REGION Sacramento Valley
INCORPORATED February 27, 1850
NAMED FOR Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist
• TYPE City Council
• BODY Sacramento City Council
• CITY COUNCIL Council Members
* Angelique Ashby * Allen Warren * Jeff Harris * Steve Hansen * Jay Schenirer * Eric Guerra * Rick Jennings, II * Larry Carr
• CITY 100.11 sq mi (259.27 km2)
• LAND 97.92 sq mi (253.62 km2)
• WATER 2.18 sq mi (5.65 km2) 2.19%
ELEVATION 30 ft (9 m)
POPULATION (2010 )
• CITY 466,488
• ESTIMATE (2016) 495,234
• DENSITY 5,057.33/sq mi (1,952.65/km2)
• URBAN 1,723,634
• METRO 2,149,127
• CSA 2,414,783
• SUMMER (DST ) PDT ( UTC−7 )
ZIP CODES 942xx, 958xx
AREA CODE 916
FIPS CODE 06-64000
GNIS FEATURE IDS 1659564, 2411751
SACRAMENTO (/ˌsækrəˈmɛntoʊ/ ; Spanish: ) is the capital city
U.S. state of
Sacramento became a city through the efforts of the Swiss immigrant
John Sutter, Sr. , his son
John Augustus Sutter, Jr. , and James W.
Marshall . Sacramento grew quickly thanks to the protection of
Sutter\'s Fort , which was established by Sutter. During the
The city was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santísimo Sacramento ( Blessed Sacrament ), referring to the Catholic Eucharist .
Today, the city is known for its diversity, tree canopy (largest in
the U.S. ), historic
* 1 History
* 1.1 Indigenous culture * 1.2 Spanish exploration * 1.3 Mexican Period: Sutter\'s Fort and New Helvetia * 1.4 From New Helvetia to "Sacramento City" * 1.5 Remnants of downtown Sacramento\'s Chinatown * 1.6 Capital city * 1.7 The modern era
* 2 Geography and climate
* 2.1 Geography
* 2.2 Cityscape
* 2.2.1 City neighborhoods
* 18.104.22.168 Area one (central/eastern) * 22.214.171.124 Area two (southwestern) * 126.96.36.199 Area three (southeastern) * 188.8.131.52 Area four (north of the American River) * 184.108.40.206 Other areas
* 2.3 Climate
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 2010 * 3.2 2000
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Top employers
* 5 Culture and arts
* 6 Sports
* 6.1 Professional teams * 6.2 Other sports
* 7 Parks and recreation
* 8 Government and politics
* 8.1 County government * 8.2 Federal and state representation
* 9 Education
* 9.1 Colleges and universities
* 9.1.1 Public * 9.1.2 Private, not for profit * 9.1.3 Private, for profit
* 9.2 K–12 schools
* 9.2.1 Public schools
* 9.2.2 Private schools
* 220.127.116.11 Independent schools * 18.104.22.168 Other religious schools
* 10 Media
* 10.1 Magazines * 10.2 Newspapers * 10.3 Radio * 10.4 Television stations
* 11 Transportation
* 12 Cemeteries * 13 Notable residents * 14 Sister cities * 15 See also * 16 Notes * 17 References * 18 External links
Nisenan (Southern Maidu) and
In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths. The air was like champagne, and (the Spaniards) drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. "¡Es como el sagrado sacramento! (It's like the Blessed Sacrament.)" The valley and the river were then christened after the "Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ", referring to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist .
MEXICAN PERIOD: SUTTER\'S FORT AND NEW HELVETIA
Inside the historical Sutter's Fort. Main building housing John Sutter's offices. 2009
John Sutter Sr. first arrived in the area on August 13, 1839, at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres. The next year, he and his party established Sutter's Fort, a massive adobe structure with walls eighteen feet high and three feet thick.
Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, and was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more and more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847 Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. Later that same year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, however, unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.'s "empire" had been built on some very thin margins of credit.
FROM NEW HELVETIA TO "SACRAMENTO CITY"
Sacramento in 1849
In 1848, when gold was discovered by
James W. Marshall
By December of 1848,
John Sutter Jr., in association with Sam Brannan
, began laying out the City of Sacramento, 2 miles south of his
father's settlement of New Helvetia. This venture was undertaken
against the wishes of Sutter Sr., however the father, being deeply in
debt, was in no position to stop the venture. For commercial reasons
the new city was named "Sacramento City," after the
The citizens of Sacramento adopted a city charter in 1849, which was
recognized by the state legislature in 1850. Sacramento is the oldest
incorporated city in California, incorporated on February 27, 1850.
During the early 1850s, the Sacramento valley was devastated by
floods, fires and cholera epidemics. Despite this, because of its
position just downstream from the
Mother Lode in the Sierra
REMNANTS OF DOWNTOWN SACRAMENTO\'S CHINATOWN
Paifang at Sacramento's Chinatown Mall
Throughout the early 1840s and 1850s, China was at war with Great Britain and France in the First and Second Opium Wars . The wars, along with endemic poverty in China, helped drive many Chinese immigrants to America. Many first came to San Francisco, which was then the largest city in California, which was known as "Dai Fow" (The Big City) and some came eventually to Sacramento (then the second-largest city in California), which is known as "Yee Fow" (Second City). Many of these immigrants came in hope of a better life as well as the possibility of finding gold in the foothills east of Sacramento.
Sacramento's Chinatown was located on "I" Street from Second to Sixth
Streets. At the time, this area of "I" Street was considered a health
hazard because - lying within a levee zone - it was lower than other
parts of the city, which were situated on higher land. Throughout
Sacramento's Chinatown history, there were fires, acts of
discrimination, and prejudicial legislation such as the Chinese
Exclusion Act that was not repealed until 1943. The mysterious fires
were thought to be set off by those who did not take a liking to the
Chinese working class. Ordinances on what was viable building
material were set into place to try to get the Chinese to move out.
Newspapers such as
The Sacramento Union
The Chinese remained resilient despite these efforts. They built their buildings out of bricks just as the building guidelines were established. They helped build part of the railroads that span the city as well as made a great contribution to the transcontinental railroad that spans the United States. They also helped build the levees within Sacramento and its surrounding cities. As a result, the Chinese are a well-recognized part of Sacramento's history and heritage.
While most of Sacramento's Chinatown has now been razed, a small
Chinatown mall remains as well as a museum dedicated to the history of
Sacramento's Chinatown and the contributions Chinese Americans have
made to the city.
See also: Urban redevelopment in Sacramento,
Begun in 1860 to be reminiscent of the
With its new status and strategic location, Sacramento quickly
prospered and became the western end of the
Pony Express . Later it
became a terminus of the
First Transcontinental Railroad
In 1850 and again in 1861, Sacramento citizens were faced with a completely flooded town. After the devastating 1850 flood, Sacramento experienced a cholera epidemic and a flu epidemic, which crippled the town for several years. In 1861, Governor Leland Stanford, who was inaugurated in early January 1861, had to attend his inauguration in a rowboat, which was not too far from his house in town on N street. The flood waters were so bad, the legend says, that when he returned to his house, he had to enter into it through the second floor window. From 1862 until the mid-1870s Sacramento raised the level of its downtown by building reinforced brick walls on its downtown streets, and filling the resulting street walls with dirt. Thus the previous first floors of buildings became the basements , with open space between the street and the building, previously the sidewalk, now at the basement level. Most property owners used screw jacks to raise their buildings to the new grade. The sidewalks were covered, initially by wooden sidewalks, then brick barrel vaults, and eventually replaced by concrete sidewalks. Over the years, many of these underground spaces have been filled or destroyed by subsequent development. However, it is still possible to view portions of the "Sacramento Underground ".
The same rivers that earlier brought death and destruction began to provide increasing levels of transportation and commerce. Both the American and especially Sacramento rivers would be key elements in the economic success of the city. In fact, Sacramento effectively controlled commerce on these rivers, and public works projects were funded though taxes levied on goods unloaded from boats and loaded onto rail cars in the historic Sacramento Rail Yards . Now both rivers are used extensively for recreation . The American River is a 5-mph (8-km/h) waterway for all power boats (including jet-ski and similar craft) (Source Sacramento County Parks "> Sacramento Regional Transit Light-Rail
The city's current charter was adopted by voters in 1920. As a charter city , Sacramento is exempt from many laws and regulations passed by the state legislature . The city has expanded continuously over the years. The 1964 merger of the City of North Sacramento with Sacramento substantially increased its population, and large annexations of the Natomas area eventually led to significant population growth throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.
Sacramento County (along with a portion of adjacent Placer County )
is served by a customer-owned electric utility, the Sacramento
Municipal Utility District (SMUD). Sacramento voters approved the
creation of SMUD in 1923. In April 1946, after 12 years of
litigation, a judge ordered Pacific Gas & Electric to transfer title
of Sacramento's electric distribution system to SMUD. Today SMUD is
the sixth-largest public electric utility in the U.S., and is a leader
for innovative programs and services, including the development of
clean fuel resources, such as solar power . The year following the
creation of SMUD, 1924, brought several events in Sacramento: Standard
Oil executive Verne McGeorge established
McGeorge School of Law
Wikimedia Commons has media related to JAPANESE AMERICAN INTERNMENT PROCESSING IN SACRAMENTO .
Early in World War II, the Sacramento Assembly Center (also known as the Walerga Assembly Center) was established to house Japanese Americans forcibly "evacuated" from the West Coast under Executive Order 9066 . The camp was one of fifteen temporary detention facilities where over 110,000 Japanese Americans , two-thirds of them U.S. citizens, were held while construction on the more permanent War Relocation Authority camps was completed. The assembly center was built on the site of a former migrant labor camp, and inmates began arriving from Sacramento and San Joaquin Counties on May 6, 1942. It closed after only 52 days, on June 26, and the population of 4,739 was transferred to the Tule Lake concentration camp. The site was then turned over to the Army Signal Corps and dedicated as Camp Kohler . After the war and the end of the incarceration program, returning Japanese Americans were often unable to find housing and so 234 families temporarily lived at the former assembly center. Camp Kohler was destroyed by a fire in December 1947, and the assembly center site is now part of the Foothill Farms-North Highlands subdivision.
The Sacramento-Yolo Port District was created in 1947, and ground was
broken on the
Port of Sacramento in 1949. On June 29, 1963, with 5,000
spectators waiting to welcome her, the Motor Vessel Taipei Victory
arrived. The port was open for business. The Nationalist Chinese
flagship, freshly painted for the historic event, was loaded with
5,000 tons of bagged rice for Mitsui Trading Co. bound for
The 1980s and 1990s saw the closure of several local military bases:
McClellan Air Force Base
In the early 1990s,
In spite of military base closures and the decline of agricultural food processing, Sacramento has continued to experience population growth in recent years. Primary sources of population growth are an influx of residents from the nearby San Francisco Bay Area , as well as immigration from Asia and Latin America. From 1990 to 2000, the city's population grew by 14.7%. The Census Bureau estimates that from 2000 to 2007, the county's population increased by nearly 164,000 residents.
In the late 1990s and early 2000s (decade),
Despite a devolution of state bureaucracy, the state government
remains by far Sacramento's largest employer. The City of Sacramento
expends considerable effort to keep state agencies from moving outside
the city limits. In addition, many federal agencies have offices in
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
Depth to groundwater is typically about 30 feet (9 m). Much of the
land to the west of the city (in Yolo County ) is permanently reserved
for a vast flood control basin (the
Yolo Bypass ), due to the city's
historical vulnerability to floods. As a result, the greater
metropolitan area sprawls only four miles (6 km) west of downtown (as
The city is located at the confluence of the
Panoramic view of downtown Sacramento from West Sacramento
The city groups most of its neighborhoods into four areas:
Area One (central/eastern)
Alkali Flat, Boulevard Park , Campus Commons,
Area Two (southwestern)
Airport, Carleton Tract, Freeport Manor, Golf Course Terrace,
Greenhaven , Curtis Park, Hollywood Park,
Land Park , Little Pocket,
Mangan Park, Meadowview , Parkway, Pocket ,
Sacramento City College
Area Three (southeastern)
Alhambra Triangle , Avondale , Brentwood , Carleton Tract , Colonial Heights , Colonial Village , Colonial Village North , Curtis Park , Elmhurst , Fairgrounds, Florin , Industrial Park , Fruitridge Manor , Glen Elder , Glenbrook , Granite Regional Park , Lawrence Park , Med Center , North City Farms , Oak Park , Packard Bell , South City Farms , Southeast Village , Tahoe Park , Tahoe Park East , Tahoe Park South , Tallac Village, Vintage Park, Churchill Downs, and Woodbine.
Area Four (north Of The American River)
Ben Ali , Del Paso Heights , Gardenland, Hagginwood, McClellan Heights West, Natomas (north, south, west), North Sacramento , Northgate, Robla , Swanston Estates, Terrace Manor, Valley View Acres , and Woodlake.
Additional prominent regions and neighborhoods in the city include American River Parkway, Arden-Arcade, Arden Fair, Cal Expo, Capital Avenue, Coffing, College Glen, College Greens, Colonial Manor, Cordova, Creekside, East Fruitridge, Elder Creek, Elkhorn, Elvas, Erikson Industrial Park, Excelsior Sunrise, Foothill Farms, Franklin, Frates Ranch, Gateway Center, Gateway West, Glenwood Meadows, Hansen Park, Heritage Park, Johnson Business Park, Johnson Heights, Mayhew, Metro Center, Mills, Natomas Corporate Center, Natomas Creek, Natomas Crossing, Natomas Park, Newton Booth, Noralto, Northpointe, Norwood, Oak Knoll, Old North Sacramento, Parker Homes, Point West, Raley Industrial Park, Regency Park, Richardson Village, Richmond Grove, Rosemont, Sierra Oaks, Sports Complex, Strawberry Manor, Sundance Lake, Swanston Palms, Town and Country Village, Upper Land Park, Village 5, Village 7, Village 12, Village 14, Village Green, Walerga, Walsh Station, West Del Paso Heights, Westlake, Willowcreek, Wills Acres, Winn Park, Woodside and Youngs Heights.
Sacramento has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa),
characterized by damp to wet, mild winters and hot, dry summers. The
wet season is generally October through April, though there may be a
day or two of light rainfall in June or September. The normal annual
mean temperature is 61.0 °F (16.1 °C), with the monthly daily
average temperature ranging from 46.4 °F (8.0 °C) in December to
75.5 °F (24.2 °C) in July. Summer heat is often moderated by a sea
breeze known as the "delta breeze" which comes through the
Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta
The foggiest months are December and January. Tule fog can be extremely dense, lowering visibility to less than 100 feet (30 m) and making driving conditions extremely hazardous. Chilling tule fog events have been known to last for several consecutive days or weeks. During Tule fog events, temperatures do not exceed 50 degrees.
Snowfall is rare in Sacramento, which is only 25 ft (7.6 m) above sea level . In the downtown area, there have been only 3 significant snow accumulations since 1900, the last one being in 1976. During especially cold winter and spring storms, intense showers do occasionally produce a significant amount of hail, which can create hazardous driving conditions. Snowfall that does fall in the city often melts upon ground contact, with traceable amounts occurring in some years. Significant annual snow accumulations occur in the foothills located 40 miles (64 km) east of the city, which had brief and traceable amounts of snowfall in January 2002, December 2009 and February 2011. The greatest snowfall ever recorded in Sacramento was 3 inches (8 cm) on January 5, 1888.
On average, there are 73 days where the high exceeds 90 °F (32 °C), and 14 days where the high exceeds 100 °F (38 °C); On the other extreme, there are 15 days where the temperature does not exceed 50 °F (10 °C), and 15 freezing nights per year. Official temperature extremes range from 18 °F (−8 °C) on December 22, 1990 to 115 °F (46 °C) on June 15, 1961; a station around 5 mi (8.0 km) east-southeast of the city dipped to 17 °F (−8 °C) on December 11, 1932.
The average annual precipitation is 18.52 inches (470 mm). On
average, precipitation falls on 60 days each year in Sacramento, and
nearly all of this falls during the winter months. Average January
rainfall is 3.67 in (93 mm), and measurable precipitation is rare
during the summer months. In February 1992, Sacramento had 16
consecutive days of rain, resulting in an accumulation of 6.41 in (163
mm) for the period. On rare occasions, monsoonal moisture surges from
the Desert Southwest can bring upper-level moisture to the Sacramento
region, leading to increased summer cloudiness, humidity, and even
light showers and thunderstorms. Monsoon clouds do occur, usually
during late July through early September. Sacramento is the second
most flood susceptible city in the
Sacramento has been noted as being the sunniest location on the planet for three months of the year, from July through September. It holds the distinction as the sunniest month, in terms of percent possible sunshine, of anywhere in the world; July in Sacramento averages 14 hours and 12 minutes of sunshine per day, amounting to approximately 98% of possible sunshine.
CLIMATE DATA FOR SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA (SACRAMENTO EXECUTIVE AIRPORT ), 1981–2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1941–PRESENT
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 76 (24) 76 (24) 88 (31) 95 (35) 105 (41) 115 (46) 114 (46) 110 (43) 108 (42) 104 (40) 87 (31) 73 (23) 115 (46)
MEAN MAXIMUM °F (°C) 64.0 (17.8) 70.5 (21.4) 76.8 (24.9) 87.2 (30.7) 95.8 (35.4) 102.3 (39.1) 105.0 (40.6) 103.7 (39.8) 100.1 (37.8) 91.6 (33.1) 76.1 (24.5) 64.6 (18.1) 106.8 (41.6)
AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 53.8 (12.1) 60.3 (15.7) 65.1 (18.4) 71.1 (21.7) 79.9 (26.6) 87.1 (30.6) 92.1 (33.4) 91.2 (32.9) 87.2 (30.7) 77.6 (25.3) 63.8 (17.7) 53.9 (12.2) 73.6 (23.1)
AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 38.8 (3.8) 41.4 (5.2) 44.1 (6.7) 46.2 (7.9) 51.1 (10.6) 55.8 (13.2) 58.4 (14.7) 58.0 (14.4) 55.7 (13.2) 50.2 (10.1) 42.8 (6) 38.4 (3.6) 48.4 (9.1)
MEAN MINIMUM °F (°C) 29.1 (−1.6) 31.5 (−0.3) 35.1 (1.7) 38.0 (3.3) 42.9 (6.1) 48.7 (9.3) 53.1 (11.7) 53.0 (11.7) 49.2 (9.6) 41.7 (5.4) 32.5 (0.3) 28.5 (−1.9) 26.6 (−3)
RECORD LOW °F (°C) 20 (−7) 23 (−5) 26 (−3) 31 (−1) 34 (1) 41 (5) 48 (9) 48 (9) 42 (6) 35 (2) 26 (−3) 18 (−8) 18 (−8)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 3.64 (92.5) 3.47 (88.1) 2.75 (69.9) 1.15 (29.2) 0.68 (17.3) 0.21 (5.3) 0 (0) 0.05 (1.3) 0.29 (7.4) 0.95 (24.1) 2.08 (52.8) 3.25 (82.6) 18.25 (463.6)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 10.3 9.4 9.1 4.9 3.2 1.2 0 0.3 1.3 3.6 6.9 9.9 60.0
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 83.3 76.8 71.6 64.5 58.9 55.0 53.2 55.7 57.0 63.1 75.6 82.9 66.5
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 145.5 201.3 278.0 329.6 406.3 419.5 440.2 406.9 347.8 296.7 194.9 141.1 3,607.8
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 48 67 75 83 92 94 98 96 93 86 64 48 81
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)
CLIMATE DATA FOR SACRAMENTO 5 ESE, CALIFORNIA (1981–2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1877–PRESENT)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 79 (26) 80 (27) 90 (32) 98 (37) 107 (42) 112 (44) 114 (46) 111 (44) 109 (43) 102 (39) 86 (30) 72 (22) 114 (46)
MEAN MAXIMUM °F (°C) 65.7 (18.7) 72.8 (22.7) 80.0 (26.7) 90.2 (32.3) 97.9 (36.6) 104.1 (40.1) 106.6 (41.4) 105.4 (40.8) 101.7 (38.7) 93.1 (33.9) 77.0 (25) 65.6 (18.7) 108.3 (42.4)
AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 54.4 (12.4) 61.2 (16.2) 66.8 (19.3) 72.7 (22.6) 80.9 (27.2) 87.9 (31.1) 93.3 (34.1) 92.2 (33.4) 87.9 (31.1) 77.9 (25.5) 63.7 (17.6) 54.3 (12.4) 74.4 (23.6)
AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 40.7 (4.8) 43.7 (6.5) 46.5 (8.1) 49.0 (9.4) 53.9 (12.2) 58.4 (14.7) 60.9 (16.1) 60.5 (15.8) 58.4 (14.7) 52.8 (11.6) 45.5 (7.5) 40.4 (4.7) 50.9 (10.5)
MEAN MINIMUM °F (°C) 32.8 (0.4) 35.0 (1.7) 38.7 (3.7) 41.9 (5.5) 46.7 (8.2) 51.6 (10.9) 55.0 (12.8) 55.3 (12.9) 52.1 (11.2) 45.1 (7.3) 35.7 (2.1) 31.5 (−0.3) 30.1 (−1.1)
RECORD LOW °F (°C) 19 (−7) 21 (−6) 29 (−2) 34 (1) 37 (3) 43 (6) 47 (8) 48 (9) 44 (7) 34 (1) 27 (−3) 17 (−8) 17 (−8)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 3.97 (100.8) 3.69 (93.7) 3.02 (76.7) 1.30 (33) 0.76 (19.3) 0.19 (4.8) 0 (0) 0.03 (0.8) 0.35 (8.9) 1.05 (26.7) 2.43 (61.7) 3.48 (88.4) 20.27 (514.9)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 11.2 9.8 9.2 5.2 3.2 1.2 0.1 0.4 1.4 3.6 7.4 10.5 63.5
Source: NOAA , Western Regional Climate Center
EST. 2016 495,234
U.S. Decennial Census
Sacramento is notably diverse racially, ethnically, and by household
income, and has a notable lack of interracial disharmony. In 2002, the
Civil Rights Project at
RACIAL COMPOSITION 2010 1990 1970 1940
White 45.0% 60.1% 81.5% 94.2%
—Non-Hispanic 34.5% 53.4% 71.4% n/a
African American 14.6% 15.3% 10.7% 1.4%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 26.9% 16.2% 11.0% n/a
Asian 18.3% 15.0% 6.5% 4.3%
Map of racial distribution in Sacramento, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: WHITE, BLACK, ASIAN, HISPANIC or OTHER (yellow)
The racial makeup of Sacramento was :
* 210,006 (45.0%) White * 68,335 (14.6%) African American * 85,503 (17.8%) Asian (4.2% Chinese, 3.3% Hmong, 2.8% Filipino, 1.6% Indian, 1.4% Vietnamese, 1.2% Laotian, 1.2% Japanese, 0.3% Pakistani, 0.3% Korean, 0.3% Thai, 0.2% Cambodian) * 6,655 (1.4%) Pacific Islander (0.6% Fijian, 0.2% Tongan, 0.2% Samoan) * 5,291 (1.1%) Native American * 57,573 (12.3%) other races * 33,125 (7.1%) from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 125,276 persons (26.9%); 22.6% of Sacramento's population is of Mexican heritage, 0.7% Puerto Rican, 0.5% Salvadoran, 0.2% Guatemalan, and 0.2% Nicaraguan. Non-Hispanic Whites were 34.5% of the population in 2010, down from 71.4% in 1970.
The Census reported that 458,174 people (98.2% of the population) lived in households, 4,268 (0.9%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 4,046 (0.9%) were institutionalized. Also, with the recent housing crash there have been no changes to these numbers.
There were 174,624 households, out of which 57,870 (33.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 65,556 (37.5%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 27,640 (15.8%) had a female householder with no husband present, 10,534 (6.0%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 13,234 (7.6%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships , and 2,498 (1.4%) same-sex married couples or partnerships . 53,342 households (30.5%) were made up of individuals and 14,926 (8.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62. There were 103,730 families (59.4% of all households); the average family size was 3.37.
Sacramento has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita,
ranking seventh among major American cities, and third in California
The age distribution of the city was follows: 116,121 people (24.9%) were under the age of 18, 52,438 people (11.2%) aged 18 to 24, 139,093 people (29.8%) aged 25 to 44, 109,416 people (23.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 49,420 people (10.6%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.0 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.
There were 190,911 housing units at an average density of 1,907.1 per square mile (736.3/km²), of which 86,271 (49.4%) were owner-occupied, and 88,353 (50.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 8.3%. 231,593 people (49.6% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 226,581 people (48.6%) lived in rental housing units.
The Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament in Cathedral Square, downtown.
As of the census of 2000, there are 407,018 people, 154,581 households, and 91,202 families residing in the city. The population density is 4,189.2 people per square mile (1,617.4/km²). There are 163,957 housing units at an average density of 1,687.5 per square mile (651.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 41.1% White , 19.5% African American , 1.3% Native American , 12.6% Asian , 0.9% Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander , 11.0% from other races , and 6.4% from two or more races. 21.6% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 154,581 households out of which 30.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.4% are married couples living together, 15.4% have a female householder with no husband present, and 41.0% are non-families. 32.0% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.2% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.57 and the average family size is 3.35.
In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 27.3% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, and 11.4% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 33 years. For every 100 females there are 94.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 91.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $37,049, and the median income for a family is $42,051. Males have a median income of $35,946 versus $31,318 for females. The per capita income for the city is $18,721. 20.0% of the population and 15.3% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 29.5% of those under the age of 18 and 9.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
As of 2012, the top employers in the City of Sacramento were:
# EMPLOYER EMPLOYEES
2 Sacramento County 11,450
3 UC Davis Health System 7,725
7 Sutter Health 5,765
11 City of Sacramento 4,083
CULTURE AND ARTS
The Big Four Building in
The oldest part of the town besides Sutter\'s Fort is Old Sacramento , which consists of cobbled streets and many historic buildings, several from the 1850s and 1860s. Buildings have been preserved, restored or reconstructed, and the district is now a substantial tourist attraction, with rides on steam-hauled historic trains and horse drawn carriages.
The historic buildings include the Lady Adams Building, built by the passengers and ship's carpenters of the ship Lady Adams. Having survived the Great Conflagration of November 1852, it is the oldest surviving building in Sacramento other than Sutter's Fort. Reconstruction of California's first permanent theatre, the Eagle Theatre (Sacramento, California)
Another surviving landmark is the B.F. Hastings building, built in
1853. Early home of the
The "Big Four Building", built in 1852, was home to the offices of
The Community Center Theatre (foreground)
There are several major theatre venues for Sacramento. The Sacramento
Convention Center Complex governs both the Community Center Theatre
and Memorial Auditorium . The
Wells Fargo Pavilion
Professional theatre is represented in Sacramento by a number of
During the fall, winter and spring seasons Broadway Sacramento brings bus and truck tours to the Community Center Theater. At the B Street Theatre , smaller and more intimate professional productions are performed as well as a children's theatre that will soon be opening a larger theatre complex in the heart of midtown in 2014. Rounding out the professional companies is Capital Stage, which performed aboard the Delta King until the end of the 2010–2011 season and soon took up residence at its own venue along the J-Street corridor.
The Sacramento area has one of the largest collection of community theatres in California. Some of these include the Thistle Dew Dessert Theatre and Playwrights Workshop, Davis Musical Theatre Co., El Dorado Musical Theatre, Runaway Stage Productions, River City Theatre Company, Flying Monkey Productions, The Actor's Theatre, KOLT Run Productions, Kookaburra Productions, Big Idea Theatre, Celebration Arts, Lambda Player, Light Opera Theatre of Sacramento, Synergy Stage and the historic Eagle Theatre. The Sacramento Shakespeare Festival provides entertainment under the stars every summer in William Land Park. Many of these theatres compete annually for the Elly Awards overseen by The Sacramento Area Regional Theatre Alliance or SARTA.
Sacramento Metropolitan Arts Commission
Sacramento Second Saturday Art Walk is a program of local art galleries that stay open into the late evenings every second Saturday of each month, providing a unique experience for the local population as well as tourists to view original art and meet the artists themselves.
Sacramento has several major museums. The
Crocker Art Museum is the
oldest public art museum west of the
Also of interest is the Governor\'s Mansion State Historic Park , a
large Victorian Mansion which was home to 13 of California's
Governors, as well as the official residence for current governor
Jerry Brown following renovations in 2015. The
Leland Stanford Mansion
State Historic Park , which was completely restored in 2006, serves as
the State's official address for diplomatic and business receptions.
Guided public tours are available. The
There is a Museum Day held in Sacramento every year, when 26 museums in the greater Sacramento area offer free admission. The 2009 Sacramento Museum Day brought out more than 80,000 people, the largest number the event has gathered. Sacramento Museum Day is held every year on the first Saturday of February.
Tower Records was started and based in Sacramento until its closing.
Marvaless , and
Lunasicc are among those native to the
area. Classical music is widely available. The Sacramento Philharmonic
Orchestra , the Sacramento Baroque Soloists, the Sacramento Choral
Society plus some other famous musicians like record producer and
Charlie Peacock , Bob Stubbs of
Scottish pop band Middle of the Road sang kindly of Sacramento in
their 1972 European hit song "Sacramento".
Sacramento is home to the Sacramento French Film Festival , a cultural event held every year in July that features U.S. premieres of French films and classic masterpieces of French cinema and the Sacramento Japanese Film Festival, also held in July. In addition, Sacramento is home to the Trash Film Orgy, a summer film festival celebrating the absurd, B-movies, horror, monster, exploitation. Founded in 2007, the Sacramento Horror Film Festival showcases feature-length and short films as well as live musical and theatrical performances in the horror and macabre genres.
Of note, Sacramento has been home to various actors, including Eddie Murphy , who resided in the Riverlake community of Pocket-Greenhaven with his then wife Nicole Mitchell Murphy , a fashion model and Sacramento native.
FOOD AND DRINK
In 2012, Sacramento started the marketing campaign as "America's Farm-to-Fork Capital" due to Sacramento's many restaurants that source their food locally from the numerous surrounding farms. The city has an annual Farm-to-Fork festival that showcases various grocers and growers in the industry. In 2012, The Kitchen was nominated for Outstanding Restaurant by the James Beard Foundation. It continues to excel, earning the AAA 's Five Diamond dining award since 2011. Sacramento is home to well-known cookbook authors, Biba Caggiano of Biba's Restaurant and Mai Pham of Lemongrass and Star Ginger.
Sacramento is also known for its beverage culture, with keystone
events that include
Cal Expo 's Grape and Gourmet, Sacramento Beer
Week, and Sacramento Cocktail Week. Its growing beer scene is evident,
with over 60 microbreweries in the region as of 2017. Some local
brews include Track 7 Brewing Company, Rubricon Brewing Co., Oak Park
Brewing Co., and Sactown Union Brewery. Numerous beer festivals around
the region highlight both local and visitor beers. In addition to
festivals in Elk Grove, Davis, Roseville, Placerville, and Woodland,
Sacramento hosts the annual
Sacramento's contemporary culture is reflected in its coffee. An "underrated coffee city", Sacramento has above-average marks for local coffee. The city has numerous community roasters and coffee shops. Examples include Temple Coffee, Insight Coffee Roasters, Old Soul Co., Chocolate Fish Roasters, Naked Lounge, Pachamama Roasting Co., and Identity Coffees. In addition to local brands, the region offers other chains like Starbucks, Peet's Coffee & Tea, and Philz Coffee.
Sacramento has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita,
ranking seventh among major American cities, and third in California
Sacramento is home to one major league sports team — the Sacramento
Kings of the
National Basketball Association . The Kings came to
Sacramento has two other professional teams. Sacramento Republic FC
began play in April 2014 at Hughes Stadium before a sellout crowd of
20,231, setting a USL Pro regular-season single game attendance
record. The Republic FC won the USL championship in their first
season. In 2000, AAA minor league baseball returned to Sacramento with
Sacramento is the former home of two professional basketball teams.
Sacramento Heatwave of the American Basketball Association
previously played in the Sacramento area until 2013. Sacramento was
also formerly home to the now defunct
Sacramento professional teams (ranked by attendance) CLUB LEAGUE SPORT VENUE ATTENDANCE ESTABLISHED CHAMPIONSHIPS
Golden 1 Center
SACRAMENTO REPUBLIC FC USL (D2 ) Soccer Papa Murphy\'s Park 13,763 2012 1 USL Pro
SACRAMENTO RIVER CATS
PCL (AAA )
View of the city skyline from
Sacramento has frequently hosted the NCAA Men\'s Outdoor Track and
Field Championship as well as the 1st and 2nd rounds of the NCAA
Men\'s Division I Basketball Championship . The California
International Marathon (est. 1983) attracts a field of international
elite runners who vie for a share of the $50,000 prize purse. The fast
course is popular for runners seeking to achieve a
PARKS AND RECREATION
Sacramento boasts an extensive park system consisting of over 5,000 acres (2,023 ha) of parkland and recreation centers. The city features a collection of smaller parks in the Downtown districts, including Crocker Park, Pioneer Landing and Southside Park. Popular parks outside the central core include American River Parkway which spans 23 miles along the American River, and William Land Park .
In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The
Trust for Public Land reported
that Sacramento was tied with
Sacramento is a hotbed for high school rugby. Jesuit High is the recent defending national champion (winning five times in total). Their arch-rival school Christian Brothers came in second nationwide. Burbank, Del Campo and Vacaville have also placed well in the national competition over the years. The Sacramento Valley High School Rugby Conference hosts the largest and arguably deepest preseason youth and high school rugby tournament in America.
Sacramento hosts some recreational facilities and events. The
Jedediah Smith Memorial Trail that runs between
Among other recreational options in Sacramento is Discovery Park, a 275-acre (1.1 km2) park studded with stands of mature trees and grasslands. This park is situated where the American River flows into the Sacramento River.
In amateur sports, Sacramento claims many prominent Olympians such as Mark Spitz, Debbie Meyer (6 time gold medalist in for US swimming), Mike Burton, Summer Sanders (Gold medalist in swimming, and trained in childhood by Debbie Meyer at Rio Del Oro Racquet Club), Jeff Float (all swimming), and Billy Mills (track). Coach Sherm Chavoor founded his world-famous Arden Hills Swim Club just east of the city and trained Burton, Spitz and others.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
The government of Sacramento operates as a charter city (as opposed
to a general law city) under the Charter of the City of Sacramento.
The elected government is composed of the
Sacramento City Council with
8 city council districts and the
See also: Government of Sacramento County,
The City of Sacramento is part of Sacramento County , for which the
government of Sacramento County is defined and authorized under the
FEDERAL AND STATE REPRESENTATION
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
The Sacramento area hosts a wide variety of higher educational opportunities. There are two major public universities, many private institutions, community colleges, vocational schools, and McGeorge School of Law.
Sacramento is home to
The University of
Los Rios Community College District consists of several two-year
colleges in the Sacramento area—
American River College , Cosumnes
River College ,
Sacramento City College
Private, Not For Profit
University of the Pacific has its Sacramento Campus in the Oak Park
neighborhood of Sacramento. The campus houses
McGeorge School of Law
The National University Sacramento regional campus offers bachelor's and master's degrees in business, education, health-care and teaching credential programs.
University of San Francisco
The private University of Southern
Western Seminary has one of its four campuses in Sacramento, which opened on the campus of Arcade Church in 1991. Western is an evangelical, Christian graduate school that provides theological training for students who hope to serve in a variety of ministry roles including pastors, marriage and family therapists, educators, missionaries and lay leadership. The Sacramento campus offers four master's degrees, and a variety of other graduate-level programs.
Private, For Profit
Sacramento has a number of private vocational schools as well.
A satellite campus of Alliant International University offers graduate and undergraduate programs of study.
The Art Institute of
Sacramento Public Library system has 28 branches located in the
greater area. The Sacramento area is served by various public school
districts, including the
Sacramento City Unified School District ,
Natomas Unified School District ,
San Juan Unified School District
Almost all areas south of the American River are served by the Sacramento City Unified School District . The only exceptions are the Valley Hi/North Laguna and Florin areas that are served by the Elk Grove Unified School District .
Areas north of the American River are served by the remaining school districts. This area was not originally part of the City of Sacramento and as such is not served by Sacramento City Unified School District. North Sacramento outside of Natomas and Robla (for K-8) is served by the Twin Rivers Unified School District. The Robla area is served by the Robla School District for K-8 and by Twin Rivers for 9–12. The Natomas region is served by the Natomas Unified School District. The Campus Commons area and the small portions of the Sierra Oaks neighborhood that fall into the city of Sacramento are served by the San Juan Unified School District.
While Roman Catholic institutions still dominate the independent
school scene in the Sacramento area, in 1964, Sacramento Country Day
School opened and offered Sacramento citizens an independent school
that is affiliated with the
Other Religious Schools
Shalom School is the only Jewish day school in Sacramento; however, Brookefield School on property owned by Congregation B'nai Israel provides extracurricular Jewish education.
Capital Christian School is a pre-school–12th grade private, Christian school. There is a small Bible college on campus offering associate degrees in Bible studies or theology. Sacramento Adventist Academy is another Christian school in Greater Sacramento. This is a pre-school–12 institution, as well.
There is one Islamic school in Sacramento, Masjid Annur, founded in 1988.
Top two newspapers
The Sacramento Bee
Further information: List of radio stations in Sacramento
CHANNEL CALL SIGN NETWORK SUBCHANNELS
Sacramento is the northern terminus of the
Sacramento is a stop along Amtrak's
Sacramento Valley Rail Station provides numerous Thruway
Motorcoach routes. One route serves the cities of Marysville ,
Oroville , Chico , Corning , Red Bluff and Redding with additional
service to Yreka and even
Medford, Oregon . A second serves the cities
of Roseville , Rocklin , Auburn , Colfax , Truckee , Reno and Sparks .
The third and final thruway motorcoach route serves Placerville , Lake
Tahoe , Stateline Casinos, and Carson City,
A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Sacramento 24th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.
SACRAMENTO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Sacramento International Airport
The airport is best known for its red rabbit installation by Lawrence Argent entitled "Leap".
OTHER TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS
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Regional Transit (RT) light rail train pulls onto K Street
The city and its suburbs are served by Sacramento Regional Transit
District , which ranks as the eleventh busiest in the
There is commuter bus service from Yolo County on Yolobus , from Solano County on FAST , on two bus lines from Yuba County 's Yuba Sutter Transit , from Amador Transit's Sacramento Line, on Placer County Transit 's Auburn to Light Rail Line, and from San Joaquin County on several SMART bus lines.
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* List of cities and towns in
* ^ A B Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. * ^ Official records for Sacramento were kept exclusively at the airport since 10 November 1941.
* ^ "
* ^ A B C "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved December 6, 2012.
* ^ "Forecasters Say Snow Possible In Sacramento". capradio.org.
February 24, 2011. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
* ^ "Snow in Sacramento". YouTube. December 19, 2009. Retrieved
November 16, 2012.
* ^ "Arctic Blast Could Bring Dusting Of Snow To Sacramento Valley
and Several Feet To Sierra"
* ^ Sweeney, Adam (September 14, 2011). "Exclusive Interview: Colin Hanks". Playmaker. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
* a "I was born and raised in Sacramento, California, which most people don't know is where Tower started and was based until the end." — ¶ 4.
* ^ "Deathwish Inc". Deathwish Inc. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
* ^ "Trash Talk\'s anthology \'Shame\' is released this week, Band
Of The Week is in the bag!".
Rock Sound . May 18, 2010. Retrieved June
* ^ Diver, Mike (May 5, 2010). "Trash
Talk Eyes & Nines Review".
BBC. Retrieved June 20, 2010.
* ^ "SJFF Home". Sacjapanesefilmfestival.net. July 13, 2012.
Retrieved November 16, 2012.
* ^ Pham, Jason (February 27, 2015). "Grown-up slumber party, Trash
Film Orgy overtake downtown art center".
Sactown Magazine . Retrieved
March 1, 2015.
* ^ Meyer, Carla (October 15, 2007). "Horror film fest to debut in
The Sacramento Bee
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