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The Safaviyya
Safaviyya
(Persian: صفویه‎) was a tariqa (Sufi order)[1][2] founded by the Kurdish[3][4][5] mystic Safi-ad-din Ardabili (1252–1334). It held a prominent place in the society and politics of northwestern Iran in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but today it is best known for having given rise to the Safavid dynasty. While initially founded under the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school of Sunni Islam, later adoptions of Shi'i concepts such as the notion of the Imamate by the children and grandchildren of Safi-ad-din Ardabili
Safi-ad-din Ardabili
resulted in the order ultimately becoming associated with Twelverism.

Contents

1 Founder and foundation 2 Growth of the order 3 See also 4 References

Founder and foundation[edit] Safī al-Din grew up in Ardabil, but left it for lack of adequate teachers, traveling to Shiraz
Shiraz
and then Gilan. In Gilan, he became the disciple of Zahed Gilani, leader of the Zahidī Sufi order. He eventually became Zahid's chief disciple and married his daughter. Upon Zahed Gilani's death, the Zahidiyyah came under Safī ad-Din's leadership and was renamed the Safawiyyah. Safī al-Din's importance is attested in two letters by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani. In one, Rashid al-Din pledges an annual offering of foodstuffs. In the other, Rashid al-Din writes to his son, the governor of Ardabil, advising him to show proper consideration to the sheikh.[6] Growth of the order[edit] After Safī al-Din's death, leadership of the order passed to his son, Sadr al-Dīn Mūsā, and subsequently passed down from father to son. By the mid-fifteenth century, the Safawiyyah changed in character and became militant under Shaykh Junayd
Shaykh Junayd
and Shaykh Haydar, launching jihads against the Christians of Georgia. The later Safawiyyah is considered "ghulat", meaning it had messianic beliefs about its leadership and shiite antinomian practices outside of the orthodox norm of Twelver
Twelver
Islam. Haydar's grandson, Ismail, further altered the nature of the order when he founded the Safavid empire in 1501 and proclaimed Twelver Shi'ism the state religion, at which point he imported ulama largely from Lebanon
Lebanon
and Syria
Syria
to make the Safavid practices orthodox.[7][8][9][10]

Safaviyya
Safaviyya
and Shia Islam

  Part of a series on Nizari-Ismāʿīli Batiniyya, Hurufiyya, Kaysanites
Kaysanites
and Twelver
Twelver
Shī‘ism

Alevism

Beliefs

Allah Quran Haqq–Muhammad–Ali Prophet Muḥammad ibn `Abd Allāh Muhammad-Ali Islamic prophet Zahir Batin Buyruks Tariqat Haqiqa Marifat Wahdat al-wujud Wahdat al-mawjud Baqaa Fana Haal Ihsan Kashf Nafs Keramat Al-Insān al-Kāmil Lataif Four Doors Manzil Nûr Sulook Yaqeen Devriye Poetry Cosmology Philosophy Psychology

Practices

Zakat Zeyārat Taqiyya Ashura Hıdırellez Nowruz Saya Mawlid Music Düşkünlük Meydanı Fasting Müsahiplik

The Twelve Imams

Ali Hasan Husayn al-Abidin al-Baqir al-Sadiq al-Kadhim ar-Rida al-Taqi al-Naqi al-Askari al-Mahdi

Leadership

Dede Murshid Pir Rehber Babas Dergah Jem Cemevi

Crucial figures and influences

Khadija bint Khuwaylid Fatimah Khidr Salman the Persian Uwais al-Qarani Jābir ibn Hayyān Dhul-Nun al-Misri Bayazid Bastami Ibn al-Rawandi Mansur Al-Hallaj Nasir Khusraw Abu al-Hassan al-Kharaqani Yusuf Hamdani Khoja Akhmet Yassawi Abdul-Qadir Gilani Ahmed ar-Rifa'i Ibn Arabi Qutb
Qutb
ad-Dīn Haydar Ahi Evren Haji Bektash Veli Rumi Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Zahed Gilani Sari Saltik Yunus Emre Safi-ad-din Ardabili Nāimī Sadr al-Dīn Mūsā Imadaddin Nasimi Shah Nimatullah Wali Shaykh Junayd Shaykh Haydar Ali
Ali
Mirza Safavi Ismail I Nur- Ali
Ali
Khalifa Kaygusuz Abdal Otman Baba Balım Sultan Gül Baba Fuzûlî Alians Demir Baba Teke Arabati Baba Teḱe Pir Sultan Abdal Kul Nesîmî Sheikh Bedreddin Börklüce Mustafa Torlak Kemal

Alevi history

Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam Shia in Persia before Safavids Shiism in Persia after Safavids Umayyad Caliphate Abu Muslim Sunpadh Al-Muqanna Ishaq al-Turk Abbasid Caliphate Babak Khorramdin Maziar Kaykhusraw II Babai revolt Baba Ishak Celali rebellions Bayezid II Persecution of Alevis Nur Ali
Ali
Halife rebellion Şahkulu
Şahkulu
Rebellion Şahkulu Battle of Chaldiran Selim I Abaza rebellion Kuyucu Murad Pasha Auspicious Incident Mahmud II Koçgiri Rebellion Dersim Rebellion Seyid Riza Maraş Massacre Çorum Massacre Sivas Massacre Gazi Quarter riots

Related Muslim tariqah

Malamatiyya Qalandariyya Qadiriyya Akbari Sufis Rifa'i Uwaisi Naqshbandi Mevlevi Order Zahediyeh Safaviyya Khalwati order Bayramiye Jelveti Babai Revolt Hurufism Nuqtavi Chepni people Bektashi Order Bektashism and folk religion Jelali revolts Ni'matullāhī Arabati Baba Teḱe Javad Nurbakhsh Galibi Order

Other influential groups

Isma'ilism Nizari Alawites Druze Khurramites Qizilbash Bábism Bahá'í Faith Yazdanī Yarsanism Yazidi Yazidis in Armenia Sabians Ishikism Gnosticism Nabataeans Zoroaster Zoroastrianism Mazdak Zurvanism Mandaeism Manichaeism Shamanism Tengrism Panentheism

Islam
Islam
portal

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See also[edit]

Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
family tree Safvat as-safa Safavid dynasty Musha'sha'iyyah, a rival Shi'a sect

References[edit]

^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1345, Sheikh Safi al-Din ^ http://archnet.org/sites/1595/media_contents/40812 ^ Newman, Andrew J., Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, (I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2006), 152. ^ R.M. Savory. Ebn Bazzaz. Encyclopædia Iranica ^ V. Minorsky, "The Poetry of Shāh Ismā‘īl I," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 10/4 (1942): 1006–53. ^ G. E. Browne, Literary History of Persia, vol. 4, 33–4. ^ Floor, Willem; Herzig, Edmund (2015). Iran and the World in the Safavid Age. I.B.Tauris. p. 20. ISBN 978-1780769905. In fact, at the start of the Safavid period Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ism was imported into Iran largely from Syria
Syria
and Mount Lebanon
Lebanon
(...)  ^ Savory, Roger (2007). Iran Under the Safavids. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0521042512.  ^ Abisaab, Rula. "JABAL ʿĀMEL". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 15 May 2016.  ^ Alagha, Joseph Elie (2006). The Shifts in Hizbullah's Ideology: Religious Ideology, Political Ideology and Political Program. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-9053569108. 

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Islamic theology

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Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
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Nafs
al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

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Nizari

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Qutb
Qutb
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Baba Ishak
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Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
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Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
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Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

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Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

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Haruriyyah

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