HOME
The Info List - Saffarids


--- Advertisement ---



The Saffarid dynasty
Saffarid dynasty
(Persian: سلسله صفاریان‎) was a Muslim
Muslim
Persianate[3] dynasty from Sistan
Sistan
that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj
Zaranj
(a city now in southwestern Afghanistan).[4][5] Khorasan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Sistan
Sistan
from 861 to 1003.[6] The dynasty, of Persian origin,[7][8][9][10][11][12] was founded by Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, born in 840 in a small town called Karnin (Qarnin), which was located east of Zaranj
Zaranj
and west of Bost, in what is now Afghanistan
Afghanistan
- a native of Sistan
Sistan
and a local ayyar, who worked as a coppersmith (ṣaffār) before becoming a warlord. He seized control of the Sistan
Sistan
region and began conquering most of Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Pakistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The Saffarids used their capital Zaranj
Zaranj
as a base for an aggressive expansion eastward and westward. They first invaded the areas south of the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and then overthrew the Persian Tahirid dynasty, annexing Khorasan in 873. By the time of Ya'qub's death, he had conquered the Kabul
Kabul
Valley, Sindh, Tocharistan, Makran (Balochistan), Kerman, Fars, Khorasan, and nearly reached Baghdad
Baghdad
but then suffered a defeat by the Abbasids.[6] The Saffarid empire did not last long after Ya'qub's death. His brother and successor, Amr bin Laith, was defeated at the Battle of Balkh
Balkh
against Ismail Samani
Ismail Samani
in 900. Amr bin Laith
Amr bin Laith
was forced to surrender most of his territories to the new rulers. The Saffarids were subsequently confined to their heartland of Sistan, with their role reduced to that of vassals of the Samanids
Samanids
and their successors.

Contents

1 Founding 2 Culture 3 Rulers of the Saffarid dynasty 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Founding[edit] The dynasty began with Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar
Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar
(Ya'qub, son of Layth, the Coppersmith), a coppersmith who moved to the city of Zaranj. He left work to become an Ayyar and eventually got the power to act as an independent ruler. From his capital Zaranj
Zaranj
he moved east into al-Rukhkhadj and Zamindawar followed by Zunbil and Kabul
Kabul
by 865. He then invaded Bamyan, Balkh, Badghis, and Ghor. In the name of Islam, he conquered these territories which were ruled mostly by Buddhist tribal chiefs. He took vast amounts of plunder and slaves from this campaign.[13][14] Nancy Dupree
Nancy Dupree
in her book An Historical Guide to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
describes Yaqub's conquests as such:

Arab armies carrying the banner of Islam
Islam
came out of the west to defeat the Sasanians
Sasanians
in 642 and then they marched with confidence to the east. On the western periphery of the Afghan area the princes of Herat
Herat
and Sistan
Sistan
gave way to rule by Arab governors but in the east, in the mountains, cities submitted only to rise in revolt and the hastily converted returned to their old beliefs once the armies passed. The harshness and avariciousness of Arab rule produced such unrest, however, that once the waning power of the Caliphate
Caliphate
became apparent, native rulers once again established themselves independent. Among these Saffarids of Sistan
Sistan
shone briefly in the Afghan area. The fanatic founder of this dynasty, the coppersmith’s apprentice Yaqub ibn Layth Saffari, came forth from his capital at Zaranj
Zaranj
in 870 and marched through Bost, Kandahar, Ghazni, Kabul, Bamyan, Balkh
Balkh
and Herat, conquering in the name of Islam.[15] — Nancy Dupree, 1971

The Tahirid city of Herat
Herat
was captured in 870 and his campaign in the Badghis
Badghis
region led to the capture of Kharidjites which later formed the Djash al-Shurat contingent in his army. Ya'qub then turned his focus to the west and began attacks on Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kerman (Southeastern Iran) and Fars (southwestern Iran).[16] The Saffarids then seized Khuzestan
Khuzestan
(southwestern Iran) and parts of southern Iraq, and in 876 came close to overthrowing the Abbasids, whose army was able to turn them back only within a few days' march from Baghdad. These incursions, however, forced the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphate to recognize Ya'qub as governor of Sistan, Fars and Kerman, and Saffarids were even offered key posts in Baghdad.[17] In 901, Amr Saffari
Amr Saffari
was defeated at the battle of Balkh
Balkh
by the Samanids, which reduced the Saffarid dynasty
Saffarid dynasty
to a minor tributary in Sistan.[18] In 1002, Mahmud of Ghazni
Ghazni
invaded Sistan, dethroned Khalaf I
Khalaf I
and finally ended the Saffarid dynasty.[19] Culture[edit] The Saffarids gave great care to the Persian culture. Under their rule, the eastern Islamic world witnessed the emergence of prominent Persian poets such as Fayrouz Mashriqi, Abu Salik al-Jirjani, and Muhammad bin Wasif al-Sistani, who was a court poet.[20] In the later 9th century, the Saffarids gave impetus to a renaissance of New Persian literature
Persian literature
and culture. Following Ya'qub's conquest of Herat, some poets chose to celebrate his victory in Arabic, whereupon Ya'qub requested his secretary, Muhammad bin Wasif al-Sistani, to compose those verses in Persian.[21] From silver mines in the Panjshir Valley, the Saffarids were able to mint silver coins.[22] Rulers of the Saffarid dynasty[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Iran

Mythological history

Pishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynasty

Ancient period

BC

Prehistory of Iran Ancient Times–4000

Kura–Araxes culture 3400–2000

Proto-Elamite 3200–2700

Jiroft culture c. 3100 – c. 2200

Elam 2700–539

Akkadian Empire 2400–2150

Kassites c. 1500 – c. 1155

Neo-Assyrian Empire 911–609

Urartu 860–590

Mannaeans 850–616

Imperial period

Median Empire 678–550 BC

(Scythian Kingdom) 652–625 BC

Neo-Babylonian Empire 626 BC–539 BC

Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC

Kingdom of Armenia 331 BC – 428 AD

Atropatene 320s BC – 3rd century AD

Kingdom of Cappadocia 320s BC – 17 AD

Seleucid Empire 312–63 BC

Kingdom of Pontus 281–62 BC

Frataraka dynasty 3rd-century BC – c. 222 AD

Parthian Empire 247 BC – 224 AD

Suren Kingdom 119 BC – 240 AD

Sasanian Empire 224–651

Zarmihrids 6th century – 785

Qarinvandids 550s – 11th century

Medieval
Medieval
period

Rashidun Caliphate 632-661

Umayyad Caliphate 661–750

Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate 750–1258

Dabuyids 642–760

Bavandids 651–1349

Masmughans of Damavand 651–760

Paduspanids 665–1598

Justanids 791 – 11th century

Alid dynasties 864 – 14th century

Tahirid dynasty 821–873

Samanid
Samanid
Empire 819–999

Saffarid dynasty 861–1003

Ghurid dynasty pre-879 – 1141

Sajid dynasty 889–929

Sallarid dynasty 919–1062

Ziyarid dynasty 930–1090

Ilyasids 932–968

Buyid dynasty 934–1062

Ghaznavid dynasty 977–1186

Kakuyids 1008–1141

Nasrid dynasty 1029–1236

Shabankara 1030–1355

Seljuk Empire 1037–1194

Khwarazmian dynasty 1077–1231

Eldiguzids 1135–1225

Atabegs of Yazd 1141–1319

Salghurids 1148–1282

Hazaraspids 1155–1424

Mihrabanids 1236–1537

Kurt dynasty 1244–1396

Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
Empire 1256–1335

Chobanid dynasty 1335–1357

Muzaffarid dynasty 1335–1393

Jalairid dynasty 1337–1376

Sarbadars 1337–1376

Injuids 1335–1357

Afrasiyab dynasty 1349–1504

Marashis 1359–1596

Timurid Empire 1370–1507

Karkiya dynasty 1370s–1592

Kara Koyunlu 1406–1468

Aq Qoyunlu 1468–1508

Early modern period

Safavid dynasty 1501–1736

(Hotak dynasty) 1722–1729

Afsharid dynasty 1736–1796

Talysh Khanate 1747–1826

Zand dynasty 1751–1794

Qajar dynasty 1789–1925

Modern period

Pahlavi dynasty 1925–1979

Interim Government of Iran 1979–1980

History of the Islamic Republic of Iran 1980–present

Related articles

Name Monarchs Heads of state Economic history Military history Wars

Timeline Iran
Iran
portal

v t e

Part of a series on the

History of Afghanistan

Timeline

Ancient

Indus Valley Civilisation 2200–1800 BC

Oxus civilization 2100–1800 BC

Aryans 1700–700 BC

Median Empire 728–550 BC

Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC

Seleucid Empire 330–150 BC

Maurya Empire 305–180 BC

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 256–125 BC

Parthian Empire 247 BC–224 AD

Indo-Greek Kingdom 180–130 BC

Indo-Scythian Kingdom 155–80? BC

Kushan Empire 135 BC – 248 AD

Indo-Parthian Kingdom 20 BC – 50? AD

Sasanian Empire 230–651

Kidarite Kingdom 320–465

Alchon Huns 380–560

Hephthalite Empire 410–557

Nezak Huns 484–711

Medieval

Kabul
Kabul
Shahi 565–879

Principality of Chaghaniyan 7th–8th centuries

Rashidun Caliphate 652–661

Umayyads 661–750

Abbasids 750–821

Tahirids 821–873

Saffarids 863–900

Samanids 875–999

Ghaznavids 963–1187

Ghurids before 879–1215

Seljuks 1037–1194

Khwarezmids 1215–1231

Qarlughids 1224–1266

Ilkhanate 1258–1353

Chagatai Khanate 1225–1370

Khaljis 1290–1320

Karts 1245–1381

Timurids 1370–1507

Arghuns 1479–1522

Modern

Mughals 1501–1738

Safavids 1510–1709

Hotak dynasty 1709–1738

Afsharid dynasty 1738–1747

Durrani Empire 1747–1826

Emirate of Afghanistan 1826–1919

Kingdom of Afghanistan 1919–1973

Republic of Afghanistan 1973–1978

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan 1978–1992

Islamic State of Afghanistan 1992–2001

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 1996–2004

Interim/Transitional Administration 2001–2004

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since 2004

Book Category Portal

v t e

Titular Name Personal Name Reign

Independence from the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate.

Amir أمیر‬ al-Saffar coppersmith الصفار‬ Ya'qub ibn Layth یعقوب بن اللیث ‬ 861-879 CE

Amir أمیر‬ Amr ibn al-Layth عمرو بن اللیث ‬ 879-901 CE

Amir أمیر‬ Abul-Hasan أبو الحسن‬ Tahir ibn Muhammad ibn Amr طاھر بن محمد بن عمرو ‬ co-ruler Ya'qub ibn Muhammad ibn Amr 901-908 CE

Amir أمیر‬ al-Layth ibn 'Ali اللیث بن علي‬ 908-910 CE

Amir أمیر‬ Muhammad ibn 'Ali محمد بن علي‬ 910-911 CE

Amir أمیر‬ Al-Mu'addal ibn 'Ali المعضل ابن علي‬ 911 CE

Amir أمیر‬ Abu Hafs ابو حفص‬ Amr ibn Ya'qub ibn Muhammad ibn Amr عمرو بن یعقوب بن محمد بن عمرو‬ 912-913 CE

Samanid
Samanid
occupation 913-922 CE.

Amir أمیر‬ Abu Ja'far ابو جعفر‬ Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Khalaf ibn Layth ibn 'Ali 922-963 CE

Amir أمیر‬ Wali-ud-Daulah ولي الدولة ‬ Khalaf ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad
Ahmad ibn Muhammad
ibn Khalaf ibn al-Layth ibn 'Ali 963-1002 CE

Conquered by Mahmud ibn Sebuktigin of the Ghaznavid Empire in 1002 CE.

Gallery[edit]

The Saffarid dynasty
Saffarid dynasty
and its neighbors at its peak in 900 CE

Saffarid Soldier

See also[edit]

Iranian Intermezzo Nasrid dynasty (Sistan) Mihrabanids Samanids Ghaznavids List of kings of Persia List of Sunni Muslim
Muslim
dynasties

References[edit]

^ "Persian Prose Literature." World Eras. 2002. HighBeam Research. (September 3, 2012);"Princes, although they were often tutored in Arabic and religious subjects, frequently did not feel as comfortable with the Arabic language and preferred literature in Persian, which was either their mother tongue—as in the case of dynasties such as the Saffarids (861–1003), Samanids
Samanids
(873–1005), and Buyids (945–1055)...". [1] ^ Robinson, Chase F. (2009). The new Cambridge history of Islam. Vol 1, Sixth to eleventh centuries (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 345. ISBN 978-0-521-83823-8. The Tahirids had made scant use of Persian, though the Saffarids used it considerably more. But under the Samanids
Samanids
Persian emerged as a full "edged language of literature and (to a lesser extent) administration. Court patronage was extended to Persian poets, including the great Rudaki (d. c. 940). Meanwhile Arabic continued to be used abundantly, for administration and for scientific, theo logical and philosophical discourse.  ^ The Islamization of Central Asia in the Samanid
Samanid
era and the reshaping of the Muslim
Muslim
world, D.G. Tor, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 72, No. 2 (2009), 281;"The Saffārids were the first of the Persianate
Persianate
dynasties to arise from the remains of the politically moribund ʿAbbāsid caliphate". ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, by Richard Nelson Frye, William Bayne Fisher, John Andrew Boyle (Cambridge University Press, 1975: ISBN 0-521-20093-8), pg. 121. ^ The Encyclopedia of World History, ed. Peter N. Stearns and William Leonard Langer (Houghton Mifflin, 2001), 115. ^ a b Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Encyclopædia Iranica SAFFARIDS ^ "First, the Saffarid amirs and maliks were rulers of Persian stock who for centuries championed the cause of the underdog against the might of the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs." -- Savory, Roger M.. "The History of the Saffarids of Sistan
Sistan
and the Maliks of Nimruz (247/861 to 949/1542-3)." The Journal of the American Oriental Society. 1996 ^ "The provincial Persian Ya'kub, on the other hand, rejoiced in his plebeian origins, denounced the Abbasids
Abbasids
as usurpers, and regarded both the caliphs and such governors from aristocratic Arab families as the Tahirids with contempt". -- Ya'kub b. al-Layth al Saffar, C.E. Bosworth, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. XI, p 255 ^ Saffarids: A Persian dynasty.....", Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, Volume 2, edited by Julie Scott Meisami, Paul Starkey, p674 ^ "There were many local Persian dynasties, including the Tahirids, the Saffarids....", Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa, by Ali Aldosari, p472. ^ "Saffarid, the Coppersmith, the epithet of the founder of this Persian dynasty...", The Arabic Contributions to the English Language: An Historical Dictionary, by Garland Hampton Cannon, p288. ^ "The Saffarids, the first Persian dynasty, to challenge the Abbasids...", Historical Dictionary of the Ismailis, by Farhad Daftary, p51. ^ The Development of Persian Culture under the Early Ghaznavids, C.E. Bosworth, Iran, Vol. 6, (1968), 34. ^ Saffarids, C.E. Bosworth, Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. VIII, Ed. C.E.Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P.Heinrichs and G. Lecomte, (Brill, 1995), 795. ^ Dupree, Nancy (1971) "Sites in Perspective (Chapter 3)" An Historical Guide To Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghan Tourist Organization, Kabul, OCLC 241390 ^ Saffarids, Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. VIII, 795. ^ Esposito, John L., The Oxford History of Islam
Islam
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 38. ^ The Development of Persian Culture under the Early Ghaznavids, C.E. Bosworth, 34. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
994-1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 89. ^ The Ṭāhirids and Persian Literature, C. E. Bosworth, Iran, Vol. 7, (1969), 104. ^ The Tahirids and the Saffarids, C.E.Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran: The period from the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs, Vol. IV, Ed. R.N.Frye, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 129. ^ Pandjhir, Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. VIII, 258.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Ṣaffārids.

Encyclopædia Iranica Saffarids

v t e

Iran
Iran
topics

History

Prehistory

Ancient

3400–550 BCE

Kura-Araxes culture
Kura-Araxes culture
(3400–2000 BC) Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
civilization (3200–2800 BC) Elamite dynasties (2800–550 BC) Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
(c.2334 BC–c.2154 BC) Kassites
Kassites
(c.1500–c.1155 BC) Kingdom of Mannai (10th–7th century BC) Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(911–609 BC) Urartu
Urartu
(860 BC–590 BC) Median Empire
Median Empire
(728–550 BC) (Scythian Kingdom) (652–625 BC) Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
(626–539 BC)

550 BC – 224 AD

Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(550–330 AD) Kingdom of Armenia (331 BC–428 AD) Atropatene
Atropatene
(320s BC–3rd century AD) Kingdom of Cappadocia
Kingdom of Cappadocia
(320s BC–17 AD) Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
(330 BC–150 AD) Kingdom of Pontus
Kingdom of Pontus
(281 BC–62 AD) Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
(248 BC –  224 AD)

224–651 AD

Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
(224–651 AD)

Medieval

637 – 1055

Patriarchal Caliphate
Caliphate
(637–651) Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(661–750) Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
(750–1258) Tahirid dynasty
Tahirid dynasty
(821–873) Alavid dynasty (864–928) Saffarid dynasty
Saffarid dynasty
(861–1003) Samanid dynasty
Samanid dynasty
(819–999) Ziyarid dynasty
Ziyarid dynasty
(928–1043) Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
(934–1062)

975–1432

Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187) Ghurid dynasty
Ghurid dynasty
(1011–1215) Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
(1037–1194) Khwarazmian dynasty
Khwarazmian dynasty
(1077–1231) Eldiguzids
Eldiguzids
(1135/36-1225) Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
(1256–1335) Kurt dynasty
Kurt dynasty
(1231–1389) Muzaffarid dynasty (1314–1393) Chobanid dynasty (1337–1357) Jalairid Sultanate
Jalairid Sultanate
dynasty (1339–1432)

1370–1925

Timurid Empire
Timurid Empire
(1370–1507) Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans (1375–1468) Ag Qoyunlu
Ag Qoyunlu
Turcomans (1378–1508) Safavid Empire (1501 – 1722 / 1736) Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
(1736–50) Zand Dynasty (1750–94) Qajar Dynasty (1794–1925)

Khanates of the Caucasus
Khanates of the Caucasus
(18th century–20th century)

Modern

1925–1979

Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
(1925–1979) Iran
Iran
Constituent Assembly, 1949 1953 coup d'état Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
(1979) Interim Government

Islamic Republic

History (1979–) Arab separatism in Khuzestan

Embassy siege (1980)

Iran–Iraq War
Iran–Iraq War
(1980–88) Iranian pilgrim massacre (1987) Iran
Iran
Air Flight 655 shootdown (1988) PJAK insurgency Balochistan conflict Syrian Civil War Military intervention against ISIL

See also

Ancient Iran Greater Iran Iranic peoples (languages) Kura–Araxes culture Jiroft culture Aryans Persian people Azerbaijanis Caucasian peoples Kings of Persia Heads of state Cities Military history History of democracy List of years in Iran

Geography

Cities (list) Earthquakes Iranian Azerbaijan Iranian Balochistan Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Caucasus Iranian Kurdistan Iranian Plateau Lake Urmia Islands Mountains Provinces Wildlife

Politics

General

Censorship Constitution (Persian Constitutional Revolution) Elections (2009 presidential Green Revolution) Foreign relations Human rights (LGBT) Judicial system Military (Army Air Force Navy) Ministry of Intelligence and National Security Cyberwarfare Nuclear program (UN Security Council Resolution 1747) Political parties Principlists Propaganda Reformists Terrorism (state-sponsorship allegations) White Revolution
White Revolution
(1963) Women's rights movement

Councils

Assembly (or Council) of Experts Expediency Discernment Council City and Village Councils Guardian Council Islamic Consultative Assembly
Islamic Consultative Assembly
(parliament) Supreme National Security Council

Officials

Ambassadors President Provincial governors Supreme Leader

Economy

General

Bonyad
Bonyad
(charitable trust) Brain drain Companies (Automotive industry) Corruption Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) Economic history Economic Reform Plan Energy Environmental issues Foreign direct investment Intellectual property International oil bourse International rankings Iran
Iran
and the World Trade Organization Taxation Main economic laws Economy of the Middle East Milad Tower
Milad Tower
and complex Military equipment manufactured Nuclear program (UN Security Council Resolution 1747) Privatization Rial (currency) Space Agency Setad Supreme Audit Court Tehran Stock Exchange Venture capital (Technology start-ups)

Sectors

Agriculture (fruit) Banking and insurance (Banks (Central Bank) Electronic banking) Construction Defense Health care (Pharmaceuticals) Industry Mining Petroleum (Anglo-Persian Oil Company) Telecommunications and IT (TCI) Transport (airlines metro railways shipping) Tourism

State-owned companies

Defense Industries Organization
Defense Industries Organization
(DIO) Industrial Development and Renovation Organization (IDRO) Iran
Iran
Aviation Industries Organization (IAIO) Iran
Iran
Electronics Industries (IEI) National Iranian Oil Company
National Iranian Oil Company
(NIOC) National Development Fund

Places

Asaluyeh
Asaluyeh
industrial corridor Chabahar Free Trade-Industrial Zone Kish Island
Kish Island
Free Trade Zone Research centers

Society

Demographics

Languages

Persian (Farsi) Armenian Azerbaijani Kurdish Georgian Neo-Aramaic Iranian languages

Peoples

Iranian citizens (abroad) Ethnic minorities

Armenians Assyrians Azerbaijanis Circassians Georgians Kurds Persian Jews Turkmen

Religion

Islam Bahá'í (persecution) Christianity Zoroastrians (persecution) minorities

Other

Corruption Crime Education (higher scientists and scholars universities) Brain drain Health care International rankings Nationality Water supply and sanitation Women

Culture

Architecture (Achaemenid architects) Art (modern / contemporary) Blogs Calendars (Persian New Year (Nowruz)) Chādor (garment) Chicago Persian antiquities dispute Cinema Crown jewels Cuisine Folklore Intellectual movements Iranians Iranian studies Islam (Islamization) Literature Media (news agencies (student) newspapers) Mythology National symbols (Imperial Anthem) Opium consumption Persian gardens Persian name Philosophy Public holidays Scouting Sport (football)

Music

Folk Heavy metal Pop Rap and hip-hop Rock and alternative Traditional Ey Iran

Other topics

Science and technology Anti-Iranian sentiment Tehrangeles

Category Portal WikiProject Commons

v t e

Afghanistan articles

History

Timeline Pre-Islamic period Indus Valley Civilisation Maurya Empire Greater Khorasan Islamic conquest Arabs in Afghanistan Mongol invasion Hotak dynasty Durrani Empire Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Jamrud Afghan–Sikh wars First Anglo-Afghan War Second Anglo-Afghan War Third Anglo-Afghan War European influence Reforms of Amānullāh Khān and civil war European influence in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(Nadir Shah  · Zahir Shah) Daoud's Republic Democratic Republic Soviet war since 1992 2001 invasion War (2001–2014)

Geography

Administrative divisions

provinces districts cities

Earthquakes Volcanoes

Demographics

Languages

Persian (Dari)

Pashtuns Tajiks Farsiwan Qizilbash Kho Hazaras Gurjar Uzbeks Turkmens Baloch people Nuristanis Hindki Arabs

Politics

Constitution Loya jirga President

current

Vice President Chief Executive Officer Cabinet of Ministers National Assembly

House of Elders House of the People

Political parties Elections Current provincial governors Supreme Court

Chief Justice

Human rights

LGBT

Foreign relations Afghan National Security Forces

Economy

Afghani (currency) Energy Mining Taxation Tourism Heroin International rankings

Infrastructure

Airports Ariana Afghan Airlines Communications Rail transport and history Trans- Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Pipeline Transport

Kabul– Kandahar
Kandahar
Highway Kandahar– Herat
Herat
Highway

Culture

Cuisine Education Flag Music Olympics Pashtunwali
Pashtunwali
(Pashtun life) Poetry Postage stamps and postal history Religion

Sunni Islam Shia Islam Muslim
Muslim
holidays

War rugs

Outline Index Bibliography

Book Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 42638

.