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The Sahara
Sahara
(Arabic: الصحراء الكبرى‎, aṣ-ṣaḥrāʼ al-kubrá, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica
Antarctica
and the Arctic.[1] Its area of 9,200,000 square kilometres (3,600,000 sq mi)[2] is comparable to the area of China
China
or the United States. The name 'Sahara' is derived from dialectal Arabic word for "desert", ṣaḥra (صحرا /ˈsˤaħra/).[3][4][5][6] The desert comprises much of North Africa, excluding the fertile region on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
coast, the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
of the Maghreb, and the Nile Valley
Nile Valley
in Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan. It stretches from the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east and the Mediterranean in the north to the Atlantic Ocean in the west, where the landscape gradually changes from desert to coastal plains. To the south, it is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of semi-arid tropical savanna around the Niger
Niger
River valley and the Sudan Region of Sub-Saharan Africa. The Sahara
Sahara
can be divided into several regions including: the western Sahara, the central Ahaggar Mountains, the Tibesti
Tibesti
Mountains, the Aïr Mountains, the Ténéré
Ténéré
desert, and the Libyan Desert. For several hundred thousand years, the Sahara
Sahara
has alternated between desert and savanna grassland in a 41,000 year cycle caused by changes ("precession") in the Earth's axis as it rotates around the sun, which change the location of the North African Monsoon. It is next expected to become green in about 15,000 years (17,000 AD).

Contents

1 Geography 2 Climate

2.1 Temperature 2.2 Precipitation 2.3 Desertification
Desertification
and prehistoric climate

2.3.1 Evidence for cycles

3 Ecoregions 4 Flora and fauna 5 History

5.1 Kiffians 5.2 Tenerians 5.3 Tashwinat Mummy 5.4 Nubians 5.5 Egyptians 5.6 Phoenicians 5.7 Greeks 5.8 Urban civilization 5.9 Berbers 5.10 Islamic expansion 5.11 Ottoman Turkish era 5.12 European colonialism 5.13 Breakup of the empires and afterwards

6 People and languages 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External links

Geography

A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the Saharan area.

An oasis in the Ahaggar Mountains. Oases support some life forms in extremely arid deserts.

An intense Saharan dust storm sent a massive dust plume northwestward over the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
on 2 March 2003

Butte
Butte
naturally sculpted by the wind

The Sahara
Sahara
covers large parts of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan
Sudan
and Tunisia. It covers 9 million square kilometres (3,500,000 sq mi), amounting to 31% of Africa. If all areas with a mean annual precipitation of less than 250 mm were included, the Sahara
Sahara
would be 11 million square kilometres (4,200,000 sq mi). It is one of three distinct physiographic provinces of the African massive physiographic division. The Sahara
Sahara
is mainly rocky hamada (stone plateaus), Ergs (sand seas - large areas covered with sand dunes) form only a minor part, but many of the sand dunes are over 180 metres (590 ft) high.[7] Wind or rare rainfall shape the desert features: sand dunes, dune fields, sand seas, stone plateaus, gravel plains (reg), dry valleys (wadi), dry lakes (oued), and salt flats (shatt or chott).[8] Unusual landforms include the Richat Structure
Richat Structure
in Mauritania. Several deeply dissected mountains, many volcanic, rise from the desert, including the Aïr Mountains, Ahaggar Mountains, Saharan Atlas, Tibesti
Tibesti
Mountains, Adrar des Iforas, and the Red Sea
Red Sea
hills. The highest peak in the Sahara
Sahara
is Emi Koussi, a shield volcano in the Tibesti
Tibesti
range of northern Chad. The central Sahara
Sahara
is hyperarid, with sparse vegetation. The northern and southern reaches of the desert, along with the highlands, have areas of sparse grassland and desert shrub, with trees and taller shrubs in wadis, where moisture collects. In the central, hyperarid region, there are many subdivisions of the great desert: Tanezrouft, the Ténéré, the Libyan Desert, the Eastern Desert, the Nubian Desert
Desert
and others. These extremely arid areas often receive no rain for years. To the north, the Sahara
Sahara
skirts the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in Egypt
Egypt
and portions of Libya, but in Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
and the Maghreb, the Sahara borders the Mediterranean forest, woodland, and scrub
Mediterranean forest, woodland, and scrub
eco-regions of northern Africa, all of which have a Mediterranean climate characterized by hot summers and cool and rainy winters. According to the botanical criteria of Frank White[9] and geographer Robert Capot-Rey,[10][11] the northern limit of the Sahara
Sahara
corresponds to the northern limit of date palm cultivation and the southern limit of the range of esparto, a grass typical of the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
portion of the Maghreb
Maghreb
and Iberia. The northern limit also corresponds to the 100 mm (3.9 in) isohyet of annual precipitation.[12] To the south, the Sahara
Sahara
is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of dry tropical savanna with a summer rainy season that extends across Africa from east to west. The southern limit of the Sahara
Sahara
is indicated botanically by the southern limit of Cornulaca monacantha
Cornulaca monacantha
(a drought-tolerant member of the Chenopodiaceae), or northern limit of Cenchrus biflorus, a grass typical of the Sahel.[10][11] According to climatic criteria, the southern limit of the Sahara
Sahara
corresponds to the 150 mm (5.9 in) isohyet of annual precipitation (this is a long-term average, since precipitation varies annually).[12] Important cities located in the Sahara
Sahara
include Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania; Tamanrasset, Ouargla, Béchar, Hassi Messaoud, Ghardaïa, and El Oued
El Oued
in Algeria; Timbuktu
Timbuktu
in Mali; Agadez
Agadez
in Niger; Ghat in Libya; and Faya-Largeau
Faya-Largeau
in Chad. Climate The Sahara
Sahara
is the world's largest low-latitude hot desert. The area is located in the horse latitudes under the subtropical ridge, a significant belt of semi-permanent subtropical warm-core high pressure where the air from upper levels of the troposphere tends to sink towards the ground. This steady descending airflow causes a warming and a drying effect in the upper troposphere. The sinking air prevents evaporating water from rising and, therefore, prevents the adiabatic cooling, which makes cloud formation extremely difficult to nearly impossible.[13] The permanent dissolution of clouds allows unhindered light and thermal radiation. The stability of the atmosphere above the desert prevents any convective overturning, thus making rainfall virtually non-existent. As a consequence, the weather tends to be sunny, dry and stable with a minimal risk of rainfall. Subsiding, diverging, dry air masses associated with subtropical high-pressure systems are extremely unfavorable for the development of convectional showers. The subtropical ridge is the predominant factor that explains the hot desert climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
BWh) of this vast region. The lowering of air is the strongest and the most effective over the eastern part of the Great Desert, in the Libyan Desert
Desert
which is the sunniest, driest and the most nearly "rain-less" place on the planet rivaling the Atacama Desert, lying in Chile
Chile
and Peru. The rainfall inhibition and the dissipation of cloud cover are most accentuated over the eastern section of the Sahara
Sahara
rather than the western. The prevailing air mass lying above the Sahara
Sahara
is the continental tropical (cT) air mass, which is hot and dry. Hot, dry air masses primarily form over the North-African desert from the heating of the vast continental land area, and it affects the whole desert during most of the year. Because of this extreme heating process, a thermal low is usually noticed near the surface, and is the strongest and the most developed during the summertime. The Sahara
Sahara
High represents the eastern continental extension of the Azores High,[citation needed] centered over the North Atlantic Ocean. The subsidence of the Sahara
Sahara
High nearly reaches the ground during the coolest part of the year while it is confined to the upper troposphere during the hottest periods. The effects of local surface low pressure are extremely limited because upper-level subsidence still continues to block any form of air ascent. Also, to be protected against rain-bearing weather systems by the atmospheric circulation itself, the desert is made even drier by his geographical configuration and location. Indeed, the extreme aridity of the Sahara
Sahara
can not be only explained by the subtropical high pressure. The Atlas Mountains, found in Algeria, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia
Tunisia
also help to enhance the aridity of the northern part of the desert. These major mountain ranges act as a barrier causing a strong rain shadow effect on the leeward side by dropping much of the humidity brought by atmospheric disturbances along the polar front which affects the surrounding Mediterranean climates. The primary source of rain in the Sahara
Sahara
is the Intertropical Convergence Zone, a continuous belt of low-pressure systems near the equator which bring the brief, short and irregular rainy season to the Sahel
Sahel
and southern Sahara. Rainfall in this giant desert has to overcome the physical and atmospheric barriers that normally prevent the production of precipitation. The harsh climate of the Sahara
Sahara
is characterized by: extremely low, unreliable, highly erratic rainfall; extremely high sunshine duration values; high temperatures year-round; negligible rates of relative humidity; a significant diurnal temperature variation; and extremely high levels of potential evaporation which are the highest recorded worldwide.[14] Temperature The sky is usually clear above the desert and the sunshine duration is extremely high everywhere in the Sahara. Most of the desert enjoys more than 3,600 h of bright sunshine annually or over 82% of the time, and a wide area in the eastern part experiences in excess of 4,000 h of bright sunshine a year or over 91% of the time. The highest values are very close to the theoretical maximum value. A value of 4,300 h or 98% of the time would be recorded in Upper Egypt
Egypt
(Aswan, Luxor) and in the Nubian Desert
Desert
( Wadi
Wadi
Halfa).[15] The annual average direct solar irradiation is around 2,800 kWh/(m2 year) in the Great Desert. The Sahara
Sahara
has a huge potential for solar energy production.

Sahara
Sahara
desert

The constantly high position of the sun, the extremely low relative humidity, and the lack of vegetation and rainfall make the Great Desert
Desert
the hottest continuously large area worldwide, and the hottest place on Earth during summer in some spots. The average high temperature exceeds 38 to 40 °C or 100.4 to 104.0 °F during the hottest month nearly everywhere in the desert except at very high altitudes. The highest officially recorded average high temperature[clarification needed] was 47 °C or 116.6 °F in a remote desert town in the Algerian Desert
Desert
called Bou Bernous
Bou Bernous
with an elevation of 378 metres (1,240 ft) meters above sea level.[15] It is the world’s highest recorded average high temperature[clarification needed] and only Death Valley, California rivals it.[16] Other hot spots in Algeria
Algeria
such as Adrar, Timimoun, In Salah, Ouallene, Aoulef, Reggane
Reggane
with an elevation between 200 and 400 metres (660 and 1,310 ft) above sea level get slightly lower summer average highs around 46 °C or 114.8 °F during the hottest months of the year. Salah, well known in Algeria
Algeria
for its extreme heat, has average high temperatures of 43.8 °C or 110.8 °F, 46.4 °C or 115.5 °F, 45.5 °C or 113.9 °F and 41.9 °C or 107.4 °F in June, July, August and September respectively. There are even hotter spots in the Sahara, but they are located in extremely remote areas, especially in the Azalai, lying in northern Mali. The major part of the desert experiences around three to five months when the average high strictly exceeds 40 °C or 104 °F. The southern central part of the desert experiences up to six or seven months when the average high temperature strictly exceeds 40 °C or 104 °F which shows the constancy and the length of the really hot season in the Sahara. Some examples of this are: Bilma, Niger
Niger
and Faya-Largeau, Chad. The annual average daily temperature exceeds 20 °C or 68 °F everywhere and can approach 30 °C or 86 °F in the hottest regions year-round. However, most of the desert has a value in excess of 25 °C or 77 °F. Sand and ground temperatures are even more extreme. During daytime, the sand temperature is extremely high as it can easily reach 80 °C or 176 °F or more.[17] A sand temperature of 83.5 °C (182.3 °F) has been recorded in Port Sudan.[17] Ground temperatures of 72 °C or 161.6 °F have been recorded in the Adrar of Mauritania
Mauritania
and a value of 75 °C (167 °F) has been measured in Borkou, northern Chad.[17] Due to lack of cloud cover and very low humidity, the desert usually features high diurnal temperature variations between days and nights. However, it is a myth that the nights are cold after extremely hot days in the Sahara. The average diurnal temperature range is typically between 13 and 20 °C or 23.4 and 36.0 °F. The lowest values are found along the coastal regions due to high humidity and are often even lower than 10 °C or 18 °F, while the highest values are found in inland desert areas where the humidity is the lowest, mainly in the southern Sahara. Still, it is true that winter nights can be cold as it can drop to the freezing point and even below, especially in high-elevation areas. The frequency of subfreezing winter nights in the Sahara
Sahara
is strongly influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation
North Atlantic Oscillation
(NAO), with warmer winter temperatures during negative NAO events and cooler winters with more frosts when the NAO is positive.[18] This is because the weaker clockwise flow around the eastern side of the subtropical anticyclone during negative NAO winters, although too dry to produce more than negligible precipitation, does reduce the flow of dry, cold air from higher latitudes of Eurasia into the Sahara
Sahara
significantly.[19] Precipitation The average annual rainfall ranges from very low in the northern and southern fringes of the desert to nearly non-existent over the central and the eastern part. The thin northern fringe of the desert receives more winter cloudiness and rainfall due to the arrival of low pressure systems over the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
along the polar front, although very attenuated by the rain shadow effects of the mountains and the annual average rainfall ranges from 100 millimetres (4 in) to 250 millimetres (10 in). For example, Biskra, Algeria
Algeria
and Ouarzazate, Morocco
Morocco
are found in this zone. The southern fringe of the desert along the border with the Sahel
Sahel
receives summer cloudiness and rainfall due to the arrival of the Intertropical Convergence Zone
Intertropical Convergence Zone
from the south and the annual average rainfall ranges from 100 millimetres (4 in) to 250 millimetres (10 in). For example, Timbuktu, Mali
Mali
and Agadez, Niger
Niger
are found in this zone. The vast central hyper-arid core of the desert is virtually never affected by northerly or southerly atmospheric disturbances and permanently remains under the influence of the strongest anticyclonic weather regime, and the annual average rainfall can drop to less than 1 millimetre (0.04 in). In fact, most of the Sahara
Sahara
receives less than 20 millimetres (0.8 in). Of the 9,000,000 square kilometres (3,500,000 sq mi) of desert land in the Sahara, an area of about 2,800,000 square kilometres (1,100,000 sq mi) (about 31% of the total area) receives an annual average rainfall amount of 10 millimetres (0.4 in) or less, while some 1,500,000 square kilometres (580,000 sq mi) (about 17% of the total area) receives an average of 5 millimetres (0.2 in) or less.[20] The annual average rainfall is virtually zero over a wide area of some 1,000,000 square kilometres (390,000 sq mi) in the eastern Sahara
Sahara
comprising deserts of: Libya, Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
Sudan
(Tazirbu, Kufra, Dakhla, Kharga, Farafra, Siwa, Asyut, Sohag, Luxor, Aswan, Abu Simbel, Wadi
Wadi
Halfa) where the long-term mean approximates 0.5 millimetres (0.02 in) per year.[20] Rainfall is very unreliable and erratic in the Sahara
Sahara
as it may vary considerably year by year. In full contrast to the negligible annual rainfall amounts, the annual rates of potential evaporation are extraordinarily high, roughly ranging from 2,500 millimetres (100 in) per year to more than 6,000 millimetres (240 in) per year in the whole desert.[21] Nowhere else on Earth has air been found as dry and evaporative as in the Sahara
Sahara
region. However, at least two instances of snowfall have been recorded in Sahara, in February 1979 and December 2016, both in the town of Ain Sefra.[22] Desertification
Desertification
and prehistoric climate Main articles: Sahara
Sahara
pump theory, Green Sahara, Prehistoric North Africa, and North African climate cycles The climate of the Sahara
Sahara
has undergone enormous variations between wet and dry over the last few hundred thousand years,[23] believed to be caused by long-term changes in the North African climate cycle that alters the path of the North African Monsoon
North African Monsoon
- usually southward. The cycle is caused by a 41000-year cycle in which the tilt of the earth changes between 22° and 24.5°.[20] At present (2000 AD), we are in a dry period, but it is expected that the Sahara
Sahara
will become green again in 15000 years (17000 AD). When the North African monsoon is at its strongest annual precipitation and subsequent vegetation in the Sahara region increase, resulting in conditions commonly referred to as the "green Sahara". For a relatively weak North African monsoon, the opposite is true, with decreased annual precipitation and less vegetation resulting in a phase of the Sahara
Sahara
climate cycle known as the "desert Sahara".[24] The idea that changes in insolation (solar heating) caused by long-term changes in the Earth's orbit are a controlling factor for the long-term variations in the strength of monsoon patterns across the globe was first suggested by Rudolf Spitaler in the late nineteenth century,[25] The hypothesis was later formally proposed and tested by the meteorologist John Kutzbach in 1981.[26] Kutzbach's ideas about the impacts of insolation on global monsoonal patterns have become widely accepted today as the underlying driver of long term monsoonal cycles. Kutzbach never formally named his hypothesis and as such it is referred to here as the "Orbital Monsoon
Monsoon
Hypothesis" as suggested by Ruddiman in 2001.[25] During the last glacial period, the Sahara
Sahara
was much larger than it is today, extending south beyond its current boundaries.[27] The end of the glacial period brought more rain to the Sahara, from about 8000 BC to 6000 BC, perhaps because of low pressure areas over the collapsing ice sheets to the north.[28] Once the ice sheets were gone, the northern Sahara
Sahara
dried out. In the southern Sahara, the drying trend was initially counteracted by the monsoon, which brought rain further north than it does today. By around 4200 BC, however, the monsoon retreated south to approximately where it is today,[29] leading to the gradual desertification of the Sahara.[30] The Sahara
Sahara
is now as dry as it was about 13,000 years ago.[23] The Sahara pump theory
Sahara pump theory
describes this cycle. During periods of a wet or "Green Sahara", the Sahara
Sahara
becomes a savanna grassland and various flora and fauna become more common. Following inter-pluvial arid periods, the Sahara
Sahara
area then reverts to desert conditions and the flora and fauna are forced to retreat northwards to the Atlas Mountains, southwards into West Africa, or eastwards into the Nile Valley. This separates populations of some of the species in areas with different climates, forcing them to adapt, possibly giving rise to allopatric speciation. It is also proposed that humans accelerated the drying out period from 6,000–2,500 BC by pastoralists overgrazing available grassland.[31] Evidence for cycles The growth of speleothems (which requires rainwater) was detected in Hol-Zakh, Ashalim, Even-Sid, Ma'ale-ha-Meyshar, Ktora Cracks, Nagev Tzavoa Cave, and elsewhere, and has allowing tracking of prehistoric rainfall. The Red Sea
Red Sea
coastal route was extremely arid before 140 and after 115 kya. Slightly wetter conditions appear at 90–87 kya, but it still was just one tenth the rainfall around 125 kya. In the southern Negev
Negev
Desert
Desert
speleothems did not grow between 185–140 kya (MIS 6), 110–90 (MIS 5.4–5.2), nor after 85 kya nor during most of the interglacial period (MIS 5.1), the glacial period and Holocene. This suggests that the southern Negev
Negev
was arid to hyper-arid in these periods.[32] During the Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum
(LGM) the Sahara
Sahara
desert was more extensive than it is now with the extent of the tropical forests being greatly reduced,[33] and the lower temperatures reduced the strength of the Hadley Cell. This is a climate cell which causes rising tropical air of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
(ITCZ) to bring rain to the tropics, while dry descending air, at about 20 degrees north, flows back to the equator and brings desert conditions to this region. It is associated with high rates of wind-blown mineral dust, and these dust levels are found as expected in marine cores from the north tropical Atlantic. But around 12,500 BC the amount of dust in the cores in the Bølling/Allerød phase suddenly plummets and shows a period of much wetter conditions in the Sahara, indicating a Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) event (a sudden warming followed by a slower cooling of the climate). The moister Saharan conditions had begun about 12,500 BC, with the extension of the ITCZ northward in the northern hemisphere summer, bringing moist wet conditions and a savanna climate to the Sahara, which (apart from a short dry spell associated with the Younger Dryas) peaked during the Holocene
Holocene
thermal maximum climatic phase at 4000 BC when mid-latitude temperatures seem to have been between 2 and 3 degrees warmer than in the recent past. Analysis of Nile River
Nile River
deposited sediments in the delta also shows this period had a higher proportion of sediments coming from the Blue Nile, suggesting higher rainfall also in the Ethiopian Highlands. This was caused principally by a stronger monsoonal circulation throughout the sub-tropical regions, affecting India, Arabia and the Sahara.[citation needed] Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
only recently became the source of the White Nile
White Nile
and dried out almost completely around 15 kya.[34] The sudden subsequent movement of the ITCZ southwards with a Heinrich event (a sudden cooling followed by a slower warming), linked to changes with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation
El Niño-Southern Oscillation
cycle, led to a rapid drying out of the Saharan and Arabian regions, which quickly became desert. This is linked to a marked decline in the scale of the Nile floods between 2700 and 2100 BC.[35] Ecoregions

The major topographic features of the Saharan region.

The Sahara
Sahara
comprises several distinct ecoregions. With their variations in temperature, rainfall, elevation, and soil, these regions harbor distinct communities of plants and animals. The Atlantic coastal desert
Atlantic coastal desert
is a narrow strip along the Atlantic coast where fog generated offshore by the cool Canary Current provides sufficient moisture to sustain a variety of lichens, succulents, and shrubs. It covers an area of 39,900 square kilometers (15,400 sq mi) in the south of Morocco
Morocco
and Mauritania.[36] The North Saharan steppe and woodlands
North Saharan steppe and woodlands
is along the northern desert, next to the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
ecoregions of the northern Maghreb
Maghreb
and Cyrenaica. Winter rains sustain shrublands and dry woodlands that form a transition between the Mediterranean climate regions to the north and the hyper-arid Sahara
Sahara
proper to the south. It covers 1,675,300 square kilometers (646,840 sq mi) in Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia.[37] The Sahara
Sahara
Desert
Desert
ecoregion covers the hyper-arid central portion of the Sahara
Sahara
where rainfall is minimal and sporadic. Vegetation
Vegetation
is rare, and this ecoregion consists mostly of sand dunes (erg, chech, raoui), stone plateaus (hamadas), gravel plains (reg), dry valleys (wadis), and salt flats. It covers 4,639,900 square kilometres (1,791,500 sq mi) of: Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Sudan.[8] The South Saharan steppe and woodlands ecoregion is a narrow band running east and west between the hyper-arid Sahara
Sahara
and the Sahel savannas to the south. Movements of the equatorial Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) bring summer rains during July and August which average 100 to 200 mm (4 to 8 in) but vary greatly from year to year. These rains sustain summer pastures of grasses and herbs, with dry woodlands and shrublands along seasonal watercourses. This ecoregion covers 1,101,700 square kilometres (425,400 sq mi) in Algeria, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Sudan.[38] In the West Saharan montane xeric woodlands, several volcanic highlands provide a cooler, moister environment that supports Saharo-Mediterranean woodlands and shrublands. The ecoregion covers 258,100 square kilometres (99,650 sq mi), mostly in the Tassili n'Ajjer
Tassili n'Ajjer
of Algeria, with smaller enclaves in the Aïr of Niger, the Dhar Adrar
Dhar Adrar
of Mauritania, and the Adrar des Iforas
Adrar des Iforas
of Mali and Algeria.[39] The Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands
Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands
ecoregion consists of the Tibesti
Tibesti
and Jebel Uweinat
Jebel Uweinat
highlands. Higher and more regular rainfall and cooler temperatures support woodlands and shrublands of Date palm, acacias, myrtle, oleander, tamarix, and several rare and endemic plants. The ecoregion covers 82,200 square kilometres (31,700 sq mi) in the Tibesti
Tibesti
of Chad
Chad
and Libya, and Jebel Uweinat on the border of Egypt, Libya, and Sudan.[40] The Saharan halophytics is an area of seasonally flooded saline depressions which is home to halophytic (salt-adapted) plant communities. The Saharan halophytics cover 54,000 square kilometres (21,000 sq mi) including: the Qattara and Siwa depressions in northern Egypt, the Tunisian salt lakes
Tunisian salt lakes
of central Tunisia, Chott Melghir in Algeria, and smaller areas of Algeria, Mauritania, and the southern part of Morocco.[41] The Tanezrouft
Tanezrouft
is one of the harshest regions on Earth as well as one of the hottest and driest parts of the Sahara, with no vegetation and very little life. It is along the borders of Algeria, Niger]] and Mali, west of the Hoggar
Hoggar
mountains. Flora and fauna The flora of the Sahara
Sahara
is highly diversified based on the bio-geographical characteristics of this vast desert. Floristically, the Sahara
Sahara
has three zones based on the amount of rainfall received – the Northern (Mediterranean), Central and Southern Zones. There are two transitional zones – the Mediterranean- Sahara
Sahara
transition and the Sahel
Sahel
transition zone.[42] The Saharan flora comprises around 2800 species of vascular plants. Approximately a quarter of these are endemic. About half of these species are common to the flora of the Arabian deserts.[43] The central Sahara
Sahara
is estimated to include five hundred species of plants, which is extremely low considering the huge extent of the area. Plants such as acacia trees, palms, succulents, spiny shrubs, and grasses have adapted to the arid conditions, by growing lower to avoid water loss by strong winds, by storing water in their thick stems to use it in dry periods, by having long roots that travel horizontally to reach the maximum area of water and to find any surface moisture, and by having small thick leaves or needles to prevent water loss by evapotranspiration. Plant leaves may dry out totally and then recover.

Camels in the Guelta d'Archei, in north-eastern Chad.

Several species of fox live in the Sahara
Sahara
including: the fennec fox, pale fox and Rüppell's fox. The addax, a large white antelope, can go nearly a year in the desert without drinking. The dorcas gazelle is a north African gazelle that can also go for a long time without water. Other notable gazelles include the rhim gazelle and dama gazelle. The Saharan cheetah (northwest African cheetah) lives in Algeria, Togo, Niger, Mali, Benin, and Burkina Faso. There remain fewer than 250 mature cheetahs, which are very cautious, fleeing any human presence. The cheetah avoids the sun from April to October, seeking the shelter of shrubs such as balanites and acacias. They are unusually pale.[44][45] The other cheetah subspecies (northeast African cheetah) lives in Chad, Sudan
Sudan
and the eastern region of Niger. However, it is currently extinct in the wild in Egypt
Egypt
and Libya. There are approximately 2000 mature individuals left in the wild.

An Idehan Ubari
Idehan Ubari
oasis lake, with native grasses and date palms

Other animals include the monitor lizards, hyrax, sand vipers, and small populations of African wild dog,[46] in perhaps only 14 countries[47] and red-necked ostrich. Other animals exist in the Sahara
Sahara
(birds in particular) such as African silverbill
African silverbill
and black-faced firefinch, among others. There are also small desert crocodiles in Mauritania
Mauritania
and the Ennedi Plateau
Ennedi Plateau
of Chad.[48] The deathstalker scorpion can be 10 cm (3.9 in) long. Its venom contains large amounts of agitoxin and scyllatoxin and is very dangerous; however, a sting from this scorpion rarely kills a healthy adult. The Saharan silver ant
Saharan silver ant
is unique in that due to the extreme high temperatures of their habitat, and the threat of predators, the ants are active outside their nest for only about ten minutes per day.[49] Dromedary
Dromedary
camels and goats are the domesticated animals most commonly found in the Sahara. Because of its qualities of endurance and speed, the dromedary is the favourite animal used by nomads. Human activities are more likely to affect the habitat in areas of permanent water (oases) or where water comes close to the surface. Here, the local pressure on natural resources can be intense. The remaining populations of large mammals have been greatly reduced by hunting for food and recreation. In recent years development projects have started in the deserts of Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
using irrigated water pumped from underground aquifers. These schemes often lead to soil degradation and salinization. Researchers from Hacettepe University
Hacettepe University
(Yücekutlu, N. et al., 2011) have reported that Saharan soil may have bio-available iron and also some essential macro and micro nutrient elements suitable for use as fertilizer for growing wheat.[50] History People lived on the edge of the desert thousands of years ago[51] since the end of the last glacial period. The Sahara
Sahara
was then a much wetter place than it is today. Over 30,000 petroglyphs of river animals such as crocodiles[52] survive, with half found in the Tassili n'Ajjer in southeast Algeria. Fossils of dinosaurs, including Afrovenator, Jobaria
Jobaria
and Ouranosaurus, have also been found here. The modern Sahara, though, is not lush in vegetation, except in the Nile Valley, at a few oases, and in the northern highlands, where Mediterranean plants such as the olive tree are found to grow. It was long believed that the region had been this way since about 1600 BCE, after shifts in the Earth's axis increased temperatures and decreased precipitation, which led to the abrupt desertification of North Africa about 5,400 years ago.[29] However, this theory has recently been called into dispute, when samples taken from several 7 million year old sand deposits led scientists to reconsider the timeline for desertification.[53] Kiffians The Kiffian culture is a prehistoric industry, or domain, that existed between 10,000 and 8,000 years ago in the Sahara, during the Neolithic Subpluvial. Human remains from this culture were found in 2000 at a site known as Gobero, located in Niger
Niger
in the Ténéré
Ténéré
Desert.[54] The site is known as the largest and earliest grave of Stone Age people in the Sahara
Sahara
desert.[55] The Kiffians were skilled hunters. Bones of many large savannah animals that were discovered in the same area suggest that they lived on the shores of a lake that was present during the Holocene
Holocene
Wet Phase, a period when the Sahara
Sahara
was verdant and wet.[55] The Kiffian people were tall, standing over six feet in height.[54] Craniometric analysis indicates that this early Holocene population was closely related to the Late Pleistocene Iberomaurusians and early Holocene
Holocene
Capsians of the Maghreb, as well as mid-Holocene Mechta groups.[56] Traces of the Kiffian culture do not exist after 8,000 years ago, as the Sahara
Sahara
went through a dry period for the next thousand years.[57] After this time, the Tenerian culture colonized the area. Tenerians Gobero
Gobero
was discovered in 2000 during an archaeological expedition led by Paul Sereno, which sought dinosaur remains. Two distinct prehistoric cultures were discovered at the site: the early Holocene Kiffian culture, and the middle Holocene
Holocene
Tenerian culture. The Kiffians were a prehistoric people who preceded the Tenerians and vanished approximately 8000 years ago, when the desert became very dry. The desiccation lasted until around 4600 BC, when the earliest artefacts associated with the Tenerians have been dated to. Some 200 skeletons have been discovered at Gobero. The Tenerians were considerably shorter in height and less robust than the earlier Kiffians. Craniometric analysis also indicates that they were osteologically distinct. The Kiffian skulls are akin to those of the Late Pleistocene Iberomaurusians, early Holocene
Holocene
Capsians, and mid- Holocene
Holocene
Mechta groups, whereas the Tenerian crania are more like those of Mediterranean groups.[58][59] Graves show that the Tenerians observed spiritual traditions, as they were buried with artifacts such as jewelry made of hippo tusks and clay pots. The most interesting find is a triple burial, dated to 5300 years ago, of an adult female and two children, estimated through their teeth as being five and eight years old, hugging each other. Pollen residue indicates they were buried on a bed of flowers. The three are assumed to have died within 24 hours of each other, but as their skeletons hold no apparent trauma (they did not die violently) and they have been buried so elaborately - unlikely if they had died of a plague - the cause of their deaths is a mystery. Tashwinat Mummy Uan Muhuggiag appears to have been inhabited from at least the 6th millennium BC to about 2700 BC, although not necessarily continuously.[60] The most noteworthy find at Uan Muhuggiag is the well-preserved mummy of a young boy of approximately 2 1/2 years old. The child was in a fetal position, then embalmed, then placed in a sack made of antelope skin, which was insulated by a layer of leaves.[61] The boy's organs were removed, as evidenced by incisions in his stomach and thorax, and an organic preservative was inserted to stop his body from decomposing.[62] An ostrich eggshell necklace was also found around his neck.[60] Radiocarbon dating
Radiocarbon dating
determined the age of the mummy to be approximately 5600 years old, which makes it about 1000 years older than the earliest previously recorded mummy in ancient Egypt.[63] In 1958-1959, an archaeological expedition led by Antonio Ascenzi conducted anthropological, radiological, histological and chemical analyses on the Uan Muhuggiag mummy. The specimen was determined to be that of a 30-month old child of uncertain sex, who possessed Negroid
Negroid
features. A long incision on the specimen's abdominal wall also indicated that the body had been initially mummified by evisceration and later underwent natural desiccation.[64] One other individual, an adult, was found at Uan Muhuggiag, buried in a crouched position.[60] However, the body showed no evidence of evisceration or any other method of preservation. The body was estimated to date from about 7500 BP.[65] Nubians Further information: Sahara pump theory
Sahara pump theory
and Neolithic
Neolithic
Subpluvial

Beni Isguen, a holy city surrounded by thick walls in the Algerian Sahara.

During the Neolithic
Neolithic
Era, before the onset of desertification around 9500 BCE, the central Sudan
Sudan
had been a rich environment supporting a large population ranging across what is now barren desert, like the Wadi
Wadi
el-Qa'ab. By the 5th millennium BCE, the people who inhabited what is now called Nubia, were full participants in the "agricultural revolution", living a settled lifestyle with domesticated plants and animals. Saharan rock art of cattle and herdsmen suggests the presence of a cattle cult like those found in Sudan
Sudan
and other pastoral societies in Africa
Africa
today.[66] Megaliths found at Nabta Playa
Nabta Playa
are overt examples of probably the world's first known archaeoastronomy devices, predating Stonehenge
Stonehenge
by some 2,000 years.[67] This complexity, as observed at Nabta Playa, and as expressed by different levels of authority within the society there, likely formed the basis for the structure of both the Neolithic
Neolithic
society at Nabta and the Old Kingdom of Egypt.[68] Egyptians By 6000 BCE predynastic Egyptians in the southwestern corner of Egypt were herding cattle and constructing large buildings. Subsistence in organized and permanent settlements in predynastic Egypt
Egypt
by the middle of the 6th millennium BCE centered predominantly on cereal and animal agriculture: cattle, goats, pigs and sheep. Metal objects replaced prior ones of stone. Tanning of animal skins, pottery and weaving were commonplace in this era also. There are indications of seasonal or only temporary occupation of the Al Fayyum
Al Fayyum
in the 6th millennium BCE, with food activities centering on fishing, hunting and food-gathering. Stone arrowheads, knives and scrapers from the era are commonly found.[69] Burial items included pottery, jewelry, farming and hunting equipment, and assorted foods including dried meat and fruit. Burial in desert environments appears to enhance Egyptian preservation rites, and the dead were buried facing due west.[70] By 3400 BCE, the Sahara
Sahara
was as dry as it is today, due to reduced precipitation and higher temperatures resulting from a shift in the Earth's orbit.[29] As a result of this aridification, it became a largely impenetrable barrier to humans, with the remaining settlements mainly being concentrated around the numerous oases that dot the landscape. Little trade or commerce is known to have passed through the interior in subsequent periods, the only major exception being the Nile
Nile
Valley. The Nile, however, was impassable at several cataracts, making trade and contact by boat difficult. Phoenicians Further information: History of Western Sahara The people of Phoenicia, who flourished from 1200–800 BCE, created a confederation of kingdoms across the entire Sahara
Sahara
to Egypt. They generally settled along the Mediterranean coast, as well as the Sahara, among the people of ancient Libya, who were the ancestors of people who speak Berber languages
Berber languages
in North Africa
North Africa
and the Sahara today, including the Tuareg
Tuareg
of the central Sahara.

Azalai
Azalai
salt caravan. The French reported that the 1906 caravan numbered 20,000 camels.

The Phoenician alphabet seems to have been adopted by the ancient Libyans of north Africa, and Tifinagh
Tifinagh
is still used today by Berber-speaking Tuareg
Tuareg
camel herders of the central Sahara. Sometime between 633 BCE and 530 BCE, Hanno the Navigator
Hanno the Navigator
either established or reinforced Phoenician colonies in Western Sahara, but all ancient remains have vanished with virtually no trace. Greeks By 500 BCE, Greeks arrived in the desert. Greek traders spread along the eastern coast of the desert, establishing trading colonies along the Red Sea. The Carthaginians explored the Atlantic coast of the desert, but the turbulence of the waters and the lack of markets caused a lack of presence further south than modern Morocco. Centralized states thus surrounded the desert on the north and east; it remained outside the control of these states. Raids from the nomadic Berber people
Berber people
of the desert were of constant concern to those living on the edge of the desert. Urban civilization

Market on the main square of Ghardaïa
Ghardaïa
(1971)

An urban civilization, the Garamantes, arose around 500 BCE in the heart of the Sahara, in a valley that is now called the Wadi
Wadi
al-Ajal in Fezzan, Libya.[23] The Garamantes
Garamantes
achieved this development by digging tunnels far into the mountains flanking the valley to tap fossil water and bring it to their fields. The Garamantes
Garamantes
grew populous and strong, conquering their neighbors and capturing many slaves (who were put to work extending the tunnels). The ancient Greeks and the Romans knew of the Garamantes
Garamantes
and regarded them as uncivilized nomads. However, they traded with them, and a Roman bath has been found in the Garamantes' capital of Garama. Archaeologists have found eight major towns and many other important settlements in the Garamantes' territory. The Garamantes' civilization eventually collapsed after they had depleted available water in the aquifers and could no longer sustain the effort to extend the tunnels further into the mountains.[71] Berbers

Zawiya at the entrance of Taghit, Algeria

The Berber people
Berber people
occupied (and still occupy) much of the Sahara. The Garamantes
Garamantes
Berbers
Berbers
built a prosperous empire in the heart of the desert.[72] The Tuareg
Tuareg
nomads continue to inhabit and move across wide Sahara
Sahara
surfaces to the present day. Islamic expansion Main articles: Trans-Saharan trade
Trans-Saharan trade
and Islamization of Sudan The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
ruled the northern shores of the Sahara
Sahara
from the 5th to the 7th centuries. After the Muslim conquest of Arabia, specifically the Arabian peninsula, the Muslim conquest of North Africa
Africa
began in the mid-7th to early 8th centuries and Islamic influence expanded rapidly on the Sahara. By the end of 641 all of Egypt
Egypt
was in Muslim hands. Trade across the desert intensified, and a significant slave trade crossed the desert. It has been estimated that from the 10th to 19th centuries some 6,000 to 7,000 slaves were transported north each year.[73]

The Tuareg
Tuareg
once controlled the central Sahara
Sahara
and its trade.

Ottoman Turkish era In the 16th century the northern fringe of the Sahara, such as coastal regencies in present-day Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia, as well as some parts of present-day Libya, together with the semi-autonomous kingdom of Egypt, were occupied by the Ottoman Empire. From 1517 Egypt
Egypt
was a valued part of the Ottoman Empire, ownership of which provided the Ottomans with control over the Nile
Nile
Valley, the east Mediterranean and North Africa. The benefit of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was the freedom of movement for citizens and goods. Traders exploited the Ottoman land routes to handle the spices, gold and silk from the East, manufactured goods from Europe, and the slave and gold traffic from Africa. Arabic continued as the local language and Islamic culture was much reinforced. The Sahel
Sahel
and southern Sahara
Sahara
regions were home to several independent states or to roaming Tuareg
Tuareg
clans. European colonialism European colonialism
European colonialism
in the Sahara
Sahara
began in the 19th century. France conquered the regency of Algiers
Algiers
from the Ottomans in 1830, and French rule spread south from Algeria
Algeria
and eastwards from Senegal
Senegal
into the upper Niger
Niger
to include present-day Algeria, Chad, Mali
Mali
then French Sudan
Sudan
including Timbuktu, Mauritania, Morocco
Morocco
(1912), Niger, and Tunisia
Tunisia
(1881). By the beginning of the 20th century, the trans-Saharan trade had clearly declined because goods were moved through more modern and efficient means, such as airplanes, rather than across the desert.[74] The French Colonial Empire was the dominant presence in the Sahara. It established regular air links from Toulouse
Toulouse
(HQ of famed Aéropostale), to Oran
Oran
and over the Hoggar
Hoggar
to Timbuktu
Timbuktu
and West to Bamako
Bamako
and Dakar, as well as trans- Sahara
Sahara
bus services run by La Companie Transsaharienne (est. 1927).[75] A remarkable film shot by famous aviator Captain René Wauthier documents the first crossing by a large truck convoy from Algiers
Algiers
to Tchad, across the Sahara.[76] Egypt, under Muhammad Ali and his successors, conquered Nubia
Nubia
in 1820–22, founded Khartoum
Khartoum
in 1823, and conquered Darfur
Darfur
in 1874. Egypt, including the Sudan, became a British protectorate in 1882. Egypt
Egypt
and Britain lost control of the Sudan
Sudan
from 1882 to 1898 as a result of the Mahdist War. After its capture by British troops in 1898, the Sudan
Sudan
became an Anglo-Egyptian condominium. Spain captured present-day Western Sahara
Western Sahara
after 1874, although Rio del Oro remained largely under Sahrawi influence. In 1912, Italy captured parts of what was to be named Libya
Libya
from the Ottomans. To promote the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
religion in the desert, Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX
appointed a delegate Apostolic of the Sahara
Sahara
and the Sudan
Sudan
in 1868; later in the 19th century his jurisdiction was reorganized into the Vicariate Apostolic of Sahara. Breakup of the empires and afterwards

A natural rock arch in south western Libya

The Sahara
Sahara
today

Egypt
Egypt
became independent of Britain in 1936, although the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936
Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936
allowed Britain to keep troops in Egypt and to maintain the British-Egyptian condominium in the Sudan. British military forces were withdrawn in 1954. Most of the Saharan states achieved independence after World
World
War II: Libya
Libya
in 1951; Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia
Tunisia
in 1956; Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger
Niger
in 1960; and Algeria
Algeria
in 1962. Spain withdrew from Western Sahara
Western Sahara
in 1975, and it was partitioned between Mauritania and Morocco. Mauritania
Mauritania
withdrew in 1979; Morocco
Morocco
continues to hold the territory. In the post- World War II
World War II
era, several mines and communities have developed to utilize the desert's natural resources. These include large deposits of oil and natural gas in Algeria
Algeria
and Libya, and large deposits of phosphates in Morocco
Morocco
and Western Sahara. A number of Trans-African highways have been proposed across the Sahara, including the Cairo– Dakar
Dakar
Highway along the Atlantic coast, the Trans-Sahara Highway
Trans-Sahara Highway
from Algiers
Algiers
on the Mediterranean to Kano
Kano
in Nigeria, the Tripoli – Cape Town Highway
Tripoli – Cape Town Highway
from Tripoli
Tripoli
in Libya
Libya
to N'Djamena
N'Djamena
in Chad, and the Cairo – Cape Town Highway
Cairo – Cape Town Highway
which follows the Nile. Each of these highways is partially complete, with significant gaps and unpaved sections. People and languages

A 19th-century engraving of an Arab slave-trading caravan transporting black African slaves across the Sahara.

The people of the Sahara
Sahara
are of various origins. Among them the Amaziɣ including the Turūq, various Arabized
Arabized
Amaziɣ groups such as the Hassaniya-speaking Sahrawis, whose populations include the Znaga, a tribe whose name is a remnant of the pre-historic Zenaga language. Other major groups of people include the: Toubou, Nubians, Zaghawa, Kanuri, Hausa, Songhai, Beja, and Fula/Fulani (French: Peul; Fula: Fulɓe). Arabic dialects
Arabic dialects
are the most widely spoken languages in the Sahara. Arabic, Berber and its variants now regrouped under the term Amazigh (which includes the Guanche language spoken by the original Berber inhabitants of the Canary Islands) and Beja languages are part of the Afro-Asiatic
Afro-Asiatic
or Hamito-Semitic
Hamito-Semitic
family.[citation needed] Unlike neighboring West Africa
West Africa
and the central governments of the states that comprise the Sahara, the French language
French language
bears little relevance to inter-personal discourse and commerce within the region, its people retaining staunch ethnic and political affiliations with Tuareg
Tuareg
and Berber leaders and culture.[77] The legacy of the French colonial era administration is primarily manifested in the territorial reorganization enacted by the Third and Fourth republics, which engendered artificial political divisions within a hitherto isolated and porous region.[78] Diplomacy with local clients was conducted primarily in Arabic, which was the traditional language of bureaucratic affairs. Mediation of disputes and inter-agency communication was served by interpreters contracted by the French government, who, according to Keenan, "documented a space of intercultural mediation," contributing much to preserving the indigenous cultural identities in the region.[79] See also

Arid Lands Information Network List of deserts List of deserts by area Neolithic
Neolithic
Subpluvial Sahara
Sahara
Conservation Fund Sahara
Sahara
Sea Saharan explorers

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megalithic structures at Nabta Playa. ^ Fayum, Qarunian (Fayum B, about 6000–5000 BCE?), Digital Egypt. ^ Predynastic (5,500–3,100 BCE), Tour Egypt. ^ Keys, David (2004). "Kingdom of the Sands". Archaeology. Vol. 57 no. 2.  ^ Mattingly et al. (2003). Archaeology
Archaeology
of Fazzan, Volume 1 ^ Fage, J.D. (2001) A History of Africa. Routledge, 4th ed. ISBN 0415252482. p. 256 ^ Trans-Saharan Africa
Africa
in World
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History, Ch. 6, Ralph Austin ^ "Wauthier Bréard 1933" (in French). Retrieved 22 February 2013.  ^ Wauthier, René. "Reconnaissance saharienne". French Cinema Archives (in French). Retrieved 22 February 2013.  ^ Jane E. Goodman, 2005. Berber Culture on the World
World
Stage: From Village to Video. Indiana University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0253217844 p. 49-68 ^ Ralph A. Austen. Trans-Saharan Africa
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World
History. Oxford University Press, 2010. ISBN 0199798834 ^ Jeremy Keenan, ed. The Sahara: Past, Present and Future. Routledge, 2013. ISBN 1317970012

Bibliography

Brett, Michael; Prentess, Elizabeth (1996). The Berbers. Blackwell Publishers.  Bulliet, Richard W. (1975). The Camel and the Wheel. Harvard University Press.  Republished with a new preface Columbia University Press, 1990. Gearon, Eamonn (2011). The Sahara: A Cultural History. Signal Books (UK), Oxford University Press (USA).  Julien, Charles-Andre (1970). History of North Africa: From the Arab Conquest to 1830. Praeger.  Kennedy, Hugh (1996). Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus. Longman.  Laroui, Abdallah Laroui (1977). The History of the Maghrib: An Interpretive Essay. Princeton.  Scott, Chris (2005). Sahara
Sahara
Overland. Trailblazer Guides.  Wade, Lizzie (2015). Drones and Satellites Spot Lost Civilizations in Unlikely Places. Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science).  DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa7864.

External links

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About Sahara
Sahara
subsurface hydrology and planned usage of the aquifers

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World
World
deserts

Desert Desertification List of deserts List of deserts by area

Africa

Algerian Bayuda Blue Chalbi Danakil Djurab Eastern Ferlo Farafra
Farafra
(White) Kalahari Libyan Moçâmedes Namib Nubian Nyiri Owami Richtersveld Sahara Tanezrouft Ténéré Western

Asia

Ad-Dahna Akshi Arabian Aral Karakum Aralkum Badain Jaran Betpak-Dala Cholistan Dasht-e Kavir Dasht-e Khash Dasht-e Leili Dasht-e Loot Dasht-e Margo Dasht-e Naomid Gurbantünggüt Gobi Hami Indus Valley Judaean Karakum Katpana Kharan Kumtag Kyzylkum Lop Maranjab Muyunkum Nefud Negev Polond Ordos Qaidam Ramlat al-Sab'atayn Rub' al Khali Russian Arctic Registan Saryesik-Atyrau Syrian Taklamakan Tengger Thal Thar Ustyurt Plateau Wahiba Sands

Australia

Gibson Great Sandy Great Victoria Little Sandy Nullarbor Plain Painted Pedirka Simpson Strzelecki Sturt's Stony Tanami Tirari

Europe

Accona Bardenas Reales Błędów Cabo de Gata Deliblatska Peščara Hálendi Monegros Oleshky Oltenian Sahara Ryn Stranja Tabernas

North America

Alvord Amargosa Baja California Black Rock Carcross Carson Channeled scablands Chihuahuan Colorado Escalante Forty Mile Gran Desierto de Altar Great Basin Great Salt Lake Great Sandy Jornada del Muerto Kaʻū Lechuguilla Mojave North American Arctic Owyhee Painted Desert Red Desert Sevier Smoke Creek Sonoran Tonopah Desert Tule (Arizona) Tule (Nevada) Yp Yuha Yuma

South America

Atacama La Guajira Los Médanos de Coro Monte Patagonian Sechura Tatacoa

Zealandia

Rangipo Desert

Polar Regions

Antarctica Arctic Greenland North American Arctic Russian Arctic

Project Category Commons

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Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad
Chad
Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile
Nile
Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile
Nile
Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger
Niger
Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger
Niger
Delta Inner Niger
Niger
Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan
Sudan
(region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti
Tibesti
Mountains Tropical Africa

Coordinates: 23°N 13°E / 23°N 13°E / 23; 13

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 235026871 GND: 4051293-9 BNF: cb12137606n (d

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