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Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha[6] is a British Overseas Territory located in the South Atlantic
South Atlantic
and consisting of the island of Saint Helena, Ascension Island
Ascension Island
and the archipelago of Tristan da Cunha. Its name was Saint Helena
Saint Helena
and Dependencies until 1 September 2009, when a new constitution came into force giving the three islands equal status within the territory.[7] Despite this change, the whole territory is still commonly referred to as simply Saint Helena
Saint Helena
after its main island.[citation needed] Similarly, the demonym Saint Helenians (or "Saints") and the derived name for the local nationality is commonly understood to include Ascension Islanders and Tristanians, as well.[8][not specific enough to verify]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Portuguese discovery 1.2 English and British colonisation 1.3 World War II
World War II
and subsequent military presence

2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Territorial waters 2.3 Administrative divisions

3 Constitution

3.1 European Union

4 Religion 5 Currency 6 Communications

6.1 Telecommunications 6.2 Mail

7 Transport

7.1 Maritime transport 7.2 Airports 7.3 Vehicular traffic

8 Maps 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] See also: History of Saint Helena Of volcanic origin, the islands of Saint Helena, Ascension Island, and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
were all formerly separate colonies of the English crown, though separately discovered by several Portuguese explorers between 1502 and 1504. Portuguese discovery[edit] The Portuguese found Saint Helena
Saint Helena
uninhabited, with an abundance of trees and freshwater. They imported livestock, fruit trees and vegetables, and built a chapel and one or two houses. Though they formed no permanent settlement, the island became crucially important for the collection of food and as a rendezvous point for homebound voyages from Asia. Englishman Sir Francis Drake
Francis Drake
very probably located the island on the final lap of his circumnavigation of the world (1577–1580).[9] Further visits by other English explorers followed, and, once St Helena's location was more widely known, English warships began to lie in wait in the area to attack Portuguese carracks on their way home from India. In developing their Far East trade, the Dutch also began to frequent the island and made a formal claim to it in 1633, but did not settle the isle and by 1651 largely abandoned it in favour of their colony at the Cape of Good Hope. English and British colonisation[edit]

A View of the Town and Island of St Helena in the Atlantic Ocean belonging to the English East India Company
East India Company
(engraving c. 1790).

In 1657, the English East India Company
East India Company
was granted a charter to govern Saint Helena
Saint Helena
by Oliver Cromwell,[10] and the following year the Company decided to fortify and colonise the island with planters. The first governor, Captain John Dutton, arrived in 1659, and it is from this date that St Helena claims to be Britain’s second oldest remaining colony, after Bermuda. A fort was completed and a number of houses were built. After the Restoration of the English monarchy in 1660, the East India Company
East India Company
received a Royal Charter giving it the sole right to fortify and colonise the island. The fort was renamed James Fort and the town Jamestown, in honour of the Duke of York and heir apparent, later King James II of England.

Gough and Inaccessible Islands
Gough and Inaccessible Islands
were declared World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1995.

The Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
became part of the new Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 and then the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1801; the British Empire
British Empire
grew into a global great power. The most important and first settled, the island of Saint Helena, had been governed by the East India
India
Company since 1659. It became internationally known as the British government's chosen place of exile of Napoleon Bonaparte, who was detained on the island from October 1815 until his death on 5 May 1821, and it was made a British crown colony in 1834 by the Government of India
India
Act 1833.[4] Unoccupied Ascension Island
Ascension Island
was garrisoned by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
on 22 October 1815, shortly after which the end of the Age of Sail made its difficult location in the equatorial doldrums less important relative to its strategic importance as a centrally positioned naval coaling station. For similar reasons Tristan da Cunha was annexed as a dependency of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(British South Africa) on 14 August 1816, at the settlement of the Napoleonic wars. For a short period just previously, Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
had been inhabited by a private American expedition who named the territory the Islands of Refreshment. The political union between these colonies began to take shape on 12 September 1922, when by letters patent Ascension Island
Ascension Island
became a dependency of Saint Helena. Lightly populated Tristan da Cunha, even today little more than an outpost with a population of less than three hundred, followed suit on 12 January 1938. The three island groups shared this constitutional relationship until 1 September 2009, when the dependencies were raised to equal status with St. Helena and the territory changed its name from " Saint Helena
Saint Helena
and Dependencies" to "Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha". World War II
World War II
and subsequent military presence[edit] During the Battle of the Atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic
of World War II
World War II
and the following several years of U-boat
U-boat
warfare in the Atlantic, both Saint Helena and Ascension Island
Ascension Island
were used by the Allies to base patrolling anti-surface-commerce-raider and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) forces against the Axis powers' naval units. Initially long range naval patrol flying boats were used in the effort, and later in the war during the struggle to improve air coverage over the commercially important sea lanes, air strips were built to support land based aircraft which supplied, augmented and complemented the PBY Catalina patrol planes in the vitally important ASW mission. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States still jointly operate the airfield (RAF Ascension Island) on Ascension, which also serves as a space-based communications, signals intelligence, and navigation nexus and hub (Ground station). One of only four GPS
GPS
satellite ground antennas is located there. Geography[edit]

Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, Tristan da Cunha.

See also: Category:Geography of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha and List of mountains and hills of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha The territory stretches across a huge distance of the South Atlantic Ocean with the northern-most island, Ascension, having a latitude of 7° 56′ S of the equator and the southern-most island, Gough Island, at 40° 19′ S. Between Saint Helena
Saint Helena
and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
is the Tropic of Capricorn. The distance between the northern tip of Ascension Island
Ascension Island
and the southern tip of Gough Island
Gough Island
is 2,263 miles (3,642 km) (an equivalent distance between London and the Dead Sea). The whole territory lies in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
and has the same time zone: Greenwich Mean Time. Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time
is not observed. Although all three parts of the territory were formed by volcanic activity, only the Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
group of islands are volcanically active at the moment. The highest point of the territory is Queen Mary's Peak
Queen Mary's Peak
on the island of Tristan da Cunha, with an elevation of 2,062 metres (6,765 ft) above sea level. The mountain is listed as an ultra prominent peak. Climate[edit] Because of the massive distance from north to south (over 3,600 kilometres (2,200 mi)), the territory has various climates. Ascension has a warm, arid climate, with temperatures all year long into the 20 °C. St Helena is more moderate (and arid near the coasts). Tristan da Cunha, being closer to the Antarctic Circle, is much cooler and a lot wetter. The uninhabited southernmost Gough Island is wetter and has freezing winter temperatures. Territorial waters[edit]

Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
on 6 February 2013, as seen from the International Space Station.

The territorial waters of the islands extend out to 12 nautical miles (22 km) from their coastal baselines. The Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) extend 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the islands' baselines. Despite their size, the three EEZs do not overlap or touch one another, nor do they reach the EEZs of any other country or territory. The territory has the largest EEZ of any of the British overseas territories (indeed larger than the United Kingdom's) and if included in the ranking of countries by size of EEZ, the territory would be 21st, behind Portugal
Portugal
and ahead of the Philippines. Neither the islands nor their EEZs are the subject of any current international dispute.

EEZs of the three parts of the territory[11]

Part km2 sq mi

Ascension Island 441,658 170,525

Saint Helena 444,916 171,783

Tristan da Cunha 754,720 291,400

Total 1,641,294 633,708

An application was made in 2008 by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend the limit of the continental shelf claim of Ascension Island
Ascension Island
beyond 200 nautical miles (370 km). The Commission recommended in 2010 that the limit not be extended beyond the standard limit, based on scientific surveys.[12] Administrative divisions[edit]

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Administratively, the territory is divided into the same three parts as the territory's geography, namely Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. Each is governed by a council. The Governor of the territory presides over the Saint Helena
Saint Helena
Legislative Council, while he or she is represented by an Administrator on Ascension Island
Ascension Island
and an Administrator on Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
that preside over these two areas' Island Councils. See Constitution section below.

Administrative area Area km2 Area sq mi Population[5] Administrative centre

Saint Helena 122 47 4,534 Jamestown

Ascension Island 88 34 806 Georgetown

Tristan da Cunha 184 71 293 Edinburgh of the Seven Seas

   Main island 98 39 293

   Inaccessible Island 14 5 0

   Nightingale Islands 3.4 1.3 0

   Gough Island 68 26 0

Total 394 152 5,633 Jamestown

The island of St Helena is then further divided into eight districts.[13] Constitution[edit]

Ascension Government House.

Map of the European Union
European Union
in the world with overseas countries and territories and outermost regions

See also: Politics of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha The Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
Constitution Order 2009 (an Order in Council of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom) enacted a new constitution for the territory, which came into effect on 1 September 2009. Although raising Ascension and Tristan da Cunha to equal status with Saint Helena, the constitution is divided into three chapters, one for each part of the territory. Saint Helena
Saint Helena
has a Governor and a Legislative Council, whilst Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
and Ascension each have an Administrator and an Island Council. Notably the constitution includes (for each part of the territory) the "fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals".[7]

Part Crown representative Council

Saint Helena Governor of Saint Helena Legislative Council of Saint Helena

Ascension Island Administrator of Ascension Island Ascension Island
Ascension Island
Council

Tristan da Cunha Administrator of Tristan da Cunha Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
Island Council

Saint Helena
Saint Helena
also has an Executive Council. The Governor of Saint Helena is the British monarch's representative across the territory. The three parts of the territory share the same Attorney General, and the same Supreme Court and Court of Appeal. European Union[edit] The territory is an Overseas Country or Territory of the European Union, with limited aspects of European Union
European Union
membership applied to its administration, its laws and its citizens. It does not however form part of the European Union
European Union
(the only British overseas territory that does is Gibraltar). Religion[edit] Most residents of St. Helena belong to the Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
and are members of the Diocese of St Helena, which has its own bishop and includes Ascension Island. The Catholics are pastorally served by the Missio sui iuris of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, whose office of ecclesiastical superior is vested in the Apostolic Prefecture of the Falkland Islands. Currency[edit] Main article: Saint Helena
Saint Helena
pound Saint Helena
Saint Helena
used sterling currency as in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
until 1976 when it began to issue its own banknotes at par with sterling. In 1984, the territory also began to issue its own coinage, similar to the coinage of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
but with different designs on the reverse. The Saint Helena
Saint Helena
currency also circulates on Ascension Island, but not in the other part of the territory, Tristan da Cunha, where UK currency circulates. The Currency Commissioners, part of the Government of Saint Helena, issue the St Helena pound banknotes and coins. There is no central bank, with the currency pegged to pound sterling which is controlled by the Bank of England
Bank of England
in London. The Bank of Saint Helena
Saint Helena
is the territory's only bank. The bank sets its own deposit and lending rates and has branches in Jamestown on Saint Helena
Saint Helena
and Georgetown on Ascension Island. Although the bank does not have a physical presence on Tristan da Cunha, the residents of Tristan are entitled to use its services.[14] Communications[edit] Main article: Communications in Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Telecommunications[edit] Sure South Atlantic
South Atlantic
provide the telecommunications service in the territory. Saint Helena
Saint Helena
has the international calling code +290
+290
which, since 2006, Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
shares. Telephone numbers are four digits long. Numbers start with 1–9, with 8xxx being reserved for Tristan da Cunha numbers and 2xxx for Jamestown.[15] Ascension Island
Ascension Island
has the calling code +247
+247
and also has four-digit numbers on the island.[16] Ascension Island
Ascension Island
also held an extensive broadcast facility for international shortwave transmissions to Africa
Africa
and South America. Mail[edit] Ascension Island, Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
and Saint Helena
Saint Helena
all issue their own postage stamps, which provide a significant income. The three main islands of the territory each has their own Royal Mail
Royal Mail
postal code:

Ascension Island: ASCN 1ZZ Saint Helena: STHL 1ZZ Tristan da Cunha: TDCU 1ZZ

The last operating Royal Mail
Royal Mail
Ship—RMS St Helena—runs to and from Cape Town
Cape Town
(and less frequently to and from the UK, and sometimes via Walvis Bay
Walvis Bay
in Namibia) to the islands. It continues to operate, even though it was due for decommissioning in 2016, due to difficulties for aeroplanes to land at St. Helena. Transport[edit] See also: Transport on Saint Helena

The RMS St Helena in James Bay, off St Helena

Maritime transport[edit] Each of the three main islands has a harbour or small port, situated in the islands' chief settlement (Georgetown, Jamestown, and Edinburgh). In addition St. Helena has a 118m long permanent wharf facility, built as part of the airport project, in Rupert's Bay for bulk, containerised and general cargos as well as passenger landings.[17] Airports[edit] St. Helena Airport received its first scheduled commercial flight on 14 October 2017.[18] Commercial flights, operated by Airlink, using an Embraer E190, are scheduled from OR Tambo Airport in Johannesburg each Saturday, returning the same day (or Sunday on weekends where the extension to Ascension Island
Ascension Island
is operating). Commercial flights between St. Helena and Ascension Island
Ascension Island
operate on the second Saturday of each month, with the aircraft returning to St. Helena on the Sunday, before continuing on to Johannesburg.[19] A military airfield exists on Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(RAF Ascension Island), though potholes on the runway resulted in the April 2017 cancellation of all but essential personnel/supply flights as well as emergency medical evacuations.[20][21] Regular RAF flights connected Ascension with RAF Brize Norton
RAF Brize Norton
in the UK and RAF Mount Pleasant
RAF Mount Pleasant
in the Falkland Islands, a transport link called the South Atlantic
South Atlantic
Air Bridge. The flights are mainly to transport military personnel, though the RAF did allow fare-paying civilians to use them. Ascension Island
Ascension Island
is also used by the US military (which supply the base using MV Ascension) and was a designated emergency landing site for the Space Shuttle program. The islands of Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
can only be accessed by sea. Vehicular traffic[edit] Saint Helena
Saint Helena
has 138 kilometres (86 mi)—118 kilometres (73 mi) paved and 20 kilometres (12 mi) unpaved—of roads. Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
has approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) of paved roads, while Ascension has around 40 kilometres (25 mi) paved.[22] Each island has its own vehicle registration plate system. Traffic drives on the left in all three parts of the territory, as is the case in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
itself. Two of the nearest countries to the islands— South Africa
South Africa
and Namibia—also drive on the left. Maps[edit]

Map showing all of the islands

Location of Saint Helena
Saint Helena
and Ascension Island

Map of St Helena island

Another map of St Helena

Map of Ascension Island

Another map of Ascension Island

Map of Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
group

See also[edit]

Geography portal Africa
Africa
portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal

Bibliography of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha British Overseas Territories List of towns in Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Public holidays in Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

References[edit]

^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sh.html ^ Pew Forum Research 2010 Page 49. December 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2017. ^ http://www.ascension-island.gov.ac/government/administrator/ ^ a b St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
Constitution Order 2009 "...the transfer of rule of the island to His Majesty's Government on 22 April 1834 under the Government of India
India
Act 1833, now called the Saint Helena
Saint Helena
Act 1833" (Schedule Preamble) ^ a b "Census 2016 – summary report" (PDF). St Helena Government. June 2016. p. 9. Retrieved 23 January 2017.  ^ "St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
Constitution Order 2009, see "EXPLANATORY NOTE"".  ^ a b The St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
Constitution Order 2009 The Constitution (in the Schedule to the Order). ^ [1] ^ Drake and St Helena, privately published by Robin Castell in 2005 ^ "History: St. Helena homepage".  ^ Seaaroundus.org Archived 29 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf Summary of recommendations re: Ascension Island ^ "Census 2016 – summary report" (PDF). St Helena Government. June 2016. p. 7. Retrieved 23 January 2017.  ^ "The Bank of Saint Helena". Sainthelenabank.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 2010-04-18.  ^ World Telephone Numbering Guide Saint Helena
Saint Helena
and Tristan da Cunha ^ World Telephone Numbering Guide Ascension Island ^ Design of new permanent wharf at Rupert's Bay, St. Helena http://www.saicerailwayandharbour.co.za/Portals/0/Papers%20and%20Articles/Technical/Rupert%27s%20Bay%20Wharf%20under%20Construction.PDF ^ "A HISTORY MAKING WEEKEND FOR ST HELENA". St Helena. 2017-10-16. Retrieved 2017-11-14.  ^ "FIRST COMMERCIAL FLIGHT TO ASCENSION ISLAND". St Helena. 2017-11-14. Retrieved 2017-11-14.  ^ " South Atlantic
South Atlantic
Airbridge ops at Ascension Island
Ascension Island
suspended". ch-aviation. Retrieved 2017-12-12.  ^ editor, Patrick Wintour Diplomatic (2017-05-02). "Runway potholes halt regular Ascension Island
Ascension Island
flights". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-12-12.  ^ CIA World Factbook St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

The Official Government Website of Saint Helena The Official Government Website of Ascension Island The Official Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
Website Radio Saint FM (live broadcasting from Saint Helena) St Helena Online (UK-based news website, in partnership with the St Helena Independent) "Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 

v t e

British overseas territory
British overseas territory
of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

 Saint Helena

Jamestown (capital) Half Tree Hollow Saint Paul's Longwood Alarm Forest Saint Helena
Saint Helena
Airport

 Ascension Island

Georgetown (chief settlement) Cat Hill Two Boats Village RAF Ascension Island

 Tristan da Cunha

Edinburgh of the Seven Seas Gough Island Inaccessible Island Nightingale Islands

Articles relating to Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

v t e

Countries, territories and dependencies of the United Kingdom

Constituent countries

England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales

Overseas territories

Akrotiri and Dhekelia1 Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory2 British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

Crown dependencies

Bailiwick of Guernsey

Guernsey Alderney Sark

Isle of Man Jersey

Former colonies

List of countries that have gained independence from the United Kingdom

1 Sovereign Base Areas.   2 Partial suspension of sovereignty due to the Antarctic Treaty.

v t e

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Sovereign states

entirely/mostly in Africa

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Ivory Coast
(Côte d'Ivoire) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

partly in Africa

France

Mayotte Réunion

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Portugal

Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía

Yemen

Socotra

Territories and dependencies

Îles Éparses

France

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

UK

Southern Provinces
Southern Provinces
(Western Sahara)1

States with limited recognition

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland

1 Unclear sovereignty.

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Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents other than Europe
Europe
(see inclusion criteria for further information).

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Adélie Land Crozet Islands Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Kerguelen Islands Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean

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Italy

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Netherlands

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Chafarinas Islands Alhucemas Islands Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

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1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

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Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger
Niger
Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

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Dependencies of European Union
European Union
states

Denmark

Faroe Islands Greenland

France

Clipperton Island French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Adélie Land Île Amsterdam Crozet Islands Îles Éparses Kerguelen Islands Île Saint-Paul

New Caledonia Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Netherlands

Aruba Caribbean Netherlands Curaçao Sint Maarten

United Kingdom

Crown dependencies

Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey

Sovereign Base Areas

Akrotiri and Dhekelia

Overseas territories

Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

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Outermost regions of European Union
European Union
states

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands

France

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion Saint-Martin

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 235027

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