The Info List - Sailor Moon

--- Advertisement ---

_SAILOR MOON_ (美少女戦士セーラームーン, _Bishōjo Senshi Sērā Mūn_, originally translated as _PRETTY SOLDIER SAILOR MOON_ and later as _PRETTY GUARDIAN SAILOR MOON_ ) is a Japanese _shōjo_ manga series written and illustrated by Naoko Takeuchi . It was originally serialized in _ Nakayoshi _ from 1991 to 1997; the 52 individual chapters were published in 18 _tankōbon _ volumes. The series follows the adventures of a young schoolgirl named Usagi Tsukino as she transforms into the titular character to search for a magical artifact called the "Legendary Silver Crystal" (「幻の銀水晶」, _Maboroshi no Ginzuishō_, lit. "Phantom Silver Crystal"). During her journey, she leads a diverse group of comrades, the Sailor Soldiers (セーラー戦士, _Sērā Senshi_)—Sailor Guardians in later editions—as they battle against villains to prevent the theft of the Silver Crystal and the destruction of the Solar System .

The 18 manga volumes have been adapted into an anime series titled _ Sailor Moon _ which was produced by Toei Animation . The series was broadcast from 1992 to 1997 in Japan over the course of five seasons along with three feature films, a television special, and three short films produced during the same period. A live-action television adaptation titled _Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon _ aired from 2003 to 2004 and a reboot of the anime series titled _ Sailor Moon Crystal _ began simulcasting in 2014. Several companies have developed merchandising based on the series, including light novels , collectible trading card games, action figures, musical theater productions , several collections of soundtracks and a large number of video games . The manga series was licensed for an English language release by Kodansha Comics in North America, and in Australia and New Zealand by Random House Australia. The entire anime series has been licensed by Viz Media for an English language release in North America and by Madman Entertainment in Australia and New Zealand.

Since its release, _Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon_ has received wide critical acclaim and has become one of the most popular manga and anime series worldwide. The entire series has sold over 35 million copies worldwide, making of it one of the highest selling shōjo series ever, and reviewers have praised the art, characterization and humor of the story. The anime is popular in several countries and is arguably one of the most influential in boosting the popularity of Japanese animation in Western culture. _Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon_ is often cited with popularizing the concept of a team of magical girls and for revitalizing the magical girl genre. The franchise is also credited with redefining the genre, as previous magical girls did not use their powers to fight evil, and the concept is now considered one of its standard archetypes.


* 1 Plot * 2 Production

* 3 Media

* 3.1 Manga

* 3.2 Anime series

* 3.2.1 _Sailor Moon_ * 3.2.2 _ Sailor Moon Crystal_

* 3.3 Films and television specials * 3.4 Companion books * 3.5 Stage musicals

* 3.6 Live-action series

* 3.6.1 American remake * 3.6.2 _Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon_

* 3.7 Video games

* 4 Reception * 5 Legacy * 6 References * 7 External links


See also: List of Sailor Moon characters

_ This section's plot summary MAY BE TOO LONG OR EXCESSIVELY DETAILED . Please help improve it by removing unnecessary details and making it more concise. (February 2017)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

In Minato, Tokyo , a middle-school student named Usagi Tsukino befriends Luna , a talking black cat who gives her a magical brooch enabling her to become Sailor Moon: a soldier destined to save Earth from the forces of evil. Luna and Usagi assemble a team of fellow Sailor Soldiers to find their princess and the Silver Crystal. They encounter the studious Ami Mizuno, who awakens as Sailor Mercury ; Rei Hino, a local shrine maiden who awakens as Sailor Mars ; Makoto Kino, a tall transfer student who awakens as Sailor Jupiter ; and Minako Aino, a young aspiring idol who awakens as Sailor Venus , accompanied by her talking feline companion Artemis . Additionally, they encounter Mamoru Chiba, a high-school student who assists them on occasion as Tuxedo Mask .

In the first arc, the group battles the Dark Kingdom . Led by Queen Beryl , a team of generals—the Four Kings of Heaven (四天王, _Shiten'ō_, lit. "Four Heavenly Kings")—attempt to find the Silver Crystal to free an imprisoned, evil entity called Queen Metaria . Usagi and her team discover that in their previous lives they were members of the ancient moon kingdom called Silver Millennium. The Dark Kingdom waged war against them, resulting in the destruction of the moon kingdom. Its ruler Queen Serenity later sent her daughter Princess Serenity, her protectors the Sailor Soldiers, their feline advisers Luna and Artemis, and the princess's true love Prince Endymion into the future to be reborn through the power of the Silver Crystal. The team recognize Usagi as the reincarnated Serenity and Mamoru as Endymion. The Soldiers kill the Four Kings, who turn out to have been Endymion's guardians who defected in their past lives. In a final confrontation with the Dark Kingdom, Minako kills Queen Beryl; she and the other Soldiers then sacrifice their lives in an attempt to destroy Queen Metaria. Using the Silver Crystal, Usagi succeeds in killing Metaria and resurrects her friends.

At the beginning of the second arc, Usagi and Mamoru's daughter Chibiusa arrives from the future to find the Silver Crystal. As a result, the Soldiers encounter Wiseman and his Black Moon Clan , who are pursuing her. Chibiusa takes the Soldiers to the future city Crystal Tokyo, where her parents rule as Neo- Queen Serenity and King Endymion. During their journey they meet Sailor Pluto , guardian of the Time-Space Door. Pluto stops the Clan's ruler Prince Demand from destroying the spacetime continuum , leading to her death. Chibiusa later awakens as a Soldier—Sailor Chibi Moon—and helps Usagi kill Wiseman's true form, Death Phantom.

The third arc revolves around a group of lifeforms called the Death Busters , created by Professor Soichi Tomoe, who seek to transport the entity Pharaoh 90 to Earth to merge with the planet. Tomoe's daughter Hotaru is possessed by the entity Mistress 9 , who must open the dimensional gateway through which Pharaoh 90 must travel. Auto-racer Haruka Tenoh and violinist Michiru Kaioh appear as Sailor Uranus and Sailor Neptune , who guard the outer rim of the Solar System from external threats. Physics student Setsuna Meioh, Sailor Pluto's reincarnation, joins the protagonists. Usagi obtains the Holy Grail, transforms into Super Sailor Moon, and attempts to use the power of the Grail and the Silver Crystal to destroy Pharaoh 90. This causes Hotaru to awaken as Sailor Saturn , whom Haruka, Michiru and Setsuna initially perceive as a threat. As the harbinger of death, Hotaru uses her power of destruction to sever Pharaoh 90 from the Earth and instructs Setsuna to use her power over time-space to close the dimensional gateway.

In the fourth arc, Usagi and her friends enter high school and fight against the Dead Moon Circus , led by Queen Nehelenia , the self-proclaimed "rightful ruler" of both Silver Millennium and Earth. Nehelenia invades Elysion, which hosts the Earth's Golden Kingdom, capturing its High Priest Helios and instructs her followers to steal the Silver Crystal. As Prince Endymion, Mamoru is revealed to be the owner of the Golden Crystal—the sacred stone of the Golden Kingdom. Mamoru and the Soldiers combine their powers with those of the Holy Grail, enabling Usagi to transform into Eternal Sailor Moon and kill Nehelenia. Four of Nehelenia's henchmen, the Amazoness Quartet , are revealed to be Sailor Soldiers called the Sailor Quartet, who are destined to become Chibiusa's guardians in the future; they had been awakened prematurely and corrupted by Nehelenia.

In the final arc, Usagi and her friends are drawn into a battle against Shadow Galactica , a group of false Sailor Soldiers. Their leader Sailor Galaxia plans to steal the Sailor Crystals of true Soldiers to take over the galaxy and kill an evil lifeform known as Chaos. After killing Mamoru and most of the Sailor Soldiers, Sailor Galaxia steals their Sailor Crystals. Usagi travels to the Galaxy Cauldron to defeat Galaxia and revive her teammates. Joining Usagi are the Sailor Starlights who come from the planet Kinmoku, their ruler Princess Kakyuu and the infant Sailor Chibichibi who comes from the distant future. Later, Chibiusa and the Sailor Quartet join Usagi and company. After numerous battles and the death of Galaxia, Sailor Chibichibi reveals her true form as Sailor Cosmos. After Usagi destroys Chaos with the Silver Crystal, she revives Mamoru and the Sailor Soldiers, before returning to Earth. The series ends with Usagi and Mamoru's wedding six years later.


Naoko Takeuchi redeveloped _Sailor Moon_ from her 1991 manga serial _Codename: Sailor V _, which was first published on August 20, 1991, and featured Sailor Venus as the main protagonist. Takeuchi wanted to create a story with a theme about girls in outer space. While discussing with her editor Fumio Osano, he suggested the addition of Sailor fuku . When _Codename: Sailor V_ was proposed for adaptation into an anime by Toei Animation , Takeuchi redeveloped the concept so Sailor Venus became a member of a team. The resulting manga series became a fusion of the popular magical girl genre and the _Super Sentai _ series, of which Takeuchi was a fan. Recurring motifs include astronomy, astrology, Greek and Roman myth, geology, Japanese elemental themes , :286 teen fashions, and schoolgirl antics.

Takeuchi said discussions with Kodansha originally envisaged a single story arc; the storyline was developed in meetings a year before serialization began. :93 After completing the arc, Toei and Kodansha asked Takeuchi to continue the series. She wrote four more story arcs, which were often published simultaneously with the five corresponding seasons of the anime adaptation. The anime ran one or two months behind the manga. :93 As a result, the anime follows the storyline of the manga fairly closely, although there are deviations. Takeuchi later said because Toei's production staff were mostly male, she feels the anime has "a slight male perspective."

Takeuchi later said she planned to kill off the protagonists, but Osano rejected the notion and said, " is a shōjo manga !" When the anime adaptation was produced, the protagonists were killed in the final battle with the Dark Kingdom, although they were revived. Takeuchi resented that she was unable to do that in her version. Takeuchi also intended for the _Sailor Moon_ anime adaptation to last for one season, but due to the immense popularity, Toei asked Takeuchi to continue the series. At first, she struggled to develop another storyline to extend the series. While discussing with Osano, he suggested the inclusion of Usagi's daughter from the future, Chibiusa.



Main article: List of Sailor Moon chapters

Written and illustrated by Naoko Takeuchi , _Sailor Moon_ was serialized in the monthly manga anthology _ Nakayoshi _ from December 28, 1991 to February 3, 1997. The side-stories were serialized simultaneously in _RunRun_—another of Kodansha's manga magazines. The 52 individual chapters were published in 18 _tankōbon _ volumes by Kodansha from July 6, 1992, to April 4, 1997. In 2003, the chapters were re-released in a collection of 12 _shinzōban_ volumes to coincide with the release of the live-action series . The manga was retitled _Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon_ and included new cover art, and revised dialogue and illustrations. The ten individual short stories were also released in 2 volumes. In 2013, the chapters were once again re-released in 10 _kanzenban_ volumes to commemorate the manga's 20th anniversary, which includes digitally remastered artwork, new covers and color artwork from its _Nakayoshi_ run. The books have been enlarged from the typical Japanese manga size to A5. The short stories were republished in two volumes, with the order of the stories shuffled. _Codename: Sailor V_ was also included in the third edition.

The _Sailor Moon_ manga was initially licensed for an English release by Mixx (later Tokyopop ) in North America. The manga was first published as a serial in _MixxZine _ beginning in 1997, but was later removed from the magazine and made into a separate, monthly comic to finish the first, second and third arcs. At the same time, the fourth and fifth arcs were printed in a secondary magazine called _Smile _. The series was later collected into three-part graphic novels spanning eighteen volumes, which were published from December 1, 1998, to September 18, 2001. Tokyopop's license expired in 2005 and its edition went out of print. Daily pages from the Tokyopop version ran in the Japanimation Station, a service accessible to users of America Online . In May 2005, Tokyopop's license to the Sailor Moon manga expired, and its edition went out of print.

In 2011, Kodansha Comics announced it would publish the _Sailor Moon_ manga and the lead-in series _Codename: Sailor V_ in English. It would also re-publish the twelve volumes of _Sailor Moon_ simultaneously with the two-volume edition of _ Codename Sailor V_, from September 2011 to July 2013. The first volume of the two related short stories was published on September 10, 2013; the other was published on November 26.

The manga has also been licensed in other English-speaking countries. In the United Kingdom, the volumes are distributed by Turnaround Publisher Services. In Australia, the manga is distributed by Random House Australia.


_Sailor Moon_

Main articles: Sailor Moon (anime) and List of Sailor Moon episodes

Toei Animation produced an anime television series based on the 52 manga chapters, also titled _Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon_. It was directed by Junichi Satō , Kunihiko Ikuhara and Takuya Igarashi . The series premiered in Japan on TV Asahi on March 7, 1992, and ran for 200 episodes until its conclusion on February 8, 1997. Most of the international versions, including the English adaptations, are titled _Sailor Moon_.

_ Sailor Moon Crystal_

Main articles: Sailor Moon Crystal and List of Sailor Moon Crystal episodes

On July 6, 2012, Kodansha and Toei Animation announced that it would commence production of a new anime adaptation of _Sailor Moon_, called _ Sailor Moon Crystal_, for a simultaneous worldwide release in 2013 as part of the series' 20th anniversary celebrations. _Crystal_ premiered on July 5, 2014, and episodes would premiere on the first and third Saturdays of each month. Kotono Mitsuishi reprised her role as Sailor Moon. The first two seasons were released together, covering their corresponding arcs of the manga ("Dark Kingdom" and "Black Moon"). A third season (subtitled "Death Busters" based on the "Infinity" arc on the manga) premiered on April 4, 2016. On January 25, 2017, another sequel was announced.


Three animated theatrical feature films based on the original _Sailor Moon_ series have been released in Japan. The films are side-stories that do not correlate with the timeline of the original series. A one-hour television special was aired on TV Asahi in Japan on April 8, 1995. In 1997, an article in _Variety _ stated that The Walt Disney Company was interested in acquiring the rights to _Sailor Moon_ as a live action film to be directed by Stanley Tong .


There have been numerous companion books to _Sailor Moon_. Kodansha released some of these books for each of the five story arcs, collectively called the _Original Picture Collection_. The books contain cover art, promotional material and other work by Takeuchi. Many of the drawings are accompanied by comments on the way she developed her ideas, created each picture and commentary on the anime interpretation of her story. Another picture collection, _Volume Infinity_, was released as a self-published, limited-edition artbook after the end of the series in 1997. This artbook includes drawings by Takeuchi and her friends, her staff, and many of the voice actors who worked on the anime. In 1999, Kodansha published the _Materials Collection_; this contained development sketches and notes for nearly every character in the manga, and for some characters that never appeared. Each drawing includes notes by Takeuchi about costume pieces, the mentality of the characters and her feelings about them. It also includes timelines for the story arcs and for the real-life release of products and materials relating to the anime and manga. A short story, _Parallel Sailor Moon_ is also featured, celebrating the year of the rabbit .


Main article: Sailor Moon musicals

In mid-1993, the first musical theater production based on _Sailor Moon_ premiered; Anza Ohyama starred as Sailor Moon. Thirty such musicals in all have been produced, with one in pre-production. The shows' stories include anime-inspired plotlines and original material. Music from the series has been released on about 20 memorial albums. The popularity of the musicals has been cited as a reason behind the production of the live action television series, _Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon_.

During the original run musicals ran in the winter and summer of each year, with summer musicals staged at the Sunshine Theater in the Ikebukuro area of Tokyo. In the winter, musicals toured to other large cities in Japan, including Osaka , Fukuoka , Nagoya , Shizuoka , Kanazawa , Sendai , Saga , Oita , Yamagata and Fukushima . The final incarnation of the first run, _New Legend of Kaguya Island (Revised Edition)_ (新・かぐや島伝説 , _Shin Kaguyashima Densetsu (Kaiteban)_), went on stage in January 2005, following which, Bandai officially put the series on a hiatus. On June 2, 2013, Fumio Osano announced on his Twitter page that the _Sailor Moon_ musicals would begin again in September 2013. The 20th anniversary show _La Reconquista_ ran from September 13 to 23 at Shibuya's AiiA Theater Tokyo, with Satomi Ōkubo as Sailor Moon. Satomi Ōkubo reprised the role in the 2014 production _Petite Étrangère_ which ran from August 21 to September 7, 2014, again at AiiA Theater Tokyo.


American Remake

In 1993, Renaissance-Atlantic Entertainment, Bandai and Toon Makers, Inc. conceptualized their own version of _Sailor Moon_, which was half live-action and half Western-style animation. Toon Makers produced a 17-minute proof of concept presentation video as well as a two-minute music video, both of which were directed by Rocky Sotoloff, for this concept. Renaissance-Atlantic presented the concept to Toei, but it was turned down as their concept would have cost significantly more than simply exporting and dubbing the anime adaptation.

At the 1998 Anime Expo convention in Los Angeles, the music video was shown. It has since been copied numerous times and has been viewed on many streaming video sites. Because of the relatively poor quality of the source video and circulated footage, many anime fans thought that the music video was actually a leaked trailer for the project. Additional copies of the footage have since been uploaded to the Internet and served only to bolster the mistaken assumption, in addition to incorrectly citing the production to Saban Entertainment , who became known for a similar treatment that created the _Power Rangers _ series.

_Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon_

Main article: Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon (live-action series)

In 2003, Toei Company produced a Japanese live-action _Sailor Moon_ television series using the new translated English title of _Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon_. Its 49 episodes were broadcast on Chubu-Nippon Broadcasting from October 4, 2003 to September 25, 2004. _Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon_ featured Miyuu Sawai as Usagi Tsukino, Rika Izumi (credited as Chisaki Hama) as Ami Mizuno, Keiko Kitagawa as Rei Hino, Mew Azama as Makoto Kino, Ayaka Komatsu as Minako Aino, Jouji Shibue as Mamoru Chiba, Keiko Han reprising her voice role as Luna from the original anime and Kappei Yamaguchi voicing Artemis. The series was an alternate retelling of the Dark Kingdom arc, adding a storyline different from that in the manga and first anime series, with original characters and new plot developments. In addition to the main episodes, two direct-to-video releases appeared after the show ended its television broadcast. " Special Act" is set four years after the main storyline ends, and shows the wedding of the two main characters. "Act Zero" is a prequel showing the origins of Sailor V and Tuxedo Mask.


See also: List of Sailor Moon video games

The _Sailor Moon_ franchise has spawned several video games across various genres and platforms. Most were made by Bandai and its subsidy Angel; others were produced by Banpresto . The early games were side-scrolling fighters ; later ones were unique puzzle games , or versus fighting games . _Another Story_ was a turn-based role-playing video game . The only _Sailor Moon_ game produced outside Japan, 3VR New Media's _The 3D Adventures of Sailor Moon_, went on sale in North America in 1997. A video game called _Sailor Moon: La Luna Splende_ (_Sailor Moon: The Shining Moon_) was released on March 16, 2011 for the Nintendo DS .


_Sailor Moon_ is one of the most popular manga series of all time and continues to enjoy high readership worldwide. More than one million copies of its _tankōbon_ volumes had been sold in Japan by the end of 1995. :95 By the series' 20th anniversary in 2012, this number had grown to 35 million copies in over fifty countries. The manga won the Kodansha Manga Award in 1993 for _shōjo_. The English adaptations of both the manga and the anime series became the first successful shōjo title in the United States. The character of Sailor Moon is recognized as one of the most important and popular female superheroes of all time.

_Sailor Moon_ has also become popular internationally. _Sailor Moon_ was broadcast in Spain and France beginning in December 1993; these became the first countries outside Japan to broadcast the series. It was later aired in Russia, South Korea, the Philippines, China, Italy, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia and Hong Kong, before North America picked up the franchise for adaptation. In the Philippines, _Sailor Moon_ was one of its carrier network 's main draws, helping it to become the third-biggest network in the country. :10-11 In 2001, the _Sailor Moon_ manga was Tokyopop's best selling property, outselling the next-best selling titles by at least a factor of 1.5. In Diamond Comic Distributors 's May 1999 "Graphic Novel and Trade Paperback" category, _Sailor Moon_ Volume 3 was the best-selling comic book in the United States.

In his 2007 book _Manga: The Complete Guide _, Jason Thompson gave the manga series three stars out of four. He enjoyed the blending of _shōnen _ and _shōjo_ styles, and said the combat scenes seemed heavily influenced by _ Saint Seiya _, but shorter and less bloody. He also said the manga itself appeared similar to _Super Sentai_ television shows. Thompson found the series fun and entertaining, but said the repetitive plot lines were a detriment to the title, which the increasing quality of art could not make up for; even so, he called the series "sweet, effective entertainment." Thompson said although the audience for _Sailor Moon_ is both male and female, Takeuchi does not use excessive fanservice for males, which would run the risk of alienating her female audience. Thompson said fight scenes are not physical and "boil down to their purest form of a clash of wills", which he says "makes thematic sense" for the manga.

Comparing the manga and anime, Sylvain Durand said the manga artwork is "gorgeous", but its storytelling is more compressed and erratic and the anime has more character development. Durand said "the sense of tragedy is greater" in the manga's telling of the "fall of the Silver Millennium," giving more detail about the origins of the Shitennou and on Usagi's final battle with Beryl and Metaria. Durand said the anime omits information that makes the story easy to understand, but judges the anime more "coherent" with a better balance of comedy and tragedy, whereas the manga is "more tragic" and focused on Usagi and Mamoru's romance.

For the week of September 11, 2011, to September 17, 2011, the first volume of the re-released _Sailor Moon_ manga was the best-selling manga on _The New York Times_ Manga Best Sellers list , with the first volume of _Codename: Sailor V_ in second place. The first print run of the first volume sold out after four weeks.


With their dynamic heroines and action-oriented plots, many attribute the manga and anime series to reinvigorating the magical girl genre. After its success, many similar magical girl series, including _Magic Knight Rayearth _, _ Wedding Peach _, _ Nurse Angel Ririka SOS _ and _ Pretty Cure _, emerged. :199 _Sailor Moon_ has been called "the biggest breakthrough" in English-dubbed anime until 1995, when it premiered on YTV , :10-11 and "the pinnacle of little kid _shōjo_ anime." Cultural anthropologist Matt Thorn said that soon after _Sailor Moon_, _shōjo_ manga started appearing in book shops instead of fandom-dominated comic shops. The series are credited as beginning a wider movement of girls taking up _shōjo_ manga. Canadian librarian Gilles Poitras defines a generation of anime fans as those who were introduced to anime by _Sailor Moon_ in the 1990s, saying they were both much younger than other fans and were also mostly female.

Historian Fred Patten credits Takeuchi with popularizing the concept of a _Super Sentai_-like team of magical girls, and Paul Gravett credits the series with revitalizing the magical girl genre itself. A reviewer for _THEM Anime Reviews_ also credited the anime series with changing the genre—its heroine must use her powers to fight evil, not simply have fun as previous magical girls had done. Sailor Moon also influenced the development of _ Powerpuff Girls _ and _Totally Spies! _.

In western culture , _Sailor Moon_ is sometimes associated with the feminist and Girl Power movements and with empowering its viewers, especially regarding the "credible, charismatic and independent" characterizations of the Sailor Soldiers, which were "interpreted in France as an unambiguously feminist position". Although _Sailor Moon_ is regarded as empowering to women and feminism in concept, through the aggressive nature and strong personalities of the Sailor Soldiers, it is a specific type of feminist concept where "traditional feminine ideals incorporated into characters that act in traditionally male capacities". While the Sailor Soldiers are strong, independent fighters who thwart evil—which is generally a masculine stereotype—they are also ideally feminized in the transformation of the Sailor Soldiers from teenage girls into magical girls, with heavy emphasis on jewelry, make-up and their highly sexualized outfits with cleavage, short skirts and accentuated waists.

The most notable hyper-feminine features of the Sailor Soldiers—and most other females in Japanese girls' comics—are the girls' thin bodies, extremely long legs, and, in particular, round, orb-like eyes. Eyes are commonly known as the primal source within characters where emotion is evoked—sensitive characters have larger eyes than insensitive ones. Male characters generally have smaller eyes that have no sparkle or shine in them like the eyes of the female characters. The stereotypical role of women in Japanese culture is to undertake romantic and loving feelings; therefore, the prevalence of hyper-feminine qualities like the openness of the female eye in Japanese girls' comics is clearly exhibited in _Sailor Moon_. Thus, _Sailor Moon_ emphasizes a type of feminist model by combining traditional masculine action with traditional female affection and sexuality through the Sailor Soldiers. Its characters are often described with "catty stereotypes", Sailor Moon's character in particular being singled out as less than feminist.

_Sailor Moon_ has also been compared to _Mighty Morphin Power Rangers _, _Buffy the Vampire Slayer _ :281 and _Sabrina, the Teenage Witch _.

James Welker said _Sailor Moon_'s futuristic setting helps to make lesbianism "naturalized" and a peaceful existence. Yukari Fujimoto said although there are few "lesbian scenes" in _Sailor Moon_, it has become a popular subject for _yuri _ dōjinshi . She cites this to the source work's "cheerful" tone, although she says "though they seem to be overflowing with lesbians, the position of heterosexuals is earnestly secured."

In English-speaking countries, _Sailor Moon_ developed a cult following among anime fans and male university students. Patrick Drazen says the Internet was a new medium that fans used to communicate and played a role in the popularity of _Sailor Moon_. :281 Fans could use the Internet to communicate about the series, organize campaigns to return _Sailor Moon_ to U.S. broadcast, to share information about episodes that had not yet aired, or to write fan fiction . In 2004, one study said there were 3,335,000 websites about Sailor Moon, compared to 491,000 for Mickey Mouse . Gemma Cox of _Neo_ magazine said part of the series' allure was that fans communicated via the Internet about the differences between the dub and the original version. The _Sailor Moon_ fandom was described in 1997 as being "small and dispersed." In a United States study, twelve children paid rapt attention to the fighting scenes in _Sailor Moon_, although when asked whether they thought _Sailor Moon_ was violent, only two said yes and the other ten described the episodes as "soft" or "cute."


* ^ _A_ _B_ Takeuchi, Naoko (1994). _Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Original Picture Collection vol. I_ (1st ed.). Japan: Kodansha . ISBN 4063245071 . * ^ "美少女戦士セーラームーン新装版(1)". _kc.kodansha.co.jp_ (in Japanese). Kodansha Comics. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ "美少女戦士セーラームーン 完全版(1)". _kc.kodansha.co.jp_ (in Japanese). Kodansha Comics. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon DVD-COLLECTION Vol.1" 美少女戦士セーラームーン DVD‐COLLECTION VOL.1. _TOEI-VIDEO.CO.JP_ (IN JAPANESE). TOEI VIDEO. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon DVD-COLLECTION Vol.2 (End)" 美少女戦士セーラームーン DVD‐COLLECTION VOL.2(完). _TOEI-VIDEO.CO.JP_ (IN JAPANESE). TOEI VIDEO. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Takeuchi, Naoko (2013). "Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon ~Ten Years of Love and Miracles~". _Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon: Short Stories_. 2. New York: Kodansha Comics. pp. 196–200. ISBN 9781612620107 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Takeuchi, Naoko (September 2003). _Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon shinzōban vol. 2_. Kodansha . ISBN 406334777X . * ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (December 18, 1993). "Vol. 1". _ Codename wa Sailor V_. 1. Kodansha . ISBN 4063228010 . * ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (September 29, 2004). "Vol. 1". _Codename: Sailor V shinzoban vol. 1_. Kodansha . ISBN 4063349292 . * ^ McCarter, Charles. "She Is The One Named Takeuchi Naoko". _Ex.org_. Exclusive. Archived from the original on February 21, 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Grigsby, Mary. "Sailormoon: Manga (Comics) and Anime (Cartoon) Superheroine Meets Barbie: Global Entertainment Commodity Comes to the United States" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 17, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Drazen, Patrick (2003). _ Anime Explosion!: The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation_. Berkeley, California : Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 1880656728 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Allison, Anne (4 August 2010). "A Challenge to Hollywood? Japanese Character Goods Hit the US". _Japanese Studies_. 20 (1): 67–88. doi :10.1080/10371390050009075 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Takeuchi, Naoko (1999). _Prety Soldier Sailor Moon Materials Collection_. Tokyo: Kodansha . ISBN 4063245217 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Schodt, Frederik L. (1999). _Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga _ (2nd ed.). Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 9781880656235 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Alverson, Brigid (May 27, 2011). " Sailor Moon 101: Pretty, Powerful, And Pure of Heart". MTV. Retrieved December 27, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Takeuchi, Naoko (2003). "Punch!". _Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Volume 3_ (Shinsōban ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4063347834 . * ^ "Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon (1)" 美少女戦士セーラームーン (1) (IN JAPANESE). KODANSHA . ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON JUNE 20, 2004. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ "Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon (18)" 美少女戦士セーラームーン (18) (IN JAPANESE). KODANSHA . ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON MAY 15, 2012. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon New Edition (1)" 美少女戦士セーラームーン 新装版(1) (IN JAPANESE). KODANSHA . ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON NOVEMBER 27, 2005. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon New Edition (1)" 美少女戦士セーラームーン新装版(1):美少女戦士セーラームーン20周年プロジェクト公式サイト (IN JAPANESE). SAILORMOON-OFFICIAL.COM. NOVEMBER 16, 2013. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon New Edition Short Stories (1)" 美少女戦士セーラームーン新装版 ショートストーリーズ(1). _KC.KODANSHA.CO.JP_ (IN JAPANESE). KODANSHA COMICS. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon New Edition Short Stories (2)" 美少女戦士セーラームーン新装版 ショートストーリーズ(2). _KC.KODANSHA.CO.JP_ (IN JAPANESE). KODANSHA COMICS. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon full version (1)" 美少女戦士セーラームーン 完全版(1). _KODANSHA.CO.JP_ (IN JAPANESE). KODANSHA COMICS. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ Stephenson, Brad (January 23, 2012). "3rd Gen Japanese Sailor Moon Manga Shopping Guide". moonkitty.net. Retrieved December 9, 2013.

* ^ _A_ _B_ Elly (October 10, 2013). " Sailor Moon Kanzenban + iPad Mini + Smart Phone Cases". Miss Dream. Retrieved December 9, 2013. * ^ "Mixx Controversies: Analysis". _Features_. Anime News Network . August 14, 2008. Retrieved January 24, 2007. * ^ " Sailor Moon Volume 1". Mixx Entertainment . Archived from the original on November 7, 2004. Retrieved July 23, 2008. * ^ " Sailor Moon StarS Volume 3". Mixx Entertainment . Archived from the original on November 10, 2004. Retrieved July 23, 2008. * ^ " Tokyopop Out of Print". October 13, 2007. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved September 10, 2009. * ^ "MIXX ENTERTAINMENT COLLABORATES WITH CENTRAL PARK MEDIA TO PUBLISH SAILOR MOON AND PARASYTE COMICS IN THE JAPANIMATION STATION™ SECTION OF AMERICA ONLINE (AOL)". Mixx Entertainment . October 22, 1999. Archived from the original on October 29, 2000. Retrieved August 21, 2011. * ^ " Tokyopop Out of Print". Tokyopop. Archived from the original on May 19, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2006. * ^ " Kodansha USA Announces the Return of Sailor Moon". _ Anime News Network _. Press release . March 18, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2016.

* ^ " Sailor Moon 1 by Naoko Takeuchi – Book". Random House . September 13, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon 1 by Naoko Takeuchi – Book". Random House . Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ " Codename Sailor V 1 by Naoko Takeuchi – Book". Random House . Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon Short Stories 1 by Naoko Takeuchi – Book". Random House . Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon Short Stories 2 by Naoko Takeuchi – Book". Random House . Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon Vol. 1". Turnaround Publisher Services. Retrieved August 20, 2014. * ^ " Sailor Moon 5". Random House Australia. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon staff information". Usagi.org. Retrieved September 10, 2013. * ^ " Sailor Moon Manga Gets New Anime in Summer 2013". Anime News Network . July 6, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ Zahed, Ramin (July 6, 2012). "New \'Sailor Moon\' Reboot Arrives in 2013". _Animation Magazine_. Retrieved July 9, 2012. * ^ Mohajer-Va-Pesaran, Daphne (July 3, 2013). "Happy birthday, Sailor Moon!". _The Japan Times_. Retrieved July 5, 2014. * ^ "New Sailor Moon Anime\'s Producer: Not Remaking 1st Anime". Anime News Network . January 9, 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ " Kotono Mitsuishi Leads New Sailor Moon Crystal Anime Cast". Anime News Network . April 27, 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon Crystal 3rd Season\'s Premiere Date, Theme Songs Revealed - News". Anime News Network . March 6, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon Crystal Anime Gets Sequel". Anime News Network . January 25, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2017. * ^ " Sailor Moon SuperS Special". _ Sailor Moon SuperS_ (in Japanese). April 8, 1995. TV Asahi . * ^ Archerd, Army (May 15, 1997). "\'Magoo\' goes stunt-crazy". _Variety _. Retrieved September 24, 2014. Disney, which wanted Tong to create an international franchise with his direction of the "live" "Magoo," is also in the process of acquiring rights to the Japanese cartoon _Sailor Moon_, also for Tong to direct * ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (August 1994). _Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume II Original Picture Collection_. Kodansha . ISBN 406324508X . * ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1996). _Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume III Original Picture Collection_. Kodansha . ISBN 4063245187 . * ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1996). _Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume IV Original Picture Collection_. Kodansha . ISBN 4063245195 . * ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (August 1997). _Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume V Original Picture Collection_. Kodansha . ISBN 4063245225 . * ^ "Video DVD Corner" セーラームーン ビデオ・DVDコーナー (IN JAPANESE). SAILOR MOON CHANNEL. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON FEBRUARY 7, 2009. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Font, Dillon (May 2004). "Sailor Soldiers, Saban Style". _Animefringe_. Retrieved July 20, 2009. * ^ "93 Summer Special Musical Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Gaiden Dark Kingdom Resurrection Hen" これまでの公演の紹介 93サマースペシャルミュージカル 美少女戦士セーラームーン 外伝 ダーク・キングダム復活篇 (IN JAPANESE). SAILORMOON. CHANNEL. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON JULY 14, 2009. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ "94 Summer Special Musical Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon S way to the rabbit-love of the warrior" これまでの公演の紹介 94サマースペシャルミュージカル美少女戦士セーラームーンSうさぎ・愛の戦士への道 (IN JAPANESE). SAILORMOON. CHANNEL. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON APRIL 29, 2008. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ "95 Spring Special Musical Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon S road to makeover Super Warrior (revised edition)" 95スプリングスペシャルミュージカル 美少女戦士セーラームーンS 変身・スーパー戦士への道(改訂版) (IN JAPANESE). SAILORMOON. CHANNEL. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON FEBRUARY 26, 2008. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ Lobão, David Denis (May 24, 2007). "Musicais do OhaYO! – Parte 2" (in Portuguese). Universo Online . Retrieved July 24, 2009. * ^ "Osabu Twitter" (in Japanese). Retrieved June 2, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Arnold, Adam. "Saban Moon". Crystal Millennium of Commemoration. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ "Sailormoon. Channel – History of Sailor Moon". _sailormoon.channel.or.jp_ (in Japanese). Sailor Moon Channel. Archived from the original on August 6, 2007. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ "Sailormoon. Channel – Sailor Moon Live Action TV Corner" 「美少女戦士セーラームーン」 (IN JAPANESE). ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON JUNE 17, 2007. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ Mays, Jonathon (April 6, 2004). "Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon – Review". Anime News Network . Retrieved July 20, 2009. * ^ "Live-action plate DVD (TV series)" 実写板DVD(TVシリーズ) (IN JAPANESE). SAILORMOON. CHANNEL. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON FEBRUARY 1, 2009. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ "Game Search". _GameFAQs - Video Game Cheats, Reviews, FAQs, Message Boards, and More_. Retrieved August 5, 2014. * ^ "The 3D Adventures of Sailor Moon for PC". GameFAQs. Retrieved September 10, 2013. * ^ Loo, Egan (September 16, 2011). "New Sailor Moon DS Game to Ship in Spring in Italy – Interest". Anime News Network . Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ "Happy 20th Anniversary to Sailor Moon!". _ Kodansha Comics _. June 29, 2012. Retrieved July 28, 2015. * ^ Hahn, Joel. " Kodansha Manga Awards". _Comic Book Awards Almanac_. Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Retrieved August 21, 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Thompson, Jason (2007). _Manga: The Complete Guide _. New York: Del Rey Books . p. 309. ISBN 9780345485908 . * ^ Berlatsky, Noah (September 7, 2011). "Can Sailor Moon Break Up the Superhero Boys Club?". The Atlantic . Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon superhero may replace Power Rangers". Ludington Daily News . February 14, 1995. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ Misiroglu, Gina; Roach, David A. (2004). _The Superhero Book: The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Comic-book Icons and Hollywood Heroes_ (1st ed.). Detroit, Michigan: Visible Ink Press . p. 711. ISBN 9781578591541 . Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ Stewart, Leslie (October 17, 2013). "Moon Prism Power! Why Sailor Moon is the perfect female superhero". Leslie IRL. Archived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ Comella, Anthony (March 24, 2013). "Grrrl power: why female superheroes matter". Pop Mythology. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ " Sailor Moon History 1993" セーラームーンのあゆみ 1993年 (IN JAPANESE). SAILORMOON. CHANNEL. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON JULY 15, 2009. RETRIEVED OCTOBER 20, 2016. * ^ Flinn, Tom (August 14, 2001). " Sailor Moon Graphic Novels Top Bookstore Sales – Demonstrates Shoujo\'s Potential". ICv2. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ "Mixx Entertainment, Inc. - Press Releases". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on October 29, 2000. Retrieved 2017-04-03. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ Thompson, Jason (March 3, 2011). " Sailor Moon – Jason Thompson\'s House of 1000 Manga". Anime News Network . Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ Durand, Sylvain (March–April 1996). "Sailor Moon: Manga vs Animation". _ Protoculture Addicts _ (39): 39. * ^ Taylor, Ihsan (October 2, 2011). "Best Sellers – The New York Times". NY Times. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ "New York Times Manga Best Seller List, September 11–17". _ Anime News Network _. September 23, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2016.

* ^ "Kodansha: Sailor Moon 1 Reprinted after 50,000 Sell Out". Anime News Network . October 14, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Poitras, Gilles (2004). _ Anime Essentials: Every Thing a Fan Needs to Know_ (4th ed.). Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 31–32. ISBN 1880656531 . * ^ Sevakis, Justin (January 1, 1999). " Anime and Teen Culture... Uh-oh.". Anime News Network . Retrieved July 19, 2009. * ^ Alverson, Brigid (February 17, 2009). " Matt Thorn Returns to Translation". _ Publishers Weekly _. PWxyz, LLC. Retrieved December 27, 2011. * ^ Deppey, Dirk (2005). "She\'s Got Her Own Thing Now". _The Comics Journal _ (269). Archived from the original on May 31, 2008. Retrieved June 22, 2008. Scratch a modern-day manga fangirl, and you're likely to find someone who watched _Sailor Moon_ when she was young. * ^ Sebastian, Trisha L. (November 2002). "Taking One for the Team: A Look at Sentai Shows". Sequential Tart. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ Patten, Fred (2011). _Watching Anime, Reading Manga 25 Years of Essays and Reviews_. New York: Stone Bridge Press. p. 50. ISBN 1611725100 . * ^ Gravett, Paul (2004). _Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics _ (2nd ed.). London: Laurence King. p. 78. ISBN 1856693910 . * ^ Christi (c. 1992). "Sailor Moon". _THEMAnime.org_. T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ Saito, Kumiko (2 January 2014). "Magic, Shōjo, and Metamorphosis: Magical Girl Anime and the Challenges of Changing Gender Identities in Japanese Society". _The Journal of Asian Studies _. 73 (01): 143–164. doi :10.1017/S0021911813001708 . * ^ Penedo, Nicolas (2008). Nicolas Finet, ed. _Dicomanga: le dictionnaire encyclopédique de la bande dessinée japonaise_ (in French). Paris: Fleurus. p. 464. ISBN 9782215079316 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Newsom, Victoria (c. 2004). "Young Females as Super Heroes: Superheroines in the Animated Sailor Moon". _femspec.org_. Femspec. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Brown, Lousie (July 27, 1996). "Sailing the Internet It\'s a treasure trove of trivia for Sailor \'Moonies\'". _pqarchiver.com_. The Toronto Star . Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ Craig, Timothy J. (2000). "Sailor Moon: Japanese Superheroes for Global Girls". _Japan Pop!: Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture_. Armonk, New York: Sharpe. pp. 259–278. ISBN 9780765605610 . * ^ "Animerica: Animerica Feature: Separated at Birth? Buffy vs. Sailor Moon". Animerica . c. 1999. Archived from the original on April 7, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ "Animerica: Animerica Feature: Separated at Birth? Buffy vs. Sailor Moon". Animerica . Archived from the original on April 7, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ Yoshida, Kaori (2002). "Evolution of Female Heroes: Carnival Mode of Gender Representation in Anime". _Western Washington University_. Western Washington University . Archived from the original on August 31, 2013. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ Chandra, Subhash (2006). _Lesbian Voices: Canada and the World: Theory, Literature, Cinema_. New Delhi: Allied Publishers. pp. 177, 180. ISBN 8184240759 . * ^ Matsumoto, Jon (June 19, 1996). "Fans Sending an SOS for \'Sailor\'". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ Faiola, Anthony (December 6, 2004). "We\'re Playing Their Toons". Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 11, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ Cox, Gemma. "Shôjo Classic - Sailor Moon". Neomag.co.uk. Archived from the original on January 1, 2008. Retrieved August 5, 2009. * ^ Updike, Edith (1997). "The Novice Who Tamed The Web". Business Week . Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2016. * ^ Allison, Anne (2001). "Cyborg Violence: Bursting Borders and Bodies with Queer Machines" (PDF). _Cultural Anthropology_. Duke University . 16 (2): 237–265. doi :10.1525/can.2001.16.2.237 . Archived from the original (PDF) on June 10, 2007. Retrieved October 20, 2016.


_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to SAILOR MOON _.

_ Wikiquote has quotations related to: SAILOR MOON _

* Official Pretty Guardian _Sailor Moon_ 25th anniversary project website (in Japanese) * USA Network site (via Internet Archive) * _Sailor Moon_ (manga) at Anime News Network 's encyclopedia * Sailor Moon at DMOZ * _Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon_ on IMDb * _Sailor Moon_ at Don Markstein\'s Toonopedia . Archived from the original on February 10, 2017.

* v * t * e

_Sailor Moon_ by Naoko Takeuchi


* Chapters * _Codename: Sailor V _

* _ Sailor Moon _

* episodes

* Season 1 * _R _ * _S _ * _SuperS _ * _Sailor Stars _

* films

* _R _ * _S _ * _Super S _

* _ Sailor Moon Crystal _

* episodes

* Live-action series * Musicals * Video games * Collectible card game



* Soundtracks * " Moonlight Densetsu " * " Kaze mo Sora mo Kitto... " * " Moon Pride "