papias.[21][22] Scholars of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School are "almost certain" that Papias is referencing John Mark.[23] Catholic scholars have argued that identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
and Mark the Cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
has led to the downgrading of the character of Barnabas
Barnabas
from truly a "Son of Comfort" to one who favored his blood relative over principles.[24] Identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
also led to identifying him as the man who carried water to the house where the Last Supper took place (Mark 14:13),[25] or as the young man who ran away naked when Jesus
Jesus
was arrested (Mark 14:51–52).[26] The Coptic Church accords with identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark, as well as that he was one of the Seventy Disciples sent out by Christ (Luke 10:1), as Hippolytus confirmed.[27] Coptic tradition also holds that Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
hosted the disciples in his house after Jesus' death, that the resurrected Jesus
Jesus
Christ came to Mark's house (John 20), and that the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descended on the disciples at Pentecost
Pentecost
in the same house.[27] Furthermore, Mark is also believed to have been among the servants at the Marriage at Cana who poured out the water that Jesus
Jesus
turned to wine (John 2:1–11).[27] According to the Coptic tradition, Saint
Saint
Mark was born in Cyrene, a city in the Pentapolis of North Africa
Africa
(now Libya). This tradition adds that Mark returned to Pentapolis later in life, after being sent by Paul to Colossae ( Colossians
Colossians
4:10; Philemon 24. Some, however, think these actually refer to Mark the Cousin of Barnabas), and serving with him in Rome
Rome
(2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he made his way to Alexandria.[28][29] When Mark returned to Alexandria, the pagans of the city resented his efforts to turn the Alexandrians away from the worship of their traditional gods.[citation needed] In AD 68, they placed a rope around his neck and dragged him through the streets until he was dead.[30] Where Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
(son of Mary) is distinguished from Saint
Saint
Mark, the composer of the earliest Gospel
Gospel
that we have, Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
is celebrated on September 27 (as in the Roman Martyrology) and the writer of the Gospel
Gospel
on April 25. In addition to Saint
Saint
John Mark's in Jerusalem, the Parish Church of Chester Hill with Sefton in the Diocese of Sydney (Anglican Church of Australia) is Saint
Saint
John Mark's and it celebrated its patronal festival on September 27. An icon of Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
on Cyprus, painted by a Russian Orthodox monk at Walsingham, was formerly in that church and is now in Christ Church Saint
Saint
Laurence in Sydney. Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark[edit]

A mosaic of St Marks body welcomed into Venice, at St Mark's Basilica, Venice.

Saint
Saint
Mark by Donatello
Donatello
(Orsanmichele, Florence).

In 828, relics believed to be the body of Saint
Saint
Mark were stolen from Alexandria
Alexandria
(at the time controlled by the Abbasid Caliphate) by two Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks and taken to Venice.[31] A mosaic in St Mark's Basilica
St Mark's Basilica
depicts sailors covering the relics with a layer of pork and cabbage leaves. Since Muslims are not permitted to touch pork, this was done to prevent the guards from inspecting the ship's cargo too closely.[32] Donald Nicol explained this act as "motivated as much by politics as by piety", and "a calculated stab at the pretensions of the Patriarchate of Aquileia." Instead of being used to adorn the church of Grado, which claimed to possess the throne of Saint
Saint
Mark, it was kept secretly by Doge Giustiniano Participazio in his modest palace. Possession of Saint
Saint
Mark's remains was, in Nicol's words, "the symbol not of the Patriarchate of Grado, nor of the bishopric of Olivolo, but of the city of Venice." In his will, Doge Giustiniano asked his widow to build a basilica dedicated to Saint
Saint
Mark, which was erected between the palace and the chapel of Saint
Saint
Theodore Stratelates, who until then had been patron saint of Venice.[33] In 1063, during the construction of a new basilica in Venice, Saint Mark's relics could not be found. However, according to tradition, in 1094, the saint himself revealed the location of his remains by extending an arm from a pillar.[34] The newfound remains were placed in a sarcophagus in the basilica.[35] Copts believe that the head of Saint
Saint
Mark remains in a church named after him in Alexandria, and parts of his relics are in Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral, Cairo. The rest of his relics are in Venice.[1] Every year, on the 30th day of the month of Paopi, the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
celebrates the commemoration of the consecration of the church of Saint
Saint
Mark, and the appearance of the head of the saint in the city of Alexandria. This takes place inside St Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral in Alexandria.[36] In June 1968, Pope
Pope
Cyril VI of Alexandria
Alexandria
sent an official delegation to Rome
Rome
to receive a relic of Saint
Saint
Mark from Pope
Pope
Paul VI. The delegation consisted of ten metropolitans and bishops, seven of whom were Coptic and three Ethiopian, and three prominent Coptic lay leaders. The relic was said to be a small piece of bone that had been given to the Roman pope by Giovanni Cardinal Urbani, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Venice. Pope Paul, in an address to the delegation, said that the rest of the relics of the saint remained in Venice. The delegation received the relic on June 22, 1968. The next day, the delegation celebrated a pontifical liturgy in the Church of Saint Athanasius
Athanasius
the Apostolic in Rome. The metropolitans, bishops, and priests of the delegation all served in the liturgy. Members of the Roman papal delegation, Copts who lived in Rome, newspaper and news agency reporters, and many foreign dignitaries attended the liturgy. In art[edit] Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is most often depicted writing or holding his gospel. In Christian tradition, Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel is symbolized by a lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. Some Christian legends refer to Saint
Saint
Mark as " Saint
Saint
Mark The Lionhearted". These legends say that he was thrown to the Lions and the animals refused to attack or eat him. Instead the Lions slept at his feet while he petted them. When the Romans saw this, they released him, impressed by this sight. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert; he can be depicted as a bishop on a throne decorated with lions; as a man helping Venetian sailors. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is often depicted holding a book with "pax tibi Marce" written on it or holding a palm and book. Mark the Evangelist attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert. Other depictions of Mark show him as a man with a book or scroll, accompanied by a winged lion. The lion might also be associated with Jesus' Resurrection
Resurrection
because lions were believed to sleep with open eyes, thus a comparison with Christ in his tomb, and Christ as king. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
can be depicted as a man with a halter around his neck and as Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
rescuing Christian slaves from Saracens.

Depictions of Mark the Evangelist

Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks take Mark the Evangelist's body to Venice, by Tintoretto.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
listening to the winged lion, Mark, image 21 of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch
Codex Aureus of Lorsch
or Borsch Gospels.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
looking at the lion, c.823.

A Coptic Egyptian portrait painting of St. Mark.

The martyrdom of Saint
Saint
Mark. Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé, Chantilly), c. 1412 and 1416.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Andrea Mantegna, 1450.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with the lion, 1524.

A painted miniature in an Armenian Gospel
Gospel
manuscript from 1609, held by the Bodleian Library.

Saint
Saint
Mark on a 17th-century naive painting by unknown artist in the choir of St Mary church (Sankta Maria kyrka) in Åhus, Sweden.

Saint
Saint
Mark writes his Evangelium at the dictation of St. Peter, by Pasquale Ottino, 17th century, Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Il Pordenone
Il Pordenone
(c. 1484 – 1539).

Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Icon
Icon
from the royal gates of the central iconostasis of the Kazan Cathedral in Saint
Saint
Petersburg, 1804.

An icon of Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist, 1657.

Major shrines[edit]

Basilica di San Marco
Basilica di San Marco
(Venice, Italy) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Alexandria, Egypt) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Cairo, Egypt) St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, New York City

See also[edit]

Book: Gospel

Baucalis Feast of Saint
Saint
Mark Gospel
Gospel
of John Gospel
Gospel
of Luke Gospel
Gospel
of Mark Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew John the Evangelist Luke the Evangelist Matthew the Evangelist

References[edit]

^ a b c "St. Mark The Apostle, Evangelist". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church Network. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Senior, Donald P. (1998), "Mark", in Ferguson, Everett, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity
Early Christianity
(2nd ed.), New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., p. 720, ISBN 0-8153-3319-6  ^ Lane, William L. (1974). "The Author of the Gospel". The Gospel According to Mark. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. pp. 21–3. ISBN 978-0-8028-2502-5.  ^ Mark: Images of an Apostolic Interpreter p55 C. Clifton Black – 2001 –"... infrequent occurrence in the Septuagint (Num 36:11; Tob 7:2) to its presence in Josephus (JW 1.662; Ant 1.290, 15.250) and Philo (On the Embassy to Gaius 67), anepsios consistently carries the connotation of "cousin," though ..." ^ Hippolytus. "The same Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles". Ante-Nicene Fathers.  ^ Finegan, Jack (1998). Handbook of Biblical Chronology. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. p. 374. ISBN 978-1-56563-143-4.  ^ "Egypt". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 14, 2011.  See drop-down essay on "Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire" ^ "The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
Of Egypt". Encyclopedia Coptica. Archived from the original on August 31, 2005. Retrieved 26 January 2018.  ^ Bunson, Matthew; Bunson, Margaret; Bunson, Stephen (1998). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division. p. 401. ISBN 0-87973-588-0.  ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Mark". Retrieved March 1, 2013.  ^ "Acts 15:36–40". Bible Gateway.  ^ "2timothy 4:11 NASB – Only Luke is with me. Pick up Mark and – Bible Gateway". Bible Gateway.  ^ "Philemon 1:24". Bible Gateway.  ^ E P Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, (Penguin, 1995) page 63 – 64. ^ Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman
(2000:43) The New Testament: a historical introduction to early Christian writings. Oxford University Press. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-19-518249-1.  ^ Nickle, Keith Fullerton (January 1, 2001). The Synoptic Gospels: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-664-22349-6.  ^ Witherington, Ben (June 2, 2004). The Gospel
Gospel
Code: Novel Claims About Jesus, Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
and Da Vinci. InterVarsity Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8308-3267-5.  Note: Witherington, while not agreeing that the author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew is unknown, he recognizes that this is what most scholars think. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (November 1, 2004). Truth and Fiction in The Da Vinci Code : A Historian Reveals What We Really Know about Jesus, Mary Magdalene, and Constantine. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-19-534616-9.  ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (September 1, 2006). The Lost Gospel
Gospel
of Judas Iscariot : A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed: A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-971104-8.  ^ Hierapolis, Papias of. "Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord". newadvent.org.  ^ Harrington, Daniel J. (1990), "The Gospel
Gospel
According to Mark", in Brown, Raymond E.; Fitzmyer, Joseph A.; Murphy, Roland E., The New Jerome
Jerome
Biblical Commentary, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 596, ISBN 0-13-614934-0  ^ D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris, An Introduction to the New Testament (Apollos, 1992), 93. ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark's Gospel (2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 55–56, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 172, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 179, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ a b c Pope
Pope
Shenouda III, The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter One. Tasbeha.org ^ "About the Diocese". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Diocese of the Southern United States.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Mark". Retrieved May 14, 2009.  ^ Pope
Pope
Shenouda III. The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter Seven. Tasbeha.org ^ Donald M. Nicol, Byzantium and Venice: A Study in diplomatic and cultural relations (Cambridge: University Press, 1988), p. 24 ^ "St. Marks Basilica". Avventure Bellissime – Italy Tours. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Nicol, Byzantium and Venice, pp. 24–6 ^ Okey, Thomas (1904), Venice
Venice
and Its Story, London: J. M. Dent & Co.  ^ "Section dedicated to the recovery of St. Mark's body". Basilicasanmarco.it. Retrieved February 17, 2010.  ^ Meinardus, Otto F.A. (March 21, 2006). "About the Laity of the Coptic Church" (PDF). Coptic Church Review. 27 (1): 11–12. Retrieved November 22, 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint
Saint
Mark.

Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Mark". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.   Schem, A. J. (1879). "Mark, Saint". The American Cyclopædia.  "St. Mark in the New Testament", "St. Mark in Early Tradition"; two articles by Henry Barclay Swete Works by Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

Titles of the Great Christian Church

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and Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria 43–68 Succeeded by Anianus

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Individuals

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Penitent thief
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Impenitent thief
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Nicodemus
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Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James of Alphaeus (James the Less) James of Zebedee John

Evangelist Patmos "Disciple whom Jesus
Jesus
loved"

Judas Iscariot Jude Thaddeus Matthew Philip Simon Peter Simon the Zealot Thomas

Acts

Aeneas Agabus Ananias (Damascus) Ananias (Judaea) Ananias son of Nedebeus Apollos Aquila Aristarchus Barnabas Blastus Cornelius Demetrius Dionysius Dorcas Elymas Egyptian Ethiopian eunuch Eutychus Gamaliel James, brother of Jesus Jason Joseph Barsabbas Judas Barsabbas Judas of Galilee Lucius Luke Lydia Manaen (John) Mark

Evangelist cousin of Barnabas

Mary, mother of (John) Mark Matthias Mnason Nicanor Nicholas Parmenas Paul Philip Priscilla Prochorus Publius Rhoda Sapphira Sceva Seven Deacons Silas / Silvanus Simeon Niger Simon Magus Sopater Sosthenes Stephen Theudas Timothy Titus Trophimus Tychicus Zenas

Romans Herod's family

Gospels

Antipas Archelaus Herod the Great Herodias Longinus Philip Pilate Pilate's wife Quirinius Salome Tiberius

Acts

Agrippa Agrippa II Berenice Cornelius Drusilla Felix Festus Gallio Lysias Paullus

Epistles

Achaicus Alexander Andronicus Archippus Aretas IV Carpus Claudia Crescens Demas Diotrephes Epaphras Epaphroditus Erastus Eunice Euodia and Syntyche Herodion Hymenaeus Jesus
Jesus
Justus John the Presbyter Junia Lois Mary Michael Nymphas Olympas Onesimus Onesiphorus Pudens Philemon Philetus Phoebe Quartus Sosipater Tertius

Revelation

Antipas Four Horsemen Apollyon Two witnesses Woman Beast Three Angels Whore of Babylon

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Popes and Patriarchs of Alexandria
Alexandria
of the See of Saint
Saint
Mark

Patriarchs prior to the Chalcedonian schism (43–451)

Mark I the Evangelist (founder) Anianus Avilius Kedronos Primus Justus Eumenius Markianos* Celadion Agrippinus Julian Demetrius I Heraclas Dionysius Maximus Theonas Peter I Achillas Alexander I Athanasius
Athanasius
I Peter II Timothy I Theophilus I Cyril I Dioscorus I

Coptic Orthodox Popes and Patriarchs (451–present)

Timothy II Peter III Athanasius
Athanasius
II John I John II Dioscorus II Timothy III Theodosius I Peter IV Damian Anastasius Andronicus Benjamin I Agathon John III Isaac Simeon I Alexander II Cosmas I Theodore I Michael I Mina I John IV Mark II James Simeon II Joseph I Michael II Cosmas II Shenouda I Michael III Gabriel
Gabriel
I Cosmas III Macarius I Theophilus II (AKA Theophanes) Mina II Abraham Philotheos Zacharias Shenouda II Christodolos Cyril II Michael IV Macarius II Gabriel
Gabriel
II Michael V John V Mark III John VI Cyril III Athanasius
Athanasius
III John VII Gabriel
Gabriel
III John VII Theodosius III John VIII John IX Benjamin II Peter V Mark IV John X Gabriel
Gabriel
IV Matthew I Gabriel
Gabriel
V John XI Matthew II Gabriel
Gabriel
VI Michael VI John XII John XIII Gabriel
Gabriel
VII John XIV Gabriel
Gabriel
VIII Mark V John XV Matthew III Mark VI Matthew IV John XVI Peter VI John XVII Mark VII John XVIII Mark VIII Peter VII Cyril IV Demetrius II Cyril V John XIX Macarius III Joseph II Cyril VI Shenouda III Tawadros II (current)

Greek Orthodox Popes and Patriarchs (451–present)

Proterius Timothy II Timothy III John I Peter III Athanasius
Athanasius
II John II John III Dioscorus II Timothy IV Theodosius I Gainas Paul Zoilus Apollinarius John IV Eulogius Theodore I John V George I Cyrus Peter IV Peter V Peter VI Cosmas I Politianus Eustatius Christopher I Sophronius I Michael I Michael II Christodoulos Eutychius Sophronius II Isaac Job Elias I Arsenius Theophilus II George II Leontius Alexander II John VI Cyril II Sabbas Sophronius III Elias II Eleutherius Mark III* Nicholas I Gregory I Nicholas II Athanasius
Athanasius
III Gregory II Gregory III Niphon Mark IV Nicholas III Gregory IV Nicholas IV Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Mark V Philotheus Mark VI Gregory V Joachim I Silvester Meletius I Pegas Cyril III Gerasimus I Metrophanes Nicephorus Joannicius Paisius Parthenius I Gerasimus II Samuel Cosmas II Cosmas III Matthew Cyprian Gerasimus III Parthenius II Theophilus III Hierotheus I Artemius Hierotheus II Callinicus Jacob Nicanor Sophronius IV Photius Meletius II Nicholas V Christopher II Nicholas VI Parthenius III Peter VII Theodore II (current)

Latin Catholic Patriarchs (1276 –1954 )

Atanasio (Athanasius) Egidio da Ferrara (Giles)  ?Humbert II, Dauphin of Vienne Juan (John) Guillaume de Chanac Arnaud Bernard du Pouget (Arnaldo Bernardi) uncanonical Jean de Cardaillac Pietro Amely di Brunac  ? Johannes Walteri von Sinten uncanonical Simon of Cramaud Pietro Amely di Brunac Leonardo Dolfin Ugo Roberti Pietro Amaury di Lordat Lancelotus de Navarra Giovanni Contarini Pietro Vitalis di Mauléon Giovanni Vitelleschi Marco Condulmer Jean d’Harcourt Arnaldo Rogerii de Palas Pedro de Urrea Pedro González de Mendoza Diego Hurtado de Mendoza Alonso de Fonseca y Acevedo Bernardino Carafa Cesare Riario Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora Ottaviano Maria Sforza Julius Gonzaga Cristoforo Guidalotti Ciocchi del Monte Jacques Cortès Tommaso Alessandro Riario Enrico Caetani Giovanni Battista Albani Camillo Caetani Séraphin Olivier-Razali Alessandro di Sangro Honoratus Caetani Federico Borromeo Allesandro Crescenzi Aloysius Bevilacqua Pietro Draghi Bartoli Gregorio Giuseppe Gaetani de Aragonia Carlo Ambrosio Mezzabarba Filippo Carlo Spada Girolamo Crispi Giuseppe Antonio Davanzati Lodovico Agnello Anastasi Francisco Mattei Augustus Foscolo Paolo Angelo Ballerini Domenico Marinangeli Paolo de Huyn Luca Ermenegildo Pasetto

Melkite Catholic Titular Patriarchs (1724–present)

Cyril VI Tanas Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Jawhar Maximos II Hakim Theodosius V Dahan Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Jawhar Cyril VII Siaj Agapius II Matar Ignatius IV Sarrouf Athanasius
Athanasius
V Matar Macarius IV Tawil Ignatius V Qattan Maximos III Mazloum Clement Bahouth Gregory II Youssef-Sayur Peter IV Jaraijiry Cyril VIII Geha Demetrius I Qadi Cyril IX Moghabghab Maximos IV Sayegh Maximos V Hakim Gregory III Laham Youssef I Absi

Coptic Catholic Patriarchs (1824–present)

Maximos Jouwed Kyrillos Makarios Stéphanos I Sidarouss Stéphanos II Ghattas Antonios I Naguib Ibrahim Isaac
Isaac
Sidrak

*Markianos is considered Mark II on the Greek side of the subsequent schism, hence this numbering of Mark III. Category Commons

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Coptic Orthodox
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Theotokos

Our Lady of Assiut Our Lady of Warraq Our Lady of Zeitoun

,

,

,

Seven Archangels

Michael Gabriel Raphael Suriel Zedekiel Sarathiel Aniel

Patriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph

Prophets

Moses Job Samuel David Hosea Amos Micah Joel Obadiah Jonah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi Isaiah Jeremiah Baruch Ezekiel Daniel John the Baptist

Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James, son of Alphaeus James, son of Zebedee John Jude Matthew Matthias Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Disciples

Apollos Barnabas Mary Magdalene Philemon Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Martyrs

21 martyrs in Libya Abāmūn Abāmūn Abanoub Abaskhiron Alexandrian Martyrs Apollonia Barbara Bashnouna Basilides Catherine Chiaffredo Theodore Stratelates Chrysanthus Colluthus Cyprian Cyrus Sarah Damian Daria Dasya George Demiana Dorothea Epimachus Faustus, Abibus and Dionysius Felix Gallicanus George el-Mozahem Gereon Theban Legion Varus Theodora and Didymus Hor, Besoy, and Daydara Otimus Memnon Rais Imbaba Martyrs John Moura John of Senhout Elias and four companions Justina Kosheh Martyrs Saint
Saint
Marina the Martyr Malati Maspero Martyrs Maurice Menas Mohrael Nah Hammadi Philotheos Potamiana Regula Sidhom Bishay Thecla Theoclia Veronica Wanas Wadamoun

Popes

Mark I Anianus Avilius Kedron Primus Justus Eumenes Markianos Celadion Agrippinus Julian Demetrius I Heraclas Dionysius Maximus Theonas Peter I Achillas Alexander I Athanasius
Athanasius
I Peter II Timothy I Theophilus I Cyril I Dioscorus I Timothy II Peter III Athanasius
Athanasius
II John I John II Dioscorus II Timothy III Theodosius I Peter IV Damian Anastasius Andronicus Benjamin I Agathon John III Isaac Simeon I Alexander II Cosmas I Theodore I Michael I Mina I John IV Mark II James Simeon II Joseph I Michael II Cosmas II Shenouda I Michael III Gabriel
Gabriel
I Cosmas III Macarius I Theophanes Mina II Abraham Philotheos Zacharias Shenouda II Christodolos Cyril II Michael IV Macarius II Gabriel
Gabriel
II Michael V John V Mark III John VI Cyril III Athanasius
Athanasius
III John VII Gabriel
Gabriel
III John VII Theodosius III John VIII John IX Benjamin II Peter V Mark IV John X Gabriel
Gabriel
IV Matthew I Cyril VI Shenouda III Tawadros II (current)

Bishops

Abadiu of Antinoe Abraam of Faiyum Alexander of Jerusalem Amun of Scetes Athanasius
Athanasius
of Beni Suef Basil of Caesarea Cyril of Jerusalem Epiphanius of Cyprus Eusebius
Eusebius
of Caesarea Gregory of Nyssa Gregory of Neocaesarea Hadra of Aswan Ignatius of Antioch Isidorus of Hermonpolis Jacob
Jacob
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Polycarp
of Smyrna Porphyry of Gaza Ptolemy of Minuf Psote
Psote
of Ebsay Sarapamon of Monufia Sarapamon of Niku Serapion of Thmuis Severian of Gabala Yousab el-Abah of Girga Timothy of Ansena Zacharias of Sakha

Anchorites

Annasimon Babnuda Balamon Elisa Ezekiel Ghalion Hedra Hermina Karas Keriakos Latsoun Mary Misael Olaghi Onuphrius Paphnutius Paul Pijimi Shenouda Silas Stephanos Stratios Timothy Thomas Yousab Zosimas

Monks

Ababius Abdel Messih El-Makari Abib and Apollo Abraham
Abraham
of Farshut Abraham
Abraham
of Scetes Amun Anthony the Great Awgin Bashnouna Hilarion Isaac
Isaac
of Nineveh Isidore of Pelusium John Climacus John the Dwarf Macarius of Alexandria Macarius of Egypt Moses
Moses
the Black Mother Irini Hospitius Nilus of Sinai Pachomius the Great Pambo Parsoma Paul of Thebes Paul of Tammah Paul the Simple Patapios of Thebes Pishoy Poemen Samuel
Samuel
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Saint Patapios
of Thebes Tekle Haymanot Clement of Alexandria Sisoes the Great Theodorus of Tabennese Theodora of Alexandria

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 264405984 LCCN: n50044098 ISNI: 0000 0003 8214 8035 GND: 118578030 SUDOC: 034721770 BNF:

.
Saint Mark The Evangelist


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Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(Latin: Mārcus; Greek: Μᾶρκος; Coptic: Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ Markos; Hebrew: מרקוס‎ Marqos; Amharic: ማርቆስ Marḳos; Berber languages: ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the most important episcopal sees of Early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.[2]

Contents

1 Mark's identity 2 Biblical and traditional information 3 Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark 4 In art 5 Major shrines 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Mark's identity[edit]

Mark the Evangelist's symbol is the winged lion, the Lion
Lion
of Saint Mark. Inscription: PAX TIBI MARCE EVANGELISTA MEVS. The same lion is also symbol of Venice
Venice
(on illustration)

According to William Lane (1974), an "unbroken tradition" identifies Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark,[3] and John Mark
John Mark
as the cousin of Barnabas.[4] However, Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
in On the Seventy Apostles distinguishes Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(2 Tim 4:11), John Mark
John Mark
(Acts 12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37), and Mark the cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
(Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24).[5] According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus
Jesus
to disseminate the gospel (Luke 10:1ff.) in Judea.

A Coptic icon of St. Mark.

According to Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
(Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1–4), Herod Agrippa I, in his first year of reign over the whole of Judea
Judea
(AD 41), killed James, son of Zebedee
James, son of Zebedee
and arrested Peter, planning to kill him after the Passover. Peter was saved miraculously by angels, and escaped out of the realm of Herod (Acts 12:1–19). Peter went to Antioch, then through Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(visiting the churches in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, as mentioned in 1 Peter 1:1), and arrived in Rome
Rome
in the second year of Emperor Claudius (AD 42; Eusebius, Eccl, Hist. 2.14.6). Somewhere on the way, Peter encountered Mark and took him as travel companion and interpreter. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
wrote down the sermons of Peter, thus composing the Gospel
Gospel
according to Mark (Eccl. Hist. 15–16), before he left for Alexandria
Alexandria
in the third year of Claudius (43).[6] In AD 49, about 19 years after the Ascension of Jesus, Mark travelled to Alexandria
Alexandria
[cf. c. 49 [cf. Acts 15:36–41] and founded the Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
– today, the Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, and the Coptic Catholic Church
Coptic Catholic Church
claim to be successors to this original community.[7] Aspects of the Coptic liturgy can be traced back to Mark himself.[8] He became the first bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
and he is honored as the founder of Christianity in Africa.[9] According to Eusebius
Eusebius
(Eccl. Hist. 2.24.1), Mark was succeeded by Annianus
Annianus
as the bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the eighth year of Nero (62/63), probably, but not definitely, due to his coming death. Later Coptic tradition says that he was martyred in 68.[1][10][11][12][13] Most modern scholars argue the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
was written by an anonymous author, rather than direct witnesses to the reported events.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20] Biblical and traditional information[edit] Evidence for Mark the Evangelist's authorship of the Gospel
Gospel
that bears his name originates with Papias.[21][22] Scholars of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School are "almost certain" that Papias is referencing John Mark.[23] Catholic scholars have argued that identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
and Mark the Cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
has led to the downgrading of the character of Barnabas
Barnabas
from truly a "Son of Comfort" to one who favored his blood relative over principles.[24] Identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
also led to identifying him as the man who carried water to the house where the Last Supper took place (Mark 14:13),[25] or as the young man who ran away naked when Jesus
Jesus
was arrested (Mark 14:51–52).[26] The Coptic Church accords with identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark, as well as that he was one of the Seventy Disciples sent out by Christ (Luke 10:1), as Hippolytus confirmed.[27] Coptic tradition also holds that Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
hosted the disciples in his house after Jesus' death, that the resurrected Jesus
Jesus
Christ came to Mark's house (John 20), and that the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descended on the disciples at Pentecost
Pentecost
in the same house.[27] Furthermore, Mark is also believed to have been among the servants at the Marriage at Cana who poured out the water that Jesus
Jesus
turned to wine (John 2:1–11).[27] According to the Coptic tradition, Saint
Saint
Mark was born in Cyrene, a city in the Pentapolis of North Africa
Africa
(now Libya). This tradition adds that Mark returned to Pentapolis later in life, after being sent by Paul to Colossae ( Colossians
Colossians
4:10; Philemon 24. Some, however, think these actually refer to Mark the Cousin of Barnabas), and serving with him in Rome
Rome
(2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he made his way to Alexandria.[28][29] When Mark returned to Alexandria, the pagans of the city resented his efforts to turn the Alexandrians away from the worship of their traditional gods.[citation needed] In AD 68, they placed a rope around his neck and dragged him through the streets until he was dead.[30] Where Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
(son of Mary) is distinguished from Saint
Saint
Mark, the composer of the earliest Gospel
Gospel
that we have, Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
is celebrated on September 27 (as in the Roman Martyrology) and the writer of the Gospel
Gospel
on April 25. In addition to Saint
Saint
John Mark's in Jerusalem, the Parish Church of Chester Hill with Sefton in the Diocese of Sydney (Anglican Church of Australia) is Saint
Saint
John Mark's and it celebrated its patronal festival on September 27. An icon of Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
on Cyprus, painted by a Russian Orthodox monk at Walsingham, was formerly in that church and is now in Christ Church Saint
Saint
Laurence in Sydney. Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark[edit]

A mosaic of St Marks body welcomed into Venice, at St Mark's Basilica, Venice.

Saint
Saint
Mark by Donatello
Donatello
(Orsanmichele, Florence).

In 828, relics believed to be the body of Saint
Saint
Mark were stolen from Alexandria
Alexandria
(at the time controlled by the Abbasid Caliphate) by two Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks and taken to Venice.[31] A mosaic in St Mark's Basilica
St Mark's Basilica
depicts sailors covering the relics with a layer of pork and cabbage leaves. Since Muslims are not permitted to touch pork, this was done to prevent the guards from inspecting the ship's cargo too closely.[32] Donald Nicol explained this act as "motivated as much by politics as by piety", and "a calculated stab at the pretensions of the Patriarchate of Aquileia." Instead of being used to adorn the church of Grado, which claimed to possess the throne of Saint
Saint
Mark, it was kept secretly by Doge Giustiniano Participazio in his modest palace. Possession of Saint
Saint
Mark's remains was, in Nicol's words, "the symbol not of the Patriarchate of Grado, nor of the bishopric of Olivolo, but of the city of Venice." In his will, Doge Giustiniano asked his widow to build a basilica dedicated to Saint
Saint
Mark, which was erected between the palace and the chapel of Saint
Saint
Theodore Stratelates, who until then had been patron saint of Venice.[33] In 1063, during the construction of a new basilica in Venice, Saint Mark's relics could not be found. However, according to tradition, in 1094, the saint himself revealed the location of his remains by extending an arm from a pillar.[34] The newfound remains were placed in a sarcophagus in the basilica.[35] Copts believe that the head of Saint
Saint
Mark remains in a church named after him in Alexandria, and parts of his relics are in Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral, Cairo. The rest of his relics are in Venice.[1] Every year, on the 30th day of the month of Paopi, the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
celebrates the commemoration of the consecration of the church of Saint
Saint
Mark, and the appearance of the head of the saint in the city of Alexandria. This takes place inside St Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral in Alexandria.[36] In June 1968, Pope
Pope
Cyril VI of Alexandria
Alexandria
sent an official delegation to Rome
Rome
to receive a relic of Saint
Saint
Mark from Pope
Pope
Paul VI. The delegation consisted of ten metropolitans and bishops, seven of whom were Coptic and three Ethiopian, and three prominent Coptic lay leaders. The relic was said to be a small piece of bone that had been given to the Roman pope by Giovanni Cardinal Urbani, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Venice. Pope Paul, in an address to the delegation, said that the rest of the relics of the saint remained in Venice. The delegation received the relic on June 22, 1968. The next day, the delegation celebrated a pontifical liturgy in the Church of Saint Athanasius
Athanasius
the Apostolic in Rome. The metropolitans, bishops, and priests of the delegation all served in the liturgy. Members of the Roman papal delegation, Copts who lived in Rome, newspaper and news agency reporters, and many foreign dignitaries attended the liturgy. In art[edit] Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is most often depicted writing or holding his gospel. In Christian tradition, Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel is symbolized by a lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. Some Christian legends refer to Saint
Saint
Mark as " Saint
Saint
Mark The Lionhearted". These legends say that he was thrown to the Lions and the animals refused to attack or eat him. Instead the Lions slept at his feet while he petted them. When the Romans saw this, they released him, impressed by this sight. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert; he can be depicted as a bishop on a throne decorated with lions; as a man helping Venetian sailors. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is often depicted holding a book with "pax tibi Marce" written on it or holding a palm and book. Mark the Evangelist attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert. Other depictions of Mark show him as a man with a book or scroll, accompanied by a winged lion. The lion might also be associated with Jesus' Resurrection
Resurrection
because lions were believed to sleep with open eyes, thus a comparison with Christ in his tomb, and Christ as king. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
can be depicted as a man with a halter around his neck and as Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
rescuing Christian slaves from Saracens.

Depictions of Mark the Evangelist

Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks take Mark the Evangelist's body to Venice, by Tintoretto.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
listening to the winged lion, Mark, image 21 of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch
Codex Aureus of Lorsch
or Borsch Gospels.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
looking at the lion, c.823.

A Coptic Egyptian portrait painting of St. Mark.

The martyrdom of Saint
Saint
Mark. Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé, Chantilly), c. 1412 and 1416.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Andrea Mantegna, 1450.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with the lion, 1524.

A painted miniature in an Armenian Gospel
Gospel
manuscript from 1609, held by the Bodleian Library.

Saint
Saint
Mark on a 17th-century naive painting by unknown artist in the choir of St Mary church (Sankta Maria kyrka) in Åhus, Sweden.

Saint
Saint
Mark writes his Evangelium at the dictation of St. Peter, by Pasquale Ottino, 17th century, Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Il Pordenone
Il Pordenone
(c. 1484 – 1539).

Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Icon
Icon
from the royal gates of the central iconostasis of the Kazan Cathedral in Saint
Saint
Petersburg, 1804.

An icon of Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist, 1657.

Major shrines[edit]

Basilica di San Marco
Basilica di San Marco
(Venice, Italy) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Alexandria, Egypt) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Cairo, Egypt) St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, New York City

See also[edit]

Book: Gospel

Baucalis Feast of Saint
Saint
Mark Gospel
Gospel
of John Gospel
Gospel
of Luke Gospel
Gospel
of Mark Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew John the Evangelist Luke the Evangelist Matthew the Evangelist

References[edit]

^ a b c "St. Mark The Apostle, Evangelist". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church Network. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Senior, Donald P. (1998), "Mark", in Ferguson, Everett, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity
Early Christianity
(2nd ed.), New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., p. 720, ISBN 0-8153-3319-6  ^ Lane, William L. (1974). "The Author of the Gospel". The Gospel According to Mark. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. pp. 21–3. ISBN 978-0-8028-2502-5.  ^ Mark: Images of an Apostolic Interpreter p55 C. Clifton Black – 2001 –"... infrequent occurrence in the Septuagint (Num 36:11; Tob 7:2) to its presence in Josephus (JW 1.662; Ant 1.290, 15.250) and Philo (On the Embassy to Gaius 67), anepsios consistently carries the connotation of "cousin," though ..." ^ Hippolytus. "The same Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles". Ante-Nicene Fathers.  ^ Finegan, Jack (1998). Handbook of Biblical Chronology. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. p. 374. ISBN 978-1-56563-143-4.  ^ "Egypt". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 14, 2011.  See drop-down essay on "Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire" ^ "The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
Of Egypt". Encyclopedia Coptica. Archived from the original on August 31, 2005. Retrieved 26 January 2018.  ^ Bunson, Matthew; Bunson, Margaret; Bunson, Stephen (1998). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division. p. 401. ISBN 0-87973-588-0.  ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Mark". Retrieved March 1, 2013.  ^ "Acts 15:36–40". Bible Gateway.  ^ "2timothy 4:11 NASB – Only Luke is with me. Pick up Mark and – Bible Gateway". Bible Gateway.  ^ "Philemon 1:24". Bible Gateway.  ^ E P Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, (Penguin, 1995) page 63 – 64. ^ Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman
(2000:43) The New Testament: a historical introduction to early Christian writings. Oxford University Press. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-19-518249-1.  ^ Nickle, Keith Fullerton (January 1, 2001). The Synoptic Gospels: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-664-22349-6.  ^ Witherington, Ben (June 2, 2004). The Gospel
Gospel
Code: Novel Claims About Jesus, Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
and Da Vinci. InterVarsity Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8308-3267-5.  Note: Witherington, while not agreeing that the author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew is unknown, he recognizes that this is what most scholars think. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (November 1, 2004). Truth and Fiction in The Da Vinci Code : A Historian Reveals What We Really Know about Jesus, Mary Magdalene, and Constantine. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-19-534616-9.  ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (September 1, 2006). The Lost Gospel
Gospel
of Judas Iscariot : A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed: A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-971104-8.  ^ Hierapolis, Papias of. "Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord". newadvent.org.  ^ Harrington, Daniel J. (1990), "The Gospel
Gospel
According to Mark", in Brown, Raymond E.; Fitzmyer, Joseph A.; Murphy, Roland E., The New Jerome
Jerome
Biblical Commentary, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 596, ISBN 0-13-614934-0  ^ D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris, An Introduction to the New Testament (Apollos, 1992), 93. ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark's Gospel (2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 55–56, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 172, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 179, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ a b c Pope
Pope
Shenouda III, The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter One. Tasbeha.org ^ "About the Diocese". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Diocese of the Southern United States.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Mark". Retrieved May 14, 2009.  ^ Pope
Pope
Shenouda III. The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter Seven. Tasbeha.org ^ Donald M. Nicol, Byzantium and Venice: A Study in diplomatic and cultural relations (Cambridge: University Press, 1988), p. 24 ^ "St. Marks Basilica". Avventure Bellissime – Italy Tours. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Nicol, Byzantium and Venice, pp. 24–6 ^ Okey, Thomas (1904), Venice
Venice
and Its Story, London: J. M. Dent & Co.  ^ "Section dedicated to the recovery of St. Mark's body". Basilicasanmarco.it. Retrieved February 17, 2010.  ^ Meinardus, Otto F.A. (March 21, 2006). "About the Laity of the Coptic Church" (PDF). Coptic Church Review. 27 (1): 11–12. Retrieved November 22, 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint
Saint
Mark.

Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Mark". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.   Schem, A. J. (1879). "Mark, Saint". The American Cyclopædia.  "St. Mark in the New Testament", "St. Mark in Early Tradition"; two articles by Henry Barclay Swete Works by Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

Titles of the Great Christian Church

New creation Pope
Pope
and Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria 43–68 Succeeded by Anianus

v t e

New Testament people

Jesus
Jesus
Christ

In Christianity Historical Life in the New Testament

Gospels

Individuals

Alphaeus Anna the Prophetess Annas Barabbas Bartimaeus Blind man (Bethsaida) Caiaphas Man born blind ("Celidonius") Cleopas Clopas Devil Penitent thief
Penitent thief
("Dismas") Elizabeth Gabriel Impenitent thief
Impenitent thief
("Gestas") Jairus' daughter Joanna John the Baptist Joseph Joseph of Arimathea Joses Jude Lazarus Legion Luke Lysanias Malchus Martha Mary, mother of Jesus Mary Magdalene Mary, mother of James Mary of Bethany Mary of Clopas Naked fugitive Son of Nain's widow Nathanael Nicodemus ( Nicodemus
Nicodemus
ben Gurion) Salome Samaritan woman Satan Simeon Simon, brother of Jesus Simon of Cyrene Simon the Leper Simon the Pharisee Susanna Syrophoenician woman Theophilus Zacchaeus Zebedee Zechariah

Groups

Angels Jesus's brothers Demons Disciples Evangelists Female disciples of Jesus God-fearers Herodians Magi Myrrhbearers Nameless Pharisees Proselytes Sadducees Samaritans Sanhedrin Scribes Seventy disciples Shepherds Zealots

Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James of Alphaeus (James the Less) James of Zebedee John

Evangelist Patmos "Disciple whom Jesus
Jesus
loved"

Judas Iscariot Jude Thaddeus Matthew Philip Simon Peter Simon the Zealot Thomas

Acts

Aeneas Agabus Ananias (Damascus) Ananias (Judaea) Ananias son of Nedebeus Apollos Aquila Aristarchus Barnabas Blastus Cornelius Demetrius Dionysius Dorcas Elymas Egyptian Ethiopian eunuch Eutychus Gamaliel James, brother of Jesus Jason Joseph Barsabbas Judas Barsabbas Judas of Galilee Lucius Luke Lydia Manaen (John) Mark

Evangelist cousin of Barnabas

Mary, mother of (John) Mark Matthias Mnason Nicanor Nicholas Parmenas Paul Philip Priscilla Prochorus Publius Rhoda Sapphira Sceva Seven Deacons Silas / Silvanus Simeon Niger Simon Magus Sopater Sosthenes Stephen Theudas Timothy Titus Trophimus Tychicus Zenas

Romans Herod's family

Gospels

Antipas Archelaus Herod the Great Herodias Longinus Philip Pilate Pilate's wife Quirinius Salome Tiberius

Acts

Agrippa Agrippa II Berenice Cornelius Drusilla Felix Festus Gallio Lysias Paullus

Epistles

Achaicus Alexander Andronicus Archippus Aretas IV Carpus Claudia Crescens Demas Diotrephes Epaphras Epaphroditus Erastus Eunice Euodia and Syntyche Herodion Hymenaeus Jesus
Jesus
Justus John the Presbyter Junia Lois Mary Michael Nymphas Olympas Onesimus Onesiphorus Pudens Philemon Philetus Phoebe Quartus Sosipater Tertius

Revelation

Antipas Four Horsemen Apollyon Two witnesses Woman Beast Three Angels Whore of Babylon

v t e

Popes and Patriarchs of Alexandria
Alexandria
of the See of Saint
Saint
Mark

Patriarchs prior to the Chalcedonian schism (43–451)

Mark I the Evangelist (founder) Anianus Avilius Kedronos Primus Justus Eumenius Markianos* Celadion Agrippinus Julian Demetrius I Heraclas Dionysius Maximus Theonas Peter I Achillas Alexander I Athanasius
Athanasius
I Peter II Timothy I Theophilus I Cyril I Dioscorus I

Coptic Orthodox Popes and Patriarchs (451–present)

Timothy II Peter III Athanasius
Athanasius
II John I John II Dioscorus II Timothy III Theodosius I Peter IV Damian Anastasius Andronicus Benjamin I Agathon John III Isaac Simeon I Alexander II Cosmas I Theodore I Michael I Mina I John IV Mark II James Simeon II Joseph I Michael II Cosmas II Shenouda I Michael III Gabriel
Gabriel
I Cosmas III Macarius I Theophilus II (AKA Theophanes) Mina II Abraham Philotheos Zacharias Shenouda II Christodolos Cyril II Michael IV Macarius II Gabriel
Gabriel
II Michael V John V Mark III John VI Cyril III Athanasius
Athanasius
III John VII Gabriel
Gabriel
III John VII Theodosius III John VIII John IX Benjamin II Peter V Mark IV John X Gabriel
Gabriel
IV Matthew I Gabriel
Gabriel
V John XI Matthew II Gabriel
Gabriel
VI Michael VI John XII John XIII Gabriel
Gabriel
VII John XIV Gabriel
Gabriel
VIII Mark V John XV Matthew III Mark VI Matthew IV John XVI Peter VI John XVII Mark VII John XVIII Mark VIII Peter VII Cyril IV Demetrius II Cyril V John XIX Macarius III Joseph II Cyril VI Shenouda III Tawadros II (current)

Greek Orthodox Popes and Patriarchs (451–present)

Proterius Timothy II Timothy III John I Peter III Athanasius
Athanasius
II John II John III Dioscorus II Timothy IV Theodosius I Gainas Paul Zoilus Apollinarius John IV Eulogius Theodore I John V George I Cyrus Peter IV Peter V Peter VI Cosmas I Politianus Eustatius Christopher I Sophronius I Michael I Michael II Christodoulos Eutychius Sophronius II Isaac Job Elias I Arsenius Theophilus II George II Leontius Alexander II John VI Cyril II Sabbas Sophronius III Elias II Eleutherius Mark III* Nicholas I Gregory I Nicholas II Athanasius
Athanasius
III Gregory II Gregory III Niphon Mark IV Nicholas III Gregory IV Nicholas IV Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Mark V Philotheus Mark VI Gregory V Joachim I Silvester Meletius I Pegas Cyril III Gerasimus I Metrophanes Nicephorus Joannicius Paisius Parthenius I Gerasimus II Samuel Cosmas II Cosmas III Matthew Cyprian Gerasimus III Parthenius II Theophilus III Hierotheus I Artemius Hierotheus II Callinicus Jacob Nicanor Sophronius IV Photius Meletius II Nicholas V Christopher II Nicholas VI Parthenius III Peter VII Theodore II (current)

Latin Catholic Patriarchs (1276 –1954 )

Atanasio (Athanasius) Egidio da Ferrara (Giles)  ?Humbert II, Dauphin of Vienne Juan (John) Guillaume de Chanac Arnaud Bernard du Pouget (Arnaldo Bernardi) uncanonical Jean de Cardaillac Pietro Amely di Brunac  ? Johannes Walteri von Sinten uncanonical Simon of Cramaud Pietro Amely di Brunac Leonardo Dolfin Ugo Roberti Pietro Amaury di Lordat Lancelotus de Navarra Giovanni Contarini Pietro Vitalis di Mauléon Giovanni Vitelleschi Marco Condulmer Jean d’Harcourt Arnaldo Rogerii de Palas Pedro de Urrea Pedro González de Mendoza Diego Hurtado de Mendoza Alonso de Fonseca y Acevedo Bernardino Carafa Cesare Riario Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora Ottaviano Maria Sforza Julius Gonzaga Cristoforo Guidalotti Ciocchi del Monte Jacques Cortès Tommaso Alessandro Riario Enrico Caetani Giovanni Battista Albani Camillo Caetani Séraphin Olivier-Razali Alessandro di Sangro Honoratus Caetani Federico Borromeo Allesandro Crescenzi Aloysius Bevilacqua Pietro Draghi Bartoli Gregorio Giuseppe Gaetani de Aragonia Carlo Ambrosio Mezzabarba Filippo Carlo Spada Girolamo Crispi Giuseppe Antonio Davanzati Lodovico Agnello Anastasi Francisco Mattei Augustus Foscolo Paolo Angelo Ballerini Domenico Marinangeli Paolo de Huyn Luca Ermenegildo Pasetto

Melkite Catholic Titular Patriarchs (1724–present)

Cyril VI Tanas Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Jawhar Maximos II Hakim Theodosius V Dahan Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Jawhar Cyril VII Siaj Agapius II Matar Ignatius IV Sarrouf Athanasius
Athanasius
V Matar Macarius IV Tawil Ignatius V Qattan Maximos III Mazloum Clement Bahouth Gregory II Youssef-Sayur Peter IV Jaraijiry Cyril VIII Geha Demetrius I Qadi Cyril IX Moghabghab Maximos IV Sayegh Maximos V Hakim Gregory III Laham Youssef I Absi

Coptic Catholic Patriarchs (1824–present)

Maximos Jouwed Kyrillos Makarios Stéphanos I Sidarouss Stéphanos II Ghattas Antonios I Naguib Ibrahim Isaac
Isaac
Sidrak

*Markianos is considered Mark II on the Greek side of the subsequent schism, hence this numbering of Mark III. Category Commons

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Jacob
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 264405984 LCCN: n50044098 ISNI: 0000 0003 8214 8035 GND: 118578030 SUDOC: 034721770 BNF:

.
Saint Mark The Evangelist


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Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(Latin: Mārcus; Greek: Μᾶρκος; Coptic: Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ Markos; Hebrew: מרקוס‎ Marqos; Amharic: ማርቆስ Marḳos; Berber languages: ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the most important episcopal sees of Early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.[2]

Contents

1 Mark's identity 2 Biblical and traditional information 3 Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark 4 In art 5 Major shrines 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Mark's identity[edit]

Mark the Evangelist's symbol is the winged lion, the Lion
Lion
of Saint Mark. Inscription: PAX TIBI MARCE EVANGELISTA MEVS. The same lion is also symbol of Venice
Venice
(on illustration)

According to William Lane (1974), an "unbroken tradition" identifies Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark,[3] and John Mark
John Mark
as the cousin of Barnabas.[4] However, Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
in On the Seventy Apostles distinguishes Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(2 Tim 4:11), John Mark
John Mark
(Acts 12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37), and Mark the cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
(Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24).[5] According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus
Jesus
to disseminate the gospel (Luke 10:1ff.) in Judea.

A Coptic icon of St. Mark.

According to Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
(Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1–4), Herod Agrippa I, in his first year of reign over the whole of Judea
Judea
(AD 41), killed James, son of Zebedee
James, son of Zebedee
and arrested Peter, planning to kill him after the Passover. Peter was saved miraculously by angels, and escaped out of the realm of Herod (Acts 12:1–19). Peter went to Antioch, then through Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(visiting the churches in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, as mentioned in 1 Peter 1:1), and arrived in Rome
Rome
in the second year of Emperor Claudius (AD 42; Eusebius, Eccl, Hist. 2.14.6). Somewhere on the way, Peter encountered Mark and took him as travel companion and interpreter. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
wrote down the sermons of Peter, thus composing the Gospel
Gospel
according to Mark (Eccl. Hist. 15–16), before he left for Alexandria
Alexandria
in the third year of Claudius (43).[6] In AD 49, about 19 years after the Ascension of Jesus, Mark travelled to Alexandria
Alexandria
[cf. c. 49 [cf. Acts 15:36–41] and founded the Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
– today, the Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, and the Coptic Catholic Church
Coptic Catholic Church
claim to be successors to this original community.[7] Aspects of the Coptic liturgy can be traced back to Mark himself.[8] He became the first bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
and he is honored as the founder of Christianity in Africa.[9] According to Eusebius
Eusebius
(Eccl. Hist. 2.24.1), Mark was succeeded by Annianus
Annianus
as the bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the eighth year of Nero (62/63), probably, but not definitely, due to his coming death. Later Coptic tradition says that he was martyred in 68.[1][10][11][12][13] Most modern scholars argue the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
was written by an anonymous author, rather than direct witnesses to the reported events.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20] Biblical and traditional information[edit] Evidence for Mark the Evangelist's authorship of the Gospel
Gospel
that bears his name originates with Papias.[21][22] Scholars of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School are "almost certain" that Papias is referencing John Mark.[23] Catholic scholars have argued that identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
and Mark the Cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
has led to the downgrading of the character of Barnabas
Barnabas
from truly a "Son of Comfort" to one who favored his blood relative over principles.[24] Identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
also led to identifying him as the man who carried water to the house where the Last Supper took place (Mark 14:13),[25] or as the young man who ran away naked when Jesus
Jesus
was arrested (Mark 14:51–52).[26] The Coptic Church accords with identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark, as well as that he was one of the Seventy Disciples sent out by Christ (Luke 10:1), as Hippolytus confirmed.[27] Coptic tradition also holds that Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
hosted the disciples in his house after Jesus' death, that the resurrected Jesus
Jesus
Christ came to Mark's house (John 20), and that the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descended on the disciples at Pentecost
Pentecost
in the same house.[27] Furthermore, Mark is also believed to have been among the servants at the Marriage at Cana who poured out the water that Jesus
Jesus
turned to wine (John 2:1–11).[27] According to the Coptic tradition, Saint
Saint
Mark was born in Cyrene, a city in the Pentapolis of North Africa
Africa
(now Libya). This tradition adds that Mark returned to Pentapolis later in life, after being sent by Paul to Colossae ( Colossians
Colossians
4:10; Philemon 24. Some, however, think these actually refer to Mark the Cousin of Barnabas), and serving with him in Rome
Rome
(2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he made his way to Alexandria.[28][29] When Mark returned to Alexandria, the pagans of the city resented his efforts to turn the Alexandrians away from the worship of their traditional gods.[citation needed] In AD 68, they placed a rope around his neck and dragged him through the streets until he was dead.[30] Where Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
(son of Mary) is distinguished from Saint
Saint
Mark, the composer of the earliest Gospel
Gospel
that we have, Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
is celebrated on September 27 (as in the Roman Martyrology) and the writer of the Gospel
Gospel
on April 25. In addition to Saint
Saint
John Mark's in Jerusalem, the Parish Church of Chester Hill with Sefton in the Diocese of Sydney (Anglican Church of Australia) is Saint
Saint
John Mark's and it celebrated its patronal festival on September 27. An icon of Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
on Cyprus, painted by a Russian Orthodox monk at Walsingham, was formerly in that church and is now in Christ Church Saint
Saint
Laurence in Sydney. Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark[edit]

A mosaic of St Marks body welcomed into Venice, at St Mark's Basilica, Venice.

Saint
Saint
Mark by Donatello
Donatello
(Orsanmichele, Florence).

In 828, relics believed to be the body of Saint
Saint
Mark were stolen from Alexandria
Alexandria
(at the time controlled by the Abbasid Caliphate) by two Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks and taken to Venice.[31] A mosaic in St Mark's Basilica
St Mark's Basilica
depicts sailors covering the relics with a layer of pork and cabbage leaves. Since Muslims are not permitted to touch pork, this was done to prevent the guards from inspecting the ship's cargo too closely.[32] Donald Nicol explained this act as "motivated as much by politics as by piety", and "a calculated stab at the pretensions of the Patriarchate of Aquileia." Instead of being used to adorn the church of Grado, which claimed to possess the throne of Saint
Saint
Mark, it was kept secretly by Doge Giustiniano Participazio in his modest palace. Possession of Saint
Saint
Mark's remains was, in Nicol's words, "the symbol not of the Patriarchate of Grado, nor of the bishopric of Olivolo, but of the city of Venice." In his will, Doge Giustiniano asked his widow to build a basilica dedicated to Saint
Saint
Mark, which was erected between the palace and the chapel of Saint
Saint
Theodore Stratelates, who until then had been patron saint of Venice.[33] In 1063, during the construction of a new basilica in Venice, Saint Mark's relics could not be found. However, according to tradition, in 1094, the saint himself revealed the location of his remains by extending an arm from a pillar.[34] The newfound remains were placed in a sarcophagus in the basilica.[35] Copts believe that the head of Saint
Saint
Mark remains in a church named after him in Alexandria, and parts of his relics are in Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral, Cairo. The rest of his relics are in Venice.[1] Every year, on the 30th day of the month of Paopi, the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
celebrates the commemoration of the consecration of the church of Saint
Saint
Mark, and the appearance of the head of the saint in the city of Alexandria. This takes place inside St Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral in Alexandria.[36] In June 1968, Pope
Pope
Cyril VI of Alexandria
Alexandria
sent an official delegation to Rome
Rome
to receive a relic of Saint
Saint
Mark from Pope
Pope
Paul VI. The delegation consisted of ten metropolitans and bishops, seven of whom were Coptic and three Ethiopian, and three prominent Coptic lay leaders. The relic was said to be a small piece of bone that had been given to the Roman pope by Giovanni Cardinal Urbani, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Venice. Pope Paul, in an address to the delegation, said that the rest of the relics of the saint remained in Venice. The delegation received the relic on June 22, 1968. The next day, the delegation celebrated a pontifical liturgy in the Church of Saint Athanasius
Athanasius
the Apostolic in Rome. The metropolitans, bishops, and priests of the delegation all served in the liturgy. Members of the Roman papal delegation, Copts who lived in Rome, newspaper and news agency reporters, and many foreign dignitaries attended the liturgy. In art[edit] Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is most often depicted writing or holding his gospel. In Christian tradition, Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel is symbolized by a lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. Some Christian legends refer to Saint
Saint
Mark as " Saint
Saint
Mark The Lionhearted". These legends say that he was thrown to the Lions and the animals refused to attack or eat him. Instead the Lions slept at his feet while he petted them. When the Romans saw this, they released him, impressed by this sight. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert; he can be depicted as a bishop on a throne decorated with lions; as a man helping Venetian sailors. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is often depicted holding a book with "pax tibi Marce" written on it or holding a palm and book. Mark the Evangelist attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert. Other depictions of Mark show him as a man with a book or scroll, accompanied by a winged lion. The lion might also be associated with Jesus' Resurrection
Resurrection
because lions were believed to sleep with open eyes, thus a comparison with Christ in his tomb, and Christ as king. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
can be depicted as a man with a halter around his neck and as Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
rescuing Christian slaves from Saracens.

Depictions of Mark the Evangelist

Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks take Mark the Evangelist's body to Venice, by Tintoretto.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
listening to the winged lion, Mark, image 21 of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch
Codex Aureus of Lorsch
or Borsch Gospels.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
looking at the lion, c.823.

A Coptic Egyptian portrait painting of St. Mark.

The martyrdom of Saint
Saint
Mark. Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé, Chantilly), c. 1412 and 1416.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Andrea Mantegna, 1450.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with the lion, 1524.

A painted miniature in an Armenian Gospel
Gospel
manuscript from 1609, held by the Bodleian Library.

Saint
Saint
Mark on a 17th-century naive painting by unknown artist in the choir of St Mary church (Sankta Maria kyrka) in Åhus, Sweden.

Saint
Saint
Mark writes his Evangelium at the dictation of St. Peter, by Pasquale Ottino, 17th century, Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Il Pordenone
Il Pordenone
(c. 1484 – 1539).

Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Icon
Icon
from the royal gates of the central iconostasis of the Kazan Cathedral in Saint
Saint
Petersburg, 1804.

An icon of Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist, 1657.

Major shrines[edit]

Basilica di San Marco
Basilica di San Marco
(Venice, Italy) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Alexandria, Egypt) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Cairo, Egypt) St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, New York City

See also[edit]

Book: Gospel

Baucalis Feast of Saint
Saint
Mark Gospel
Gospel
of John Gospel
Gospel
of Luke Gospel
Gospel
of Mark Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew John the Evangelist Luke the Evangelist Matthew the Evangelist

References[edit]

^ a b c "St. Mark The Apostle, Evangelist". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church Network. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Senior, Donald P. (1998), "Mark", in Ferguson, Everett, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity
Early Christianity
(2nd ed.), New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., p. 720, ISBN 0-8153-3319-6  ^ Lane, William L. (1974). "The Author of the Gospel". The Gospel According to Mark. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. pp. 21–3. ISBN 978-0-8028-2502-5.  ^ Mark: Images of an Apostolic Interpreter p55 C. Clifton Black – 2001 –"... infrequent occurrence in the Septuagint (Num 36:11; Tob 7:2) to its presence in Josephus (JW 1.662; Ant 1.290, 15.250) and Philo (On the Embassy to Gaius 67), anepsios consistently carries the connotation of "cousin," though ..." ^ Hippolytus. "The same Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles". Ante-Nicene Fathers.  ^ Finegan, Jack (1998). Handbook of Biblical Chronology. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. p. 374. ISBN 978-1-56563-143-4.  ^ "Egypt". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 14, 2011.  See drop-down essay on "Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire" ^ "The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
Of Egypt". Encyclopedia Coptica. Archived from the original on August 31, 2005. Retrieved 26 January 2018.  ^ Bunson, Matthew; Bunson, Margaret; Bunson, Stephen (1998). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division. p. 401. ISBN 0-87973-588-0.  ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Mark". Retrieved March 1, 2013.  ^ "Acts 15:36–40". Bible Gateway.  ^ "2timothy 4:11 NASB – Only Luke is with me. Pick up Mark and – Bible Gateway". Bible Gateway.  ^ "Philemon 1:24". Bible Gateway.  ^ E P Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, (Penguin, 1995) page 63 – 64. ^ Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman
(2000:43) The New Testament: a historical introduction to early Christian writings. Oxford University Press. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-19-518249-1.  ^ Nickle, Keith Fullerton (January 1, 2001). The Synoptic Gospels: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-664-22349-6.  ^ Witherington, Ben (June 2, 2004). The Gospel
Gospel
Code: Novel Claims About Jesus, Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
and Da Vinci. InterVarsity Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8308-3267-5.  Note: Witherington, while not agreeing that the author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew is unknown, he recognizes that this is what most scholars think. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (November 1, 2004). Truth and Fiction in The Da Vinci Code : A Historian Reveals What We Really Know about Jesus, Mary Magdalene, and Constantine. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-19-534616-9.  ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (September 1, 2006). The Lost Gospel
Gospel
of Judas Iscariot : A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed: A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-971104-8.  ^ Hierapolis, Papias of. "Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord". newadvent.org.  ^ Harrington, Daniel J. (1990), "The Gospel
Gospel
According to Mark", in Brown, Raymond E.; Fitzmyer, Joseph A.; Murphy, Roland E., The New Jerome
Jerome
Biblical Commentary, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 596, ISBN 0-13-614934-0  ^ D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris, An Introduction to the New Testament (Apollos, 1992), 93. ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark's Gospel (2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 55–56, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 172, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 179, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ a b c Pope
Pope
Shenouda III, The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter One. Tasbeha.org ^ "About the Diocese". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Diocese of the Southern United States.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Mark". Retrieved May 14, 2009.  ^ Pope
Pope
Shenouda III. The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter Seven. Tasbeha.org ^ Donald M. Nicol, Byzantium and Venice: A Study in diplomatic and cultural relations (Cambridge: University Press, 1988), p. 24 ^ "St. Marks Basilica". Avventure Bellissime – Italy Tours. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Nicol, Byzantium and Venice, pp. 24–6 ^ Okey, Thomas (1904), Venice
Venice
and Its Story, London: J. M. Dent & Co.  ^ "Section dedicated to the recovery of St. Mark's body". Basilicasanmarco.it. Retrieved February 17, 2010.  ^ Meinardus, Otto F.A. (March 21, 2006). "About the Laity of the Coptic Church" (PDF). Coptic Church Review. 27 (1): 11–12. Retrieved November 22, 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint
Saint
Mark.

Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Mark". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.   Schem, A. J. (1879). "Mark, Saint". The American Cyclopædia.  "St. Mark in the New Testament", "St. Mark in Early Tradition"; two articles by Henry Barclay Swete Works by Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
at LibriVox
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(public domain audiobooks)

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 264405984 LCCN: n50044098 ISNI: 0000 0003 8214 8035 GND: 118578030 SUDOC: 034721770 BNF:

.
Saint Mark The Evangelist


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Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(Latin: Mārcus; Greek: Μᾶρκος; Coptic: Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ Markos; Hebrew: מרקוס‎ Marqos; Amharic: ማርቆስ Marḳos; Berber languages: ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the most important episcopal sees of Early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.[2]

Contents

1 Mark's identity 2 Biblical and traditional information 3 Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark 4 In art 5 Major shrines 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Mark's identity[edit]

Mark the Evangelist's symbol is the winged lion, the Lion
Lion
of Saint Mark. Inscription: PAX TIBI MARCE EVANGELISTA MEVS. The same lion is also symbol of Venice
Venice
(on illustration)

According to William Lane (1974), an "unbroken tradition" identifies Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark,[3] and John Mark
John Mark
as the cousin of Barnabas.[4] However, Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
in On the Seventy Apostles distinguishes Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(2 Tim 4:11), John Mark
John Mark
(Acts 12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37), and Mark the cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
(Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24).[5] According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus
Jesus
to disseminate the gospel (Luke 10:1ff.) in Judea.

A Coptic icon of St. Mark.

According to Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
(Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1–4), Herod Agrippa I, in his first year of reign over the whole of Judea
Judea
(AD 41), killed James, son of Zebedee
James, son of Zebedee
and arrested Peter, planning to kill him after the Passover. Peter was saved miraculously by angels, and escaped out of the realm of Herod (Acts 12:1–19). Peter went to Antioch, then through Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(visiting the churches in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, as mentioned in 1 Peter 1:1), and arrived in Rome
Rome
in the second year of Emperor Claudius (AD 42; Eusebius, Eccl, Hist. 2.14.6). Somewhere on the way, Peter encountered Mark and took him as travel companion and interpreter. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
wrote down the sermons of Peter, thus composing the Gospel
Gospel
according to Mark (Eccl. Hist. 15–16), before he left for Alexandria
Alexandria
in the third year of Claudius (43).[6] In AD 49, about 19 years after the Ascension of Jesus, Mark travelled to Alexandria
Alexandria
[cf. c. 49 [cf. Acts 15:36–41] and founded the Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
– today, the Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, and the Coptic Catholic Church
Coptic Catholic Church
claim to be successors to this original community.[7] Aspects of the Coptic liturgy can be traced back to Mark himself.[8] He became the first bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
and he is honored as the founder of Christianity in Africa.[9] According to Eusebius
Eusebius
(Eccl. Hist. 2.24.1), Mark was succeeded by Annianus
Annianus
as the bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the eighth year of Nero (62/63), probably, but not definitely, due to his coming death. Later Coptic tradition says that he was martyred in 68.[1][10][11][12][13] Most modern scholars argue the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
was written by an anonymous author, rather than direct witnesses to the reported events.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20] Biblical and traditional information[edit] Evidence for Mark the Evangelist's authorship of the Gospel
Gospel
that bears his name originates with Papias.[21][22] Scholars of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School are "almost certain" that Papias is referencing John Mark.[23] Catholic scholars have argued that identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
and Mark the Cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
has led to the downgrading of the character of Barnabas
Barnabas
from truly a "Son of Comfort" to one who favored his blood relative over principles.[24] Identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
also led to identifying him as the man who carried water to the house where the Last Supper took place (Mark 14:13),[25] or as the young man who ran away naked when Jesus
Jesus
was arrested (Mark 14:51–52).[26] The Coptic Church accords with identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark, as well as that he was one of the Seventy Disciples sent out by Christ (Luke 10:1), as Hippolytus confirmed.[27] Coptic tradition also holds that Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
hosted the disciples in his house after Jesus' death, that the resurrected Jesus
Jesus
Christ came to Mark's house (John 20), and that the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descended on the disciples at Pentecost
Pentecost
in the same house.[27] Furthermore, Mark is also believed to have been among the servants at the Marriage at Cana who poured out the water that Jesus
Jesus
turned to wine (John 2:1–11).[27] According to the Coptic tradition, Saint
Saint
Mark was born in Cyrene, a city in the Pentapolis of North Africa
Africa
(now Libya). This tradition adds that Mark returned to Pentapolis later in life, after being sent by Paul to Colossae ( Colossians
Colossians
4:10; Philemon 24. Some, however, think these actually refer to Mark the Cousin of Barnabas), and serving with him in Rome
Rome
(2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he made his way to Alexandria.[28][29] When Mark returned to Alexandria, the pagans of the city resented his efforts to turn the Alexandrians away from the worship of their traditional gods.[citation needed] In AD 68, they placed a rope around his neck and dragged him through the streets until he was dead.[30] Where Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
(son of Mary) is distinguished from Saint
Saint
Mark, the composer of the earliest Gospel
Gospel
that we have, Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
is celebrated on September 27 (as in the Roman Martyrology) and the writer of the Gospel
Gospel
on April 25. In addition to Saint
Saint
John Mark's in Jerusalem, the Parish Church of Chester Hill with Sefton in the Diocese of Sydney (Anglican Church of Australia) is Saint
Saint
John Mark's and it celebrated its patronal festival on September 27. An icon of Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
on Cyprus, painted by a Russian Orthodox monk at Walsingham, was formerly in that church and is now in Christ Church Saint
Saint
Laurence in Sydney. Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark[edit]

A mosaic of St Marks body welcomed into Venice, at St Mark's Basilica, Venice.

Saint
Saint
Mark by Donatello
Donatello
(Orsanmichele, Florence).

In 828, relics believed to be the body of Saint
Saint
Mark were stolen from Alexandria
Alexandria
(at the time controlled by the Abbasid Caliphate) by two Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks and taken to Venice.[31] A mosaic in St Mark's Basilica
St Mark's Basilica
depicts sailors covering the relics with a layer of pork and cabbage leaves. Since Muslims are not permitted to touch pork, this was done to prevent the guards from inspecting the ship's cargo too closely.[32] Donald Nicol explained this act as "motivated as much by politics as by piety", and "a calculated stab at the pretensions of the Patriarchate of Aquileia." Instead of being used to adorn the church of Grado, which claimed to possess the throne of Saint
Saint
Mark, it was kept secretly by Doge Giustiniano Participazio in his modest palace. Possession of Saint
Saint
Mark's remains was, in Nicol's words, "the symbol not of the Patriarchate of Grado, nor of the bishopric of Olivolo, but of the city of Venice." In his will, Doge Giustiniano asked his widow to build a basilica dedicated to Saint
Saint
Mark, which was erected between the palace and the chapel of Saint
Saint
Theodore Stratelates, who until then had been patron saint of Venice.[33] In 1063, during the construction of a new basilica in Venice, Saint Mark's relics could not be found. However, according to tradition, in 1094, the saint himself revealed the location of his remains by extending an arm from a pillar.[34] The newfound remains were placed in a sarcophagus in the basilica.[35] Copts believe that the head of Saint
Saint
Mark remains in a church named after him in Alexandria, and parts of his relics are in Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral, Cairo. The rest of his relics are in Venice.[1] Every year, on the 30th day of the month of Paopi, the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
celebrates the commemoration of the consecration of the church of Saint
Saint
Mark, and the appearance of the head of the saint in the city of Alexandria. This takes place inside St Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral in Alexandria.[36] In June 1968, Pope
Pope
Cyril VI of Alexandria
Alexandria
sent an official delegation to Rome
Rome
to receive a relic of Saint
Saint
Mark from Pope
Pope
Paul VI. The delegation consisted of ten metropolitans and bishops, seven of whom were Coptic and three Ethiopian, and three prominent Coptic lay leaders. The relic was said to be a small piece of bone that had been given to the Roman pope by Giovanni Cardinal Urbani, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Venice. Pope Paul, in an address to the delegation, said that the rest of the relics of the saint remained in Venice. The delegation received the relic on June 22, 1968. The next day, the delegation celebrated a pontifical liturgy in the Church of Saint Athanasius
Athanasius
the Apostolic in Rome. The metropolitans, bishops, and priests of the delegation all served in the liturgy. Members of the Roman papal delegation, Copts who lived in Rome, newspaper and news agency reporters, and many foreign dignitaries attended the liturgy. In art[edit] Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is most often depicted writing or holding his gospel. In Christian tradition, Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel is symbolized by a lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. Some Christian legends refer to Saint
Saint
Mark as " Saint
Saint
Mark The Lionhearted". These legends say that he was thrown to the Lions and the animals refused to attack or eat him. Instead the Lions slept at his feet while he petted them. When the Romans saw this, they released him, impressed by this sight. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert; he can be depicted as a bishop on a throne decorated with lions; as a man helping Venetian sailors. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is often depicted holding a book with "pax tibi Marce" written on it or holding a palm and book. Mark the Evangelist attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert. Other depictions of Mark show him as a man with a book or scroll, accompanied by a winged lion. The lion might also be associated with Jesus' Resurrection
Resurrection
because lions were believed to sleep with open eyes, thus a comparison with Christ in his tomb, and Christ as king. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
can be depicted as a man with a halter around his neck and as Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
rescuing Christian slaves from Saracens.

Depictions of Mark the Evangelist

Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks take Mark the Evangelist's body to Venice, by Tintoretto.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
listening to the winged lion, Mark, image 21 of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch
Codex Aureus of Lorsch
or Borsch Gospels.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
looking at the lion, c.823.

A Coptic Egyptian portrait painting of St. Mark.

The martyrdom of Saint
Saint
Mark. Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé, Chantilly), c. 1412 and 1416.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Andrea Mantegna, 1450.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with the lion, 1524.

A painted miniature in an Armenian Gospel
Gospel
manuscript from 1609, held by the Bodleian Library.

Saint
Saint
Mark on a 17th-century naive painting by unknown artist in the choir of St Mary church (Sankta Maria kyrka) in Åhus, Sweden.

Saint
Saint
Mark writes his Evangelium at the dictation of St. Peter, by Pasquale Ottino, 17th century, Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Il Pordenone
Il Pordenone
(c. 1484 – 1539).

Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Icon
Icon
from the royal gates of the central iconostasis of the Kazan Cathedral in Saint
Saint
Petersburg, 1804.

An icon of Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist, 1657.

Major shrines[edit]

Basilica di San Marco
Basilica di San Marco
(Venice, Italy) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Alexandria, Egypt) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Cairo, Egypt) St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, New York City

See also[edit]

Book: Gospel

Baucalis Feast of Saint
Saint
Mark Gospel
Gospel
of John Gospel
Gospel
of Luke Gospel
Gospel
of Mark Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew John the Evangelist Luke the Evangelist Matthew the Evangelist

References[edit]

^ a b c "St. Mark The Apostle, Evangelist". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church Network. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Senior, Donald P. (1998), "Mark", in Ferguson, Everett, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity
Early Christianity
(2nd ed.), New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., p. 720, ISBN 0-8153-3319-6  ^ Lane, William L. (1974). "The Author of the Gospel". The Gospel According to Mark. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. pp. 21–3. ISBN 978-0-8028-2502-5.  ^ Mark: Images of an Apostolic Interpreter p55 C. Clifton Black – 2001 –"... infrequent occurrence in the Septuagint (Num 36:11; Tob 7:2) to its presence in Josephus (JW 1.662; Ant 1.290, 15.250) and Philo (On the Embassy to Gaius 67), anepsios consistently carries the connotation of "cousin," though ..." ^ Hippolytus. "The same Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles". Ante-Nicene Fathers.  ^ Finegan, Jack (1998). Handbook of Biblical Chronology. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. p. 374. ISBN 978-1-56563-143-4.  ^ "Egypt". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 14, 2011.  See drop-down essay on "Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire" ^ "The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
Of Egypt". Encyclopedia Coptica. Archived from the original on August 31, 2005. Retrieved 26 January 2018.  ^ Bunson, Matthew; Bunson, Margaret; Bunson, Stephen (1998). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division. p. 401. ISBN 0-87973-588-0.  ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Mark". Retrieved March 1, 2013.  ^ "Acts 15:36–40". Bible Gateway.  ^ "2timothy 4:11 NASB – Only Luke is with me. Pick up Mark and – Bible Gateway". Bible Gateway.  ^ "Philemon 1:24". Bible Gateway.  ^ E P Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, (Penguin, 1995) page 63 – 64. ^ Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman
(2000:43) The New Testament: a historical introduction to early Christian writings. Oxford University Press. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-19-518249-1.  ^ Nickle, Keith Fullerton (January 1, 2001). The Synoptic Gospels: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-664-22349-6.  ^ Witherington, Ben (June 2, 2004). The Gospel
Gospel
Code: Novel Claims About Jesus, Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
and Da Vinci. InterVarsity Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8308-3267-5.  Note: Witherington, while not agreeing that the author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew is unknown, he recognizes that this is what most scholars think. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (November 1, 2004). Truth and Fiction in The Da Vinci Code : A Historian Reveals What We Really Know about Jesus, Mary Magdalene, and Constantine. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-19-534616-9.  ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (September 1, 2006). The Lost Gospel
Gospel
of Judas Iscariot : A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed: A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-971104-8.  ^ Hierapolis, Papias of. "Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord". newadvent.org.  ^ Harrington, Daniel J. (1990), "The Gospel
Gospel
According to Mark", in Brown, Raymond E.; Fitzmyer, Joseph A.; Murphy, Roland E., The New Jerome
Jerome
Biblical Commentary, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 596, ISBN 0-13-614934-0  ^ D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris, An Introduction to the New Testament (Apollos, 1992), 93. ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark's Gospel (2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 55–56, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 172, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 179, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ a b c Pope
Pope
Shenouda III, The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter One. Tasbeha.org ^ "About the Diocese". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Diocese of the Southern United States.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Mark". Retrieved May 14, 2009.  ^ Pope
Pope
Shenouda III. The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter Seven. Tasbeha.org ^ Donald M. Nicol, Byzantium and Venice: A Study in diplomatic and cultural relations (Cambridge: University Press, 1988), p. 24 ^ "St. Marks Basilica". Avventure Bellissime – Italy Tours. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Nicol, Byzantium and Venice, pp. 24–6 ^ Okey, Thomas (1904), Venice
Venice
and Its Story, London: J. M. Dent & Co.  ^ "Section dedicated to the recovery of St. Mark's body". Basilicasanmarco.it. Retrieved February 17, 2010.  ^ Meinardus, Otto F.A. (March 21, 2006). "About the Laity of the Coptic Church" (PDF). Coptic Church Review. 27 (1): 11–12. Retrieved November 22, 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint
Saint
Mark.

Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Mark". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.   Schem, A. J. (1879). "Mark, Saint". The American Cyclopædia.  "St. Mark in the New Testament", "St. Mark in Early Tradition"; two articles by Henry Barclay Swete Works by Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

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Latin Catholic Patriarchs (1276 –1954 )

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 264405984 LCCN: n50044098 ISNI: 0000 0003 8214 8035 GND: 118578030 SUDOC: 034721770 BNF:

.
Saint Mark The Evangelist


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Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(Latin: Mārcus; Greek: Μᾶρκος; Coptic: Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ Markos; Hebrew: מרקוס‎ Marqos; Amharic: ማርቆስ Marḳos; Berber languages: ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the most important episcopal sees of Early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.[2]

Contents

1 Mark's identity 2 Biblical and traditional information 3 Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark 4 In art 5 Major shrines 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Mark's identity[edit]

Mark the Evangelist's symbol is the winged lion, the Lion
Lion
of Saint Mark. Inscription: PAX TIBI MARCE EVANGELISTA MEVS. The same lion is also symbol of Venice
Venice
(on illustration)

According to William Lane (1974), an "unbroken tradition" identifies Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark,[3] and John Mark
John Mark
as the cousin of Barnabas.[4] However, Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
in On the Seventy Apostles distinguishes Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(2 Tim 4:11), John Mark
John Mark
(Acts 12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37), and Mark the cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
(Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24).[5] According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus
Jesus
to disseminate the gospel (Luke 10:1ff.) in Judea.

A Coptic icon of St. Mark.

According to Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
(Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1–4), Herod Agrippa I, in his first year of reign over the whole of Judea
Judea
(AD 41), killed James, son of Zebedee
James, son of Zebedee
and arrested Peter, planning to kill him after the Passover. Peter was saved miraculously by angels, and escaped out of the realm of Herod (Acts 12:1–19). Peter went to Antioch, then through Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(visiting the churches in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, as mentioned in 1 Peter 1:1), and arrived in Rome
Rome
in the second year of Emperor Claudius (AD 42; Eusebius, Eccl, Hist. 2.14.6). Somewhere on the way, Peter encountered Mark and took him as travel companion and interpreter. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
wrote down the sermons of Peter, thus composing the Gospel
Gospel
according to Mark (Eccl. Hist. 15–16), before he left for Alexandria
Alexandria
in the third year of Claudius (43).[6] In AD 49, about 19 years after the Ascension of Jesus, Mark travelled to Alexandria
Alexandria
[cf. c. 49 [cf. Acts 15:36–41] and founded the Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
– today, the Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, and the Coptic Catholic Church
Coptic Catholic Church
claim to be successors to this original community.[7] Aspects of the Coptic liturgy can be traced back to Mark himself.[8] He became the first bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
and he is honored as the founder of Christianity in Africa.[9] According to Eusebius
Eusebius
(Eccl. Hist. 2.24.1), Mark was succeeded by Annianus
Annianus
as the bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the eighth year of Nero (62/63), probably, but not definitely, due to his coming death. Later Coptic tradition says that he was martyred in 68.[1][10][11][12][13] Most modern scholars argue the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
was written by an anonymous author, rather than direct witnesses to the reported events.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20] Biblical and traditional information[edit] Evidence for Mark the Evangelist's authorship of the Gospel
Gospel
that bears his name originates with Papias.[21][22] Scholars of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School are "almost certain" that Papias is referencing John Mark.[23] Catholic scholars have argued that identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
and Mark the Cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
has led to the downgrading of the character of Barnabas
Barnabas
from truly a "Son of Comfort" to one who favored his blood relative over principles.[24] Identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
also led to identifying him as the man who carried water to the house where the Last Supper took place (Mark 14:13),[25] or as the young man who ran away naked when Jesus
Jesus
was arrested (Mark 14:51–52).[26] The Coptic Church accords with identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark, as well as that he was one of the Seventy Disciples sent out by Christ (Luke 10:1), as Hippolytus confirmed.[27] Coptic tradition also holds that Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
hosted the disciples in his house after Jesus' death, that the resurrected Jesus
Jesus
Christ came to Mark's house (John 20), and that the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descended on the disciples at Pentecost
Pentecost
in the same house.[27] Furthermore, Mark is also believed to have been among the servants at the Marriage at Cana who poured out the water that Jesus
Jesus
turned to wine (John 2:1–11).[27] According to the Coptic tradition, Saint
Saint
Mark was born in Cyrene, a city in the Pentapolis of North Africa
Africa
(now Libya). This tradition adds that Mark returned to Pentapolis later in life, after being sent by Paul to Colossae ( Colossians
Colossians
4:10; Philemon 24. Some, however, think these actually refer to Mark the Cousin of Barnabas), and serving with him in Rome
Rome
(2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he made his way to Alexandria.[28][29] When Mark returned to Alexandria, the pagans of the city resented his efforts to turn the Alexandrians away from the worship of their traditional gods.[citation needed] In AD 68, they placed a rope around his neck and dragged him through the streets until he was dead.[30] Where Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
(son of Mary) is distinguished from Saint
Saint
Mark, the composer of the earliest Gospel
Gospel
that we have, Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
is celebrated on September 27 (as in the Roman Martyrology) and the writer of the Gospel
Gospel
on April 25. In addition to Saint
Saint
John Mark's in Jerusalem, the Parish Church of Chester Hill with Sefton in the Diocese of Sydney (Anglican Church of Australia) is Saint
Saint
John Mark's and it celebrated its patronal festival on September 27. An icon of Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
on Cyprus, painted by a Russian Orthodox monk at Walsingham, was formerly in that church and is now in Christ Church Saint
Saint
Laurence in Sydney. Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark[edit]

A mosaic of St Marks body welcomed into Venice, at St Mark's Basilica, Venice.

Saint
Saint
Mark by Donatello
Donatello
(Orsanmichele, Florence).

In 828, relics believed to be the body of Saint
Saint
Mark were stolen from Alexandria
Alexandria
(at the time controlled by the Abbasid Caliphate) by two Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks and taken to Venice.[31] A mosaic in St Mark's Basilica
St Mark's Basilica
depicts sailors covering the relics with a layer of pork and cabbage leaves. Since Muslims are not permitted to touch pork, this was done to prevent the guards from inspecting the ship's cargo too closely.[32] Donald Nicol explained this act as "motivated as much by politics as by piety", and "a calculated stab at the pretensions of the Patriarchate of Aquileia." Instead of being used to adorn the church of Grado, which claimed to possess the throne of Saint
Saint
Mark, it was kept secretly by Doge Giustiniano Participazio in his modest palace. Possession of Saint
Saint
Mark's remains was, in Nicol's words, "the symbol not of the Patriarchate of Grado, nor of the bishopric of Olivolo, but of the city of Venice." In his will, Doge Giustiniano asked his widow to build a basilica dedicated to Saint
Saint
Mark, which was erected between the palace and the chapel of Saint
Saint
Theodore Stratelates, who until then had been patron saint of Venice.[33] In 1063, during the construction of a new basilica in Venice, Saint Mark's relics could not be found. However, according to tradition, in 1094, the saint himself revealed the location of his remains by extending an arm from a pillar.[34] The newfound remains were placed in a sarcophagus in the basilica.[35] Copts believe that the head of Saint
Saint
Mark remains in a church named after him in Alexandria, and parts of his relics are in Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral, Cairo. The rest of his relics are in Venice.[1] Every year, on the 30th day of the month of Paopi, the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
celebrates the commemoration of the consecration of the church of Saint
Saint
Mark, and the appearance of the head of the saint in the city of Alexandria. This takes place inside St Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral in Alexandria.[36] In June 1968, Pope
Pope
Cyril VI of Alexandria
Alexandria
sent an official delegation to Rome
Rome
to receive a relic of Saint
Saint
Mark from Pope
Pope
Paul VI. The delegation consisted of ten metropolitans and bishops, seven of whom were Coptic and three Ethiopian, and three prominent Coptic lay leaders. The relic was said to be a small piece of bone that had been given to the Roman pope by Giovanni Cardinal Urbani, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Venice. Pope Paul, in an address to the delegation, said that the rest of the relics of the saint remained in Venice. The delegation received the relic on June 22, 1968. The next day, the delegation celebrated a pontifical liturgy in the Church of Saint Athanasius
Athanasius
the Apostolic in Rome. The metropolitans, bishops, and priests of the delegation all served in the liturgy. Members of the Roman papal delegation, Copts who lived in Rome, newspaper and news agency reporters, and many foreign dignitaries attended the liturgy. In art[edit] Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is most often depicted writing or holding his gospel. In Christian tradition, Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel is symbolized by a lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. Some Christian legends refer to Saint
Saint
Mark as " Saint
Saint
Mark The Lionhearted". These legends say that he was thrown to the Lions and the animals refused to attack or eat him. Instead the Lions slept at his feet while he petted them. When the Romans saw this, they released him, impressed by this sight. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert; he can be depicted as a bishop on a throne decorated with lions; as a man helping Venetian sailors. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is often depicted holding a book with "pax tibi Marce" written on it or holding a palm and book. Mark the Evangelist attributes are the Lion
Lion
in the desert. Other depictions of Mark show him as a man with a book or scroll, accompanied by a winged lion. The lion might also be associated with Jesus' Resurrection
Resurrection
because lions were believed to sleep with open eyes, thus a comparison with Christ in his tomb, and Christ as king. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
can be depicted as a man with a halter around his neck and as Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
rescuing Christian slaves from Saracens.

Depictions of Mark the Evangelist

Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks take Mark the Evangelist's body to Venice, by Tintoretto.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
listening to the winged lion, Mark, image 21 of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch
Codex Aureus of Lorsch
or Borsch Gospels.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
looking at the lion, c.823.

A Coptic Egyptian portrait painting of St. Mark.

The martyrdom of Saint
Saint
Mark. Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé, Chantilly), c. 1412 and 1416.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Andrea Mantegna, 1450.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with the lion, 1524.

A painted miniature in an Armenian Gospel
Gospel
manuscript from 1609, held by the Bodleian Library.

Saint
Saint
Mark on a 17th-century naive painting by unknown artist in the choir of St Mary church (Sankta Maria kyrka) in Åhus, Sweden.

Saint
Saint
Mark writes his Evangelium at the dictation of St. Peter, by Pasquale Ottino, 17th century, Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux.

Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
by Il Pordenone
Il Pordenone
(c. 1484 – 1539).

Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Icon
Icon
from the royal gates of the central iconostasis of the Kazan Cathedral in Saint
Saint
Petersburg, 1804.

An icon of Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist, 1657.

Major shrines[edit]

Basilica di San Marco
Basilica di San Marco
(Venice, Italy) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Alexandria, Egypt) Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral (Cairo, Egypt) St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, New York City

See also[edit]

Book: Gospel

Baucalis Feast of Saint
Saint
Mark Gospel
Gospel
of John Gospel
Gospel
of Luke Gospel
Gospel
of Mark Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew John the Evangelist Luke the Evangelist Matthew the Evangelist

References[edit]

^ a b c "St. Mark The Apostle, Evangelist". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church Network. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Senior, Donald P. (1998), "Mark", in Ferguson, Everett, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity
Early Christianity
(2nd ed.), New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., p. 720, ISBN 0-8153-3319-6  ^ Lane, William L. (1974). "The Author of the Gospel". The Gospel According to Mark. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. pp. 21–3. ISBN 978-0-8028-2502-5.  ^ Mark: Images of an Apostolic Interpreter p55 C. Clifton Black – 2001 –"... infrequent occurrence in the Septuagint (Num 36:11; Tob 7:2) to its presence in Josephus (JW 1.662; Ant 1.290, 15.250) and Philo (On the Embassy to Gaius 67), anepsios consistently carries the connotation of "cousin," though ..." ^ Hippolytus. "The same Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles". Ante-Nicene Fathers.  ^ Finegan, Jack (1998). Handbook of Biblical Chronology. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. p. 374. ISBN 978-1-56563-143-4.  ^ "Egypt". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 14, 2011.  See drop-down essay on "Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire" ^ "The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
Of Egypt". Encyclopedia Coptica. Archived from the original on August 31, 2005. Retrieved 26 January 2018.  ^ Bunson, Matthew; Bunson, Margaret; Bunson, Stephen (1998). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division. p. 401. ISBN 0-87973-588-0.  ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Mark". Retrieved March 1, 2013.  ^ "Acts 15:36–40". Bible Gateway.  ^ "2timothy 4:11 NASB – Only Luke is with me. Pick up Mark and – Bible Gateway". Bible Gateway.  ^ "Philemon 1:24". Bible Gateway.  ^ E P Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, (Penguin, 1995) page 63 – 64. ^ Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman
(2000:43) The New Testament: a historical introduction to early Christian writings. Oxford University Press. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-19-518249-1.  ^ Nickle, Keith Fullerton (January 1, 2001). The Synoptic Gospels: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-664-22349-6.  ^ Witherington, Ben (June 2, 2004). The Gospel
Gospel
Code: Novel Claims About Jesus, Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
and Da Vinci. InterVarsity Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8308-3267-5.  Note: Witherington, while not agreeing that the author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew is unknown, he recognizes that this is what most scholars think. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (November 1, 2004). Truth and Fiction in The Da Vinci Code : A Historian Reveals What We Really Know about Jesus, Mary Magdalene, and Constantine. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-19-534616-9.  ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (September 1, 2006). The Lost Gospel
Gospel
of Judas Iscariot : A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed: A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-971104-8.  ^ Hierapolis, Papias of. "Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord". newadvent.org.  ^ Harrington, Daniel J. (1990), "The Gospel
Gospel
According to Mark", in Brown, Raymond E.; Fitzmyer, Joseph A.; Murphy, Roland E., The New Jerome
Jerome
Biblical Commentary, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 596, ISBN 0-13-614934-0  ^ D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris, An Introduction to the New Testament (Apollos, 1992), 93. ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark's Gospel (2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 55–56, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 172, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ University of Navarre
University of Navarre
(1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint
Saint
Mark’s Gospel
Gospel
(2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 179, ISBN 1-85182-092-2  ^ a b c Pope
Pope
Shenouda III, The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter One. Tasbeha.org ^ "About the Diocese". Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Diocese of the Southern United States.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Mark". Retrieved May 14, 2009.  ^ Pope
Pope
Shenouda III. The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Saint
Saint
and Martyr, Chapter Seven. Tasbeha.org ^ Donald M. Nicol, Byzantium and Venice: A Study in diplomatic and cultural relations (Cambridge: University Press, 1988), p. 24 ^ "St. Marks Basilica". Avventure Bellissime – Italy Tours. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Nicol, Byzantium and Venice, pp. 24–6 ^ Okey, Thomas (1904), Venice
Venice
and Its Story, London: J. M. Dent & Co.  ^ "Section dedicated to the recovery of St. Mark's body". Basilicasanmarco.it. Retrieved February 17, 2010.  ^ Meinardus, Otto F.A. (March 21, 2006). "About the Laity of the Coptic Church" (PDF). Coptic Church Review. 27 (1): 11–12. Retrieved November 22, 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint
Saint
Mark.

Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Mark". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.   Schem, A. J. (1879). "Mark, Saint". The American Cyclopædia.  "St. Mark in the New Testament", "St. Mark in Early Tradition"; two articles by Henry Barclay Swete Works by Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

Titles of the Great Christian Church

New creation Pope
Pope
and Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria 43–68 Succeeded by Anianus

v t e

New Testament people

Jesus
Jesus
Christ

In Christianity Historical Life in the New Testament

Gospels

Individuals

Alphaeus Anna the Prophetess Annas Barabbas Bartimaeus Blind man (Bethsaida) Caiaphas Man born blind ("Celidonius") Cleopas Clopas Devil Penitent thief
Penitent thief
("Dismas") Elizabeth Gabriel Impenitent thief
Impenitent thief
("Gestas") Jairus' daughter Joanna John the Baptist Joseph Joseph of Arimathea Joses Jude Lazarus Legion Luke Lysanias Malchus Martha Mary, mother of Jesus Mary Magdalene Mary, mother of James Mary of Bethany Mary of Clopas Naked fugitive Son of Nain's widow Nathanael Nicodemus ( Nicodemus
Nicodemus
ben Gurion) Salome Samaritan woman Satan Simeon Simon, brother of Jesus Simon of Cyrene Simon the Leper Simon the Pharisee Susanna Syrophoenician woman Theophilus Zacchaeus Zebedee Zechariah

Groups

Angels Jesus's brothers Demons Disciples Evangelists Female disciples of Jesus God-fearers Herodians Magi Myrrhbearers Nameless Pharisees Proselytes Sadducees Samaritans Sanhedrin Scribes Seventy disciples Shepherds Zealots

Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James of Alphaeus (James the Less) James of Zebedee John

Evangelist Patmos "Disciple whom Jesus
Jesus
loved"

Judas Iscariot Jude Thaddeus Matthew Philip Simon Peter Simon the Zealot Thomas

Acts

Aeneas Agabus Ananias (Damascus) Ananias (Judaea) Ananias son of Nedebeus Apollos Aquila Aristarchus Barnabas Blastus Cornelius Demetrius Dionysius Dorcas Elymas Egyptian Ethiopian eunuch Eutychus Gamaliel James, brother of Jesus Jason Joseph Barsabbas Judas Barsabbas Judas of Galilee Lucius Luke Lydia Manaen (John) Mark

Evangelist cousin of Barnabas

Mary, mother of (John) Mark Matthias Mnason Nicanor Nicholas Parmenas Paul Philip Priscilla Prochorus Publius Rhoda Sapphira Sceva Seven Deacons Silas / Silvanus Simeon Niger Simon Magus Sopater Sosthenes Stephen Theudas Timothy Titus Trophimus Tychicus Zenas

Romans Herod's family

Gospels

Antipas Archelaus Herod the Great Herodias Longinus Philip Pilate Pilate's wife Quirinius Salome Tiberius

Acts

Agrippa Agrippa II Berenice Cornelius Drusilla Felix Festus Gallio Lysias Paullus

Epistles

Achaicus Alexander Andronicus Archippus Aretas IV Carpus Claudia Crescens Demas Diotrephes Epaphras Epaphroditus Erastus Eunice Euodia and Syntyche Herodion Hymenaeus Jesus
Jesus
Justus John the Presbyter Junia Lois Mary Michael Nymphas Olympas Onesimus Onesiphorus Pudens Philemon Philetus Phoebe Quartus Sosipater Tertius

Revelation

Antipas Four Horsemen Apollyon Two witnesses Woman Beast Three Angels Whore of Babylon

v t e

Popes and Patriarchs of Alexandria
Alexandria
of the See of Saint
Saint
Mark

Patriarchs prior to the Chalcedonian schism (43–451)

Mark I the Evangelist (founder) Anianus Avilius Kedronos Primus Justus Eumenius Markianos* Celadion Agrippinus Julian Demetrius I Heraclas Dionysius Maximus Theonas Peter I Achillas Alexander I Athanasius
Athanasius
I Peter II Timothy I Theophilus I Cyril I Dioscorus I

Coptic Orthodox Popes and Patriarchs (451–present)

Timothy II Peter III Athanasius
Athanasius
II John I John II Dioscorus II Timothy III Theodosius I Peter IV Damian Anastasius Andronicus Benjamin I Agathon John III Isaac Simeon I Alexander II Cosmas I Theodore I Michael I Mina I John IV Mark II James Simeon II Joseph I Michael II Cosmas II Shenouda I Michael III Gabriel
Gabriel
I Cosmas III Macarius I Theophilus II (AKA Theophanes) Mina II Abraham Philotheos Zacharias Shenouda II Christodolos Cyril II Michael IV Macarius II Gabriel
Gabriel
II Michael V John V Mark III John VI Cyril III Athanasius
Athanasius
III John VII Gabriel
Gabriel
III John VII Theodosius III John VIII John IX Benjamin II Peter V Mark IV John X Gabriel
Gabriel
IV Matthew I Gabriel
Gabriel
V John XI Matthew II Gabriel
Gabriel
VI Michael VI John XII John XIII Gabriel
Gabriel
VII John XIV Gabriel
Gabriel
VIII Mark V John XV Matthew III Mark VI Matthew IV John XVI Peter VI John XVII Mark VII John XVIII Mark VIII Peter VII Cyril IV Demetrius II Cyril V John XIX Macarius III Joseph II Cyril VI Shenouda III Tawadros II (current)

Greek Orthodox Popes and Patriarchs (451–present)

Proterius Timothy II Timothy III John I Peter III Athanasius
Athanasius
II John II John III Dioscorus II Timothy IV Theodosius I Gainas Paul Zoilus Apollinarius John IV Eulogius Theodore I John V George I Cyrus Peter IV Peter V Peter VI Cosmas I Politianus Eustatius Christopher I Sophronius I Michael I Michael II Christodoulos Eutychius Sophronius II Isaac Job Elias I Arsenius Theophilus II George II Leontius Alexander II John VI Cyril II Sabbas Sophronius III Elias II Eleutherius Mark III* Nicholas I Gregory I Nicholas II Athanasius
Athanasius
III Gregory II Gregory III Niphon Mark IV Nicholas III Gregory IV Nicholas IV Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Mark V Philotheus Mark VI Gregory V Joachim I Silvester Meletius I Pegas Cyril III Gerasimus I Metrophanes Nicephorus Joannicius Paisius Parthenius I Gerasimus II Samuel Cosmas II Cosmas III Matthew Cyprian Gerasimus III Parthenius II Theophilus III Hierotheus I Artemius Hierotheus II Callinicus Jacob Nicanor Sophronius IV Photius Meletius II Nicholas V Christopher II Nicholas VI Parthenius III Peter VII Theodore II (current)

Latin Catholic Patriarchs (1276 –1954 )

Atanasio (Athanasius) Egidio da Ferrara (Giles)  ?Humbert II, Dauphin of Vienne Juan (John) Guillaume de Chanac Arnaud Bernard du Pouget (Arnaldo Bernardi) uncanonical Jean de Cardaillac Pietro Amely di Brunac  ? Johannes Walteri von Sinten uncanonical Simon of Cramaud Pietro Amely di Brunac Leonardo Dolfin Ugo Roberti Pietro Amaury di Lordat Lancelotus de Navarra Giovanni Contarini Pietro Vitalis di Mauléon Giovanni Vitelleschi Marco Condulmer Jean d’Harcourt Arnaldo Rogerii de Palas Pedro de Urrea Pedro González de Mendoza Diego Hurtado de Mendoza Alonso de Fonseca y Acevedo Bernardino Carafa Cesare Riario Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora Ottaviano Maria Sforza Julius Gonzaga Cristoforo Guidalotti Ciocchi del Monte Jacques Cortès Tommaso Alessandro Riario Enrico Caetani Giovanni Battista Albani Camillo Caetani Séraphin Olivier-Razali Alessandro di Sangro Honoratus Caetani Federico Borromeo Allesandro Crescenzi Aloysius Bevilacqua Pietro Draghi Bartoli Gregorio Giuseppe Gaetani de Aragonia Carlo Ambrosio Mezzabarba Filippo Carlo Spada Girolamo Crispi Giuseppe Antonio Davanzati Lodovico Agnello Anastasi Francisco Mattei Augustus Foscolo Paolo Angelo Ballerini Domenico Marinangeli Paolo de Huyn Luca Ermenegildo Pasetto

Melkite Catholic Titular Patriarchs (1724–present)

Cyril VI Tanas Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Jawhar Maximos II Hakim Theodosius V Dahan Athanasius
Athanasius
IV Jawhar Cyril VII Siaj Agapius II Matar Ignatius IV Sarrouf Athanasius
Athanasius
V Matar Macarius IV Tawil Ignatius V Qattan Maximos III Mazloum Clement Bahouth Gregory II Youssef-Sayur Peter IV Jaraijiry Cyril VIII Geha Demetrius I Qadi Cyril IX Moghabghab Maximos IV Sayegh Maximos V Hakim Gregory III Laham Youssef I Absi

Coptic Catholic Patriarchs (1824–present)

Maximos Jouwed Kyrillos Makarios Stéphanos I Sidarouss Stéphanos II Ghattas Antonios I Naguib Ibrahim Isaac
Isaac
Sidrak

*Markianos is considered Mark II on the Greek side of the subsequent schism, hence this numbering of Mark III. Category Commons

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Jacob
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Abraham
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Moses
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 264405984 LCCN: n50044098 ISNI: 0000 0003 8214 8035 GND: 118578030 SUDOC: 034721770 BNF:

.
Saint Mark The Evangelist


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Saint
Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(Latin: Mārcus; Greek: Μᾶρκος; Coptic: Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ Markos; Hebrew: מרקוס‎ Marqos; Amharic: ማርቆስ Marḳos; Berber languages: ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the most important episcopal sees of Early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.[2]

Contents

1 Mark's identity 2 Biblical and traditional information 3 Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark 4 In art 5 Major shrines 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Mark's identity[edit]

Mark the Evangelist's symbol is the winged lion, the Lion
Lion
of Saint Mark. Inscription: PAX TIBI MARCE EVANGELISTA MEVS. The same lion is also symbol of Venice
Venice
(on illustration)

According to William Lane (1974), an "unbroken tradition" identifies Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark,[3] and John Mark
John Mark
as the cousin of Barnabas.[4] However, Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
in On the Seventy Apostles distinguishes Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
(2 Tim 4:11), John Mark
John Mark
(Acts 12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37), and Mark the cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
(Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24).[5] According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus
Jesus
to disseminate the gospel (Luke 10:1ff.) in Judea.

A Coptic icon of St. Mark.

According to Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
(Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1–4), Herod Agrippa I, in his first year of reign over the whole of Judea
Judea
(AD 41), killed James, son of Zebedee
James, son of Zebedee
and arrested Peter, planning to kill him after the Passover. Peter was saved miraculously by angels, and escaped out of the realm of Herod (Acts 12:1–19). Peter went to Antioch, then through Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(visiting the churches in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, as mentioned in 1 Peter 1:1), and arrived in Rome
Rome
in the second year of Emperor Claudius (AD 42; Eusebius, Eccl, Hist. 2.14.6). Somewhere on the way, Peter encountered Mark and took him as travel companion and interpreter. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
wrote down the sermons of Peter, thus composing the Gospel
Gospel
according to Mark (Eccl. Hist. 15–16), before he left for Alexandria
Alexandria
in the third year of Claudius (43).[6] In AD 49, about 19 years after the Ascension of Jesus, Mark travelled to Alexandria
Alexandria
[cf. c. 49 [cf. Acts 15:36–41] and founded the Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
– today, the Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, and the Coptic Catholic Church
Coptic Catholic Church
claim to be successors to this original community.[7] Aspects of the Coptic liturgy can be traced back to Mark himself.[8] He became the first bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
and he is honored as the founder of Christianity in Africa.[9] According to Eusebius
Eusebius
(Eccl. Hist. 2.24.1), Mark was succeeded by Annianus
Annianus
as the bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the eighth year of Nero (62/63), probably, but not definitely, due to his coming death. Later Coptic tradition says that he was martyred in 68.[1][10][11][12][13] Most modern scholars argue the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
was written by an anonymous author, rather than direct witnesses to the reported events.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20] Biblical and traditional information[edit] Evidence for Mark the Evangelist's authorship of the Gospel
Gospel
that bears his name originates with Papias.[21][22] Scholars of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School are "almost certain" that Papias is referencing John Mark.[23] Catholic scholars have argued that identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
and Mark the Cousin of Barnabas
Barnabas
has led to the downgrading of the character of Barnabas
Barnabas
from truly a "Son of Comfort" to one who favored his blood relative over principles.[24] Identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark
John Mark
also led to identifying him as the man who carried water to the house where the Last Supper took place (Mark 14:13),[25] or as the young man who ran away naked when Jesus
Jesus
was arrested (Mark 14:51–52).[26] The Coptic Church accords with identifying Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
with John Mark, as well as that he was one of the Seventy Disciples sent out by Christ (Luke 10:1), as Hippolytus confirmed.[27] Coptic tradition also holds that Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
hosted the disciples in his house after Jesus' death, that the resurrected Jesus
Jesus
Christ came to Mark's house (John 20), and that the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descended on the disciples at Pentecost
Pentecost
in the same house.[27] Furthermore, Mark is also believed to have been among the servants at the Marriage at Cana who poured out the water that Jesus
Jesus
turned to wine (John 2:1–11).[27] According to the Coptic tradition, Saint
Saint
Mark was born in Cyrene, a city in the Pentapolis of North Africa
Africa
(now Libya). This tradition adds that Mark returned to Pentapolis later in life, after being sent by Paul to Colossae ( Colossians
Colossians
4:10; Philemon 24. Some, however, think these actually refer to Mark the Cousin of Barnabas), and serving with him in Rome
Rome
(2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he made his way to Alexandria.[28][29] When Mark returned to Alexandria, the pagans of the city resented his efforts to turn the Alexandrians away from the worship of their traditional gods.[citation needed] In AD 68, they placed a rope around his neck and dragged him through the streets until he was dead.[30] Where Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
(son of Mary) is distinguished from Saint
Saint
Mark, the composer of the earliest Gospel
Gospel
that we have, Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
is celebrated on September 27 (as in the Roman Martyrology) and the writer of the Gospel
Gospel
on April 25. In addition to Saint
Saint
John Mark's in Jerusalem, the Parish Church of Chester Hill with Sefton in the Diocese of Sydney (Anglican Church of Australia) is Saint
Saint
John Mark's and it celebrated its patronal festival on September 27. An icon of Saint
Saint
John Mark
John Mark
on Cyprus, painted by a Russian Orthodox monk at Walsingham, was formerly in that church and is now in Christ Church Saint
Saint
Laurence in Sydney. Relics
Relics
of Saint
Saint
Mark[edit]

A mosaic of St Marks body welcomed into Venice, at St Mark's Basilica, Venice.

Saint
Saint
Mark by Donatello
Donatello
(Orsanmichele, Florence).

In 828, relics believed to be the body of Saint
Saint
Mark were stolen from Alexandria
Alexandria
(at the time controlled by the Abbasid Caliphate) by two Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks and taken to Venice.[31] A mosaic in St Mark's Basilica
St Mark's Basilica
depicts sailors covering the relics with a layer of pork and cabbage leaves. Since Muslims are not permitted to touch pork, this was done to prevent the guards from inspecting the ship's cargo too closely.[32] Donald Nicol explained this act as "motivated as much by politics as by piety", and "a calculated stab at the pretensions of the Patriarchate of Aquileia." Instead of being used to adorn the church of Grado, which claimed to possess the throne of Saint
Saint
Mark, it was kept secretly by Doge Giustiniano Participazio in his modest palace. Possession of Saint
Saint
Mark's remains was, in Nicol's words, "the symbol not of the Patriarchate of Grado, nor of the bishopric of Olivolo, but of the city of Venice." In his will, Doge Giustiniano asked his widow to build a basilica dedicated to Saint
Saint
Mark, which was erected between the palace and the chapel of Saint
Saint
Theodore Stratelates, who until then had been patron saint of Venice.[33] In 1063, during the construction of a new basilica in Venice, Saint Mark's relics could not be found. However, according to tradition, in 1094, the saint himself revealed the location of his remains by extending an arm from a pillar.[34] The newfound remains were placed in a sarcophagus in the basilica.[35] Copts believe that the head of Saint
Saint
Mark remains in a church named after him in Alexandria, and parts of his relics are in Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral, Cairo. The rest of his relics are in Venice.[1] Every year, on the 30th day of the month of Paopi, the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
celebrates the commemoration of the consecration of the church of Saint
Saint
Mark, and the appearance of the head of the saint in the city of Alexandria. This takes place inside St Mark's Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Cathedral in Alexandria.[36] In June 1968, Pope
Pope
Cyril VI of Alexandria
Alexandria
sent an official delegation to Rome
Rome
to receive a relic of Saint
Saint
Mark from Pope
Pope
Paul VI. The delegation consisted of ten metropolitans and bishops, seven of whom were Coptic and three Ethiopian, and three prominent Coptic lay leaders. The relic was said to be a small piece of bone that had been given to the Roman pope by Giovanni Cardinal Urbani, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Venice. Pope Paul, in an address to the delegation, said that the rest of the relics of the saint remained in Venice. The delegation received the relic on June 22, 1968. The next day, the delegation celebrated a pontifical liturgy in the Church of Saint Athanasius
Athanasius
the Apostolic in Rome. The metropolitans, bishops, and priests of the delegation all served in the liturgy. Members of the Roman papal delegation, Copts who lived in Rome, newspaper and news agency reporters, and many foreign dignitaries attended the liturgy. In art[edit] Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
is most often depicted writing or holding his gospel. In Christian tradition, Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel is symbolized by a lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. Some Christian legends refer to Saint
Saint
Mark as "