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The Shailendra dynasty
Shailendra dynasty
(IAST: Śailēndra derived from Sanskrit combined words Śaila and Indra, meaning "King of the Mountain",[1] also spelled Sailendra, Syailendra or Selendra) was the name of a notable Indianised Indonesian dynasty that emerged in 8th century Java whose reign marked a cultural renaissance in the region.[2] The Shailendras were active promoters of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
and covered the Kedu Plain
Kedu Plain
of Central Java
Java
with Buddhist monuments, one of which is the colossal stupa of Borobudur, now a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[3][4][5] The Shailendras are considered to be a thalassocracy and ruled maritime Southeast Asia, however they also relied on agriculture pursuits through intensive rice cultivation on the Kedu Plain
Kedu Plain
of Central Java. The dynasty appeared to be the ruling family of both the Medang Kingdom
Medang Kingdom
of Central Java
Java
for some period and Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in Sumatra. The inscriptions created by Shailendras uses three languages; Old Malay, Old Javanese and Sanskrit, written either in the Kawi alphabet or pre-Nāgarī script. The use of Old Malay
Old Malay
has sparked the speculation of a Sumatran origin or Srivijayan connection of this family; on the other hand, the use of Old Javanese suggests their firm political establishment on Java. The use of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
usually signifies the official nature and religious significance of the event written on the inscription.

Contents

1 Primary sources 2 Possible origins

2.1 India 2.2 Sumatra 2.3 Java 2.4 Discounted proposal

3 Shailendras in Java 4 Shailendras in Sumatra 5 Shailendras in Bali 6 List of Shailendran rulers 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Primary sources[edit]

Part of a series on the

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The Sojomerto inscription (c. 725) discovered in Batang Regency, Central Java, mentioned the name Dapunta Selendra and Selendranamah. The name 'Selendra' was another spelling of Shailendra, suggested that Dapunta Selendra was the progenitor of Shailendra family in Central Java.[6] The inscription is Shaivist
Shaivist
in nature, which suggests that the family was probably initially Hindu Shaivist
Shaivist
before converting to Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism. The earliest dated inscription in Indonesia
Indonesia
in which clearly mentioned the dynastic name of Śailēndra as Śailēndravamśatilaka appears is the Kalasan inscription
Kalasan inscription
(778) of central Java, which mention its ruler Mahārāja dyāḥ Pañcapaṇa kariyāna Paṇaṃkaraṇa and commemorates the establishment of a Buddhist shrine, Candi Kalasan, dedicated for the goddess Tara.[2][7] The name also appears in several other inscriptions like the Kelurak inscription (782) and the Karangtengah inscription (824). Outside Indonesia, the name Shailendra is to be found in the Ligor inscription (775) on the Malay peninsula and Nalanda inscription
Nalanda inscription
(860) in India.[7] It is possible that it was Paṇaṃkaraṇa that create the Chaiya, or Ligor inscription (775), and took control over Srivijayan realm in the Southern Thailand Malay Peninsula.[2] Possible origins[edit] Although the rise of the Shailendras occurred in Kedu Plain
Kedu Plain
in the Javanese heartland, their origin has been the subject of discussion.[8] Apart from Java
Java
itself; an earlier homeland in Sumatra, India or Cambodia
Cambodia
has been suggested. The latest studies apparently favour a native origin of the dynasty. Despite their connections with Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Thai-Malay Peninsula, the Shailendras were more likely of Javanese origin.[9] India[edit] According to Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, an Indian scholar, the Shailendra dynasty
Shailendra dynasty
that established itself in the Indonesian archipleago originated from Kalinga in Eastern India.[10] This opinion is also shared by Nilakanta Sastri
Nilakanta Sastri
and J. L. Moens. Moens further describes that the Shailendras originated in India and established themselves in Palembang
Palembang
before the arrival of Srivijaya's Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa. In 683, the Shailendras moved to Java
Java
because of the pressure exerted by Dapunta Hyang and his troops.[11] Sumatra[edit] Other scholars hold that the expansion of Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was involved in the rise of the dynasty in Java.[12] Supporters of this connection emphasize the shared Mahayana
Mahayana
patronage; the intermarriages and the Ligor inscription. Also the fact that some of Shailendra's inscriptions were written in old Malay, which suggested Srivijaya
Srivijaya
or Sumatran connections. The name 'Selendra' was first mentioned in Sojomerto inscription (725) as "Dapunta Selendra". Dapunta Selendra is suggested as the ancestor of Shailendras. The title Dapunta is similar to those of Srivijayan King Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa, and the inscription — although discovered in Central Java north coast — was written in old Malay, which suggested the Sumatran origin or Srivijayan connection to this family. Java[edit] See also: Sanjaya dynasty Another theory suggests that Shailendra was a native Javanese dynasty and the Sanjaya dynasty
Sanjaya dynasty
was actually a branch of the Shailendras since Sri Sanjaya
Sri Sanjaya
and his offspring belong to the Shailendra family that were initially the Shaivist
Shaivist
rulers of the Medang Kingdom.[13] The association of Shailendra with Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
began after the conversion of Panaraban or Panangkaran to Buddhism. This theory is based on the Carita Parahyangan, which tells of the ailing King Sanjaya ordering his son, Rakai Panaraban or Panangkaran, to convert to Buddhism
Buddhism
because their faith in Shiva
Shiva
was feared by the people in favor of the pacifist Buddhist faith. The conversion of Panangkaran to Buddhism
Buddhism
also corresponds to the Raja Sankhara inscription, which tells of a king named Sankhara (identified as Panangkaran) converting to Buddhism
Buddhism
because his Shaiva faith was feared by the people. Unfortunately, the Raja Sankhara inscription is now missing. Discounted proposal[edit] In 1934, the French scholar Coedes proposed a relation with the Funan kingdom in Cambodia. Coedes believed that the Funanese rulers used similar-sounding 'mountainlord' titles, but several Cambodia specialists have discounted this. They hold there is no historical evidence for such titles in the Funan period.[14] Shailendras in Java[edit]

Borobudur, the largest Buddhist structure in the world.

The Shailendra rulers maintained cordial relations, including marriage alliances with Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in Sumatra. For instance, Samaragrawira married Dewi Tara, a daughter of Srivijayan Maharaja Dharmasetu. The mutual alliance between the two kingdoms ensured that Srivijaya
Srivijaya
had no need to fear the emergence of a Javanese rival and that the Shailendra had access to the international market. Karangtengah inscription dated 824 mentioned about king Samaratungga. His daughter named Pramodhawardhani has inaugurated a Jinalaya, a sacred buddhist sanctuary. The inscription also mentioned a sacred Buddhist building called Venuvana to place the cremated ashes of King Indra. The Tri Tepusan inscription dated 842 mentioned about the sima (tax free) lands awarded by Śrī Kahulunan (Pramodhawardhani, daughter of Samaratungga) to ensure the funding and maintenance of a Kamūlān called Bhūmisambhāra.[15] Kamūlān itself from the word mula which means 'the place of origin', a sacred building to honor the ancestors. These findings suggested that either the ancestors of the Shailendras were originated from Central Java, or as the sign that Shailendra have established their holds on Java. Casparis suggested that Bhūmi Sambhāra Bhudhāra which in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
means "The mountain of combined virtues of the ten stages of Boddhisattvahood", was the original name of Borobudur.[16] The received older version holds that the Shailendra dynasty
Shailendra dynasty
existed next to the Sanjaya dynasty
Sanjaya dynasty
in Java. Much of the period was characterized by peaceful co-existence and cooperation but towards the middle of the 9th century relations had deteriorated. Around 852 the Sanjaya ruler Pikatan had defeated Balaputra, the offspring of the Shailendra monarch Samaratunga and princess Tara. This ended the Shailendra presence in Java
Java
and Balaputra retreated to the Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra, where he became the paramount ruler.[17][18]:108 Earlier historians, such as N.J. Krom and Coedes, tend to equate Samaragrawira and Samaratungga
Samaratungga
as the same person.[18]:108 However, later historians such as Slamet Muljana equate Samaratungga
Samaratungga
with Rakai Garung, mentioned in Mantyasih inscription as fifth monarch of Mataram Kingdom. Which means Samaratungga
Samaratungga
was the successor of Samaragrawira, and Balaputradewa that is also Samaragrawira's son, is Samaratungga's younger brother and ruled in Suvarnadvipa (Sumatra), and he is not Samaratungga's son. This version holds Balaputra that reign in Sumatra challenged the Pikatan- Pramodhawardhani legitimation in Java, arguing that his niece and her husband has less rights to rule Java
Java
compared to his. Shailendras in Sumatra[edit] After 824, there are no more references to the Shailendra house in the Javanese ephigraphic record. Around 860 the name re-appears in the Nalanda inscription
Nalanda inscription
in India. According to the text, the king Devapaladeva of Bengala (Pala Empire) had granted 'Balaputra, the king of Suvarna-dvipa' (Sumatra) the revenues of 5 villages to a Buddhist monastery near Bodh Gaya. Balaputra was styled a descendant from the Shailendra dynasty
Shailendra dynasty
and grandson of the king of Java.[18]:108–109[19] From Sumatra, the Shailendras also maintained overseas relations with the Chola kingdom in Southern India, as shown by several south Indian inscriptions. An 11th-century inscription mentioned the grant of revenues to a local Buddhist sanctuary, built in 1005 by the king of the Srivijaya. In spite the relations were initially fairly cordial, hostilities had broken out in 1025.[20] Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
the Emperor of the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
conquered some territories of the Shailendra Dynasty in the 11th century.[21] The devastation caused by Chola invasion of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in 1025, marked the end of Shailendra family as the ruling dynasty in Sumatra. The last king of Shailendra dynasty
Shailendra dynasty
— the Maharaja Sangrama Vijayatunggavarman — was imprisoned and taken as hostage. Nevertheless, amity was re-established between the two states, before the end of the 11th century. In 1090 a new charter was granted to the old Buddhist sanctuary, it is the last known inscription with a reference to the Shailendras. With the absence of legitimate successor, Shailendra dynasty
Shailendra dynasty
seems ceased to rule. Other family within Srivijaya
Srivijaya
mandala took over the throne, a new Maharaja named Sri Deva according to Chinese source establishing new dynasty to rule Srivijaya. He sent an embassy to the court of China in 1028 CE. Shailendras in Bali[edit] Sri Kesari Warmadewa
Sri Kesari Warmadewa
was said to be a Buddhist king of the Shailendra Dynasty, leading a military expedition,[22] to establishing a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali.[23] In 914, he left a record of his endeavour in the Belanjong pillar
Belanjong pillar
in Sanur in Bali. According to this inscription Warmadewa dynasty
Warmadewa dynasty
was probably the branch of Shailendras that rule Bali. List of Shailendran rulers[edit] Traditionally, the Shailendra period was viewed to span from the 8th to the 9th century, confined only in Central Java, from the era of Panangkaran to Samaratungga. However the recent interpretation suggests the longer period of Shailendra family might existed, from mid 7th century (edict of Sojomerto inscription) to early 11th century (the fall of Shailendran dynasty of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
under Chola invasion). For certain period, Shailendras ruled both Central Java
Java
and Sumatra. Their alliance and intermarriage with Srivijayan ruling family resulted with the merging of two royal houses, with Shailendran finally emerge as the ruling family of both Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and Medang Mataram (Central Java). Some historians tried to reconstruct the order and list of Shailendra rulers, although there is some disagreement on the list. Boechari tried to reconstruct the early stage of Shailendra based on Sojomerto inscription, while other historians such as Slamet Muljana and Poerbatjaraka tried to reconstruct the list of Shailendran king in middle and later period with their connections to Sanjaya and Srivijaya, based on inscriptions and Carita Parahyangan manuscript. However, there is some confusion occurred, because the Shailendra seems to rule many kingdoms; Kalingga, Medang and later Srivijaya. As the result name of the same kings often overlapped and seens to rule these kingdoms simultaneously. The questionmark (?) signify doubt or speculation because of the scarcity of available valid sources.

Date King's or ruler's name Capital Stone inscription and source of historical account Event

c. 650 Santanu ? Sojomerto inscription (c. 670—700) The Shaivist
Shaivist
old Malay-speaking family began to settle in coastal Central Java, suggested of Sumatran origin (?) or native Javanese family under Srivijayan influences (vassal)

c. 674 Dapunta Selendra Batang (Central Java
Java
north coast) Sojomerto inscription (c. 670—700) Establishing ruling family, the first time the name 'Selendra' (Shailendra) was mentioned

674—703 Shima (?) Kalingga, somewhere between Pekalongan
Pekalongan
and Jepara Carita Parahyangan, Chinese account on Hwi-ning visits to Ho-ling kingdom (664) and the reign of queen Hsi-mo (674) Ruling the kingdom of Kalingga

703—710 Mandimiñak (?) ? Carita Parahyangan

710—717 Sanna ? Canggal inscription
Canggal inscription
(732), Carita Parahyangan Sanna ruled Java, but after his death the kingdom fell to chaotic disunity by usurper or foreign invasion

717—760 Sanjaya Mataram, Central Java Canggal inscription
Canggal inscription
(732), Carita Parahyangan Sanjaya, the nephew of Sanna restore the order and ascend to throne, some early historian took this event as the establishment of new Sanjaya Dynasty, while other hold that this only the continuation of Shailendras

760—775 Rakai Panangkaran Mataram, Central Java Raja Sankhara inscription, Kalasan inscription
Kalasan inscription
(778), Carita Parahyangan Rakai Panangkaran converted from Shaivism
Shaivism
to Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism, construction of Kalasan
Kalasan
temple[18]:89

775—800 Dharanindra Mataram, Central Java Kelurak inscription
Kelurak inscription
(782), Ligor inscription (c. 782 or 787)[18]:91 Also ruled Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in Sumatra, construction of Manjusrigrha temple, started the construction of Borobudur
Borobudur
(c. 770), Java
Java
ruled Ligor and Southern Cambodia
Cambodia
(Chenla) (c. 790)

800—812 Samaragrawira[18]:92–93 Mataram, Central Java Ligor inscription (c. 787) Also ruled Srivijaya, lost Cambodia
Cambodia
(802)

812—833 Samaratungga Mataram, Central Java Karangtengah inscription (824)[18]:92 Also ruled Srivijaya, completion of Borobudur
Borobudur
(825)

833—856 Pramodhawardhani co-reign with her husband Rakai Pikatan[18]:108 Mamrati, Central Java Shivagrha inscription
Shivagrha inscription
(856) Defeated and expelled Balaputra to Srivijaya
Srivijaya
(Sumatra). Construction of Prambanan
Prambanan
and Plaosan
Plaosan
temple. The successors of Pikatan, the series of Medang kings from Lokapala (850—890) to Wawa (924—929) could be considered as the continuation of Shailendra lineage, although King Balitung (898—910) in Mantyasih inscription (907) sought ancestor only as far as Sanjaya, thus enforced the Sanjaya dynasty
Sanjaya dynasty
theory.

833—850 Balaputradewa Srivijaya, South Sumatra Shivagrha inscription
Shivagrha inscription
(856), Nalanda inscription
Nalanda inscription
(860) Defeated by Pikatan-Pramodhawardhani, expelled from Central Java, took refuge in Sumatra
Sumatra
and rule Srivijaya, claim as the legitimate successor of Shailendra dynasty
Shailendra dynasty
from Java[18]:108

c. 960 Śri Udayadityavarman Srivijaya, South Sumatra Embassies to China (960 and 962) Sending embassies, tribute and trade mission to China

c. 980 Haji (Hia-Tche) Srivijaya, South Sumatra Embassies to China (980–983) Sending embassies, tribute and trade mission to China

c. 988 Sri Cudamani Warmadewa Srivijaya, South Sumatra Embassies to China (988-992-1003), Tanjore Inscription or Leiden Inscription (1044) Sending embassies, tribute and trade mission to China, Javanese King Dharmawangsa invasion on Srivijaya, building of temple for Chinese Emperor, gift of village by Raja-raja I

c. 1008 Sri Maravijayottungga Srivijaya, South Sumatra Embassies to China (1008) Sending embassies, tribute and trade mission to China (1008)

c. 1017 Sumatrabhumi Srivijaya, South Sumatra Embassies to China (1017) Sending embassies, tribute and trade mission to China (1017)

c. 1025 Sangrama Vijayatunggavarman Srivijaya, South Sumatra Chola Inscription on the temple of Rajaraja, Tanjore Chola raid on Srivijaya, the capital captured by Rajendra Chola

See also[edit]

Indonesia
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portal

List of monarchs of Java Slendro Candi of Indonesia

Notes[edit]

^ Cœdes, G (1983). The making of South East Asia. translated by H.M. Wright. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 96. ISBN 9780520050617. Retrieved 11 September 2015.  ^ a b c Zakharov, Anton O. (August 2012). "The Sailendras Reconsidered" (PDF). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Singapore.  ^ " Borobudur
Borobudur
Temple Compounds". UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 2006-12-05.  ^ "Patrons of Buddhism, the Śailēndras during the height of their power in central Java
Java
constructed impressive monuments and temple complexes, the best known of which is the Borobudur
Borobudur
on the Kedu Plain" (quoted from Hall 1985:109). ^ "Shailendra dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 September 2015.  ^ Boechari (1966). "Preliminary report on the discovery of an Old Malay inscription at Sojomerto". MISI. III: 241–251.  ^ a b Hall(1985:110) ^ Roy E. Jordaan (2006). "Why the Shailendras were not a Javanese dynasty". Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Malay World. 34 (98): 3–22. doi:10.1080/13639810600650711.  ^ Zakharov, Anton A (August 2012). "The Śailendras Reconsidered" (PDF). nsc.iseas.edu.sg. Singapore: The Nalanda- Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Centre Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 1, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-30.  ^ Majumdar, 1933: 121-141 ^ Moens, 1937: 317-487 ^ e.g. Munoz (2006:139) ^ (Poerbatjaraka, 1958: 254-264) ^ (Jacques 1979; Vickery 2003-2004) ^ Drs. R. Soekmono, (1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia
Indonesia
2, 2nd ed. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 46.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ Walubi. "Borobudur : Candi Berbukit Kebajikan".  ^ " De Casparis proposed that in 856 Balaputra was defeated by Pikatan, whereupon Balaputra retreated to Srivijaya, the country of his mother, to become the first Shailendra ruler of Srivijaya. Thus in the late 9th century Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was ruled by a Buddhist Shailendra ruler, while Java
Java
was ruled by Pikatan and his successors who patronized Siva" (cf. De Casparis, 1956; Hall, 1985:111). ^ a b c d e f g h i Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.  ^ Hall (1985:109) ^ Hall (1985:200) ^ Indian Civilization and Culture by Suhas Chatterjee p.499 ^ Bali
Bali
handbook with Lombok and the Eastern Isles by Liz Capaldi, Joshua Eliot p.98 [1] ^ Bali
Bali
& Lombok Lesley Reader, Lucy Ridout p.156

References[edit]

De Casparis, J.G. de (1956). Prasasti Indonesia
Indonesia
II : Selected inscriptions from the 7th to the 9th centuries AD. Bandung: Masu Baru, 1956 Kenneth Perry Landon (1969). Southeast Asia. Crossroad of Religions. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-46840-2.  Briggs, Lawrence Palmer (1951). "[Review of] South East Asia. Crossroad of Religions by K.P. Landon". The Far Eastern Quarterly. 9 (3): 271–277.  G. Coedes (1934). "On the origins of the Sailendras of Indonesia". Journal of the Greater India society. I: 61–70.  K.R. Hall (1985). Maritime Trade and State Development in Early South East Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-0959-9.  Claude Jacques (1979). "'Funan', 'Zhenla '. The Reality Concealed by These Chinese Views of IndoChina". In R.B. Smith and W. Watson. Early South East Asia. Essays in Archaeology, History and Historical Geography. New York/Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. pp. 371–389.  M. Vickery (2003–2004). "Funan reviewed: Deconstructing the Ancients". Bulletin de l' Ecole Francaise d' Extreme Orient: 101–143.  Paul Michel Munoz (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 981-4155-67-5. 

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Former states in Indonesia

Java

Hindu/Buddhist

Blambangan Galuh Isyana Janggala Kahuripan Kalingga Majapahit Medang Medang Kamulan Rajasa Salakanagara Sanjaya Shailendra Singhasari Srivijaya Sunda Tarumanagara

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