INCORPORATED February 27, 1850
Sacrament of the Holy
• TYPE City Council
• BODY Sacramento City Council
• MAYOR Darrell Steinberg (D )
• CITY COUNCIL Council Members
* Angelique Ashby * Allen Warren * Jeff Harris * Steve Hansen * Jay Schenirer * Eric Guerra * Rick Jennings, II * Larry Carr
• CITY 100.11 sq mi (259.27 km2)
• LAND 97.92 sq mi (253.62 km2)
• WATER 2.18 sq mi (5.65 km2) 2.19%
ELEVATION 30 ft (9 m)
POPULATION (2010 )
• CITY 466,488
• ESTIMATE (2016) 495,234
1st in Sacramento County
6th in California
35th in the
• DENSITY 5,057.33/sq mi (1,952.65/km2)
• URBAN 1,723,634
• METRO 2,149,127
• CSA 2,414,783
• SUMMER (DST ) PDT ( UTC−7 )
ZIP CODES 942xx, 958xx
AREA CODE 916
FIPS CODE 06-64000
GNIS FEATURE IDS 1659564, 2411751
SACRAMENTO (/ˌsækrəˈmɛntoʊ/ ; Spanish: ) is the capital city
Sacramento became a city through the efforts of the Swiss immigrant
John Sutter, Sr. , his son
John Augustus Sutter, Jr. , and James W.
Marshall . Sacramento grew quickly thanks to the protection of
Sutter\'s Fort , which was established by Sutter. During the
The city was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its
western border. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel
Moraga for the Santísimo Sacramento (
Today, the city is known for its diversity, tree canopy (largest in
the U.S. ), historic
Old Sacramento , evolving contemporary culture
as the most "hipster city" in California, sunny climate, state
administration, and farm-to-fork dining.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Indigenous culture
* 1.2 Spanish exploration
* 1.3 Mexican Period: Sutter\'s Fort and New Helvetia
* 1.4 From New Helvetia to "Sacramento City"
* 1.5 Remnants of downtown Sacramento\'s Chinatown
* 2 Geography and climate
* 2.1 Geography
* 2.2 Cityscape
* 2.2.1 City neighborhoods
* 126.96.36.199 Area one (central/eastern) * 188.8.131.52 Area two (southwestern) * 184.108.40.206 Area three (southeastern) * 220.127.116.11 Area four (north of the American River) * 18.104.22.168 Other areas
* 2.3 Climate
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 2010 * 3.2 2000
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Top employers
* 5 Culture and arts
* 5.1 Old Sacramento * 5.2 Theater arts * 5.3 Visual arts * 5.4 Museums * 5.5 Music * 5.6 Film * 5.7 Food and drink * 5.8 LGBTQ
* 6 Sports
* 6.1 Professional teams * 6.2 Other sports
* 7 Parks and recreation
* 8 Government and politics
* 8.1 County government * 8.2 Federal and state representation
* 9 Education
* 9.1 Colleges and universities
* 9.1.1 Public * 9.1.2 Private, not for profit * 9.1.3 Private, for profit
* 9.2 K–12 schools
* 9.2.1 Public schools
* 9.2.2 Private schools
* 22.214.171.124 Independent schools * 126.96.36.199 Other religious schools
* 10 Media
* 10.1 Magazines * 10.2 Newspapers * 10.3 Radio * 10.4 Television stations
* 11 Transportation
* 12 Cemeteries * 13 Notable residents * 14 Sister cities * 15 See also * 16 Notes * 17 References * 18 External links
Nisenan (Southern Maidu ) and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for perhaps thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would eventually make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region, and by fruits, bulbs, seeds, and roots gathered throughout the year.
In 1808, the Spanish explorer
Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the
MEXICAN PERIOD: SUTTER\'S FORT AND NEW HELVETIA
Inside the historical Sutter's Fort. Main building housing John Sutter's offices. (2009)
Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, and was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more and more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847 Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. Later that same year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, however, unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.'s "empire" had been built on some very thin margins of credit.
FROM NEW HELVETIA TO "SACRAMENTO CITY"
Sacramento in 1849
In 1848, when gold was discovered by
James W. Marshall at Sutter\'s
Mill in Coloma (located some 50 miles (80.5 km) northeast of the
fort), a large number of gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the
population. In August 1848 Sutter Sr.'s son,
By December 1848,
The citizens of Sacramento adopted a city charter in 1849, which was
recognized by the state legislature in 1850. Sacramento is the oldest
incorporated city in California, incorporated on February 27, 1850.
During the early 1850s, the Sacramento valley was devastated by
floods, fires and cholera epidemics. Despite this, because of its
position just downstream from the
REMNANTS OF DOWNTOWN SACRAMENTO\'S CHINATOWN
Throughout the early 1840s and 1850s, China was at war with Great Britain and France in the First and Second Opium Wars . The wars, along with endemic poverty in China, helped drive many Chinese immigrants to America. Many first came to San Francisco, which was then the largest city in California, which was known as "Dai Fow" (The Big City) and some came eventually to Sacramento (then the second-largest city in California), which is known as "Yee Fow" (Second City). Many of these immigrants came in hope of a better life as well as the possibility of finding gold in the foothills east of Sacramento.
Sacramento's Chinatown was located on "I" Street from Second to Sixth
Streets. At the time, this area of "I" Street was considered a health
hazard because - lying within a levee zone - it was lower than other
parts of the city, which were situated on higher land. Throughout
Sacramento's Chinatown history, there were fires, acts of
discrimination, and prejudicial legislation such as the Chinese
Exclusion Act that was not repealed until 1943. The mysterious fires
were thought to be set off by those who did not take a liking to the
Chinese working class. Ordinances on what was viable building
material were set into place to try to get the Chinese to move out.
Newspapers such as
The Sacramento Union wrote stories at the time that
portrayed the Chinese in an unfavorable light to inspire ethnic
discrimination and drive the Chinese away. As the years passed, a
railroad was created over parts of the Chinatown, and further politics
and laws would make it even harder for Chinese workers to sustain a
living in Sacramento. While the east side of the country fought for
higher wages and fewer working hours, many cities in the western
The Chinese remained resilient despite these efforts. They built their buildings out of bricks just as the building guidelines were established. They helped build part of the railroads that span the city as well as made a great contribution to the transcontinental railroad that spans the United States. They also helped build the levees within Sacramento and its surrounding cities. As a result, the Chinese are a well-recognized part of Sacramento's history and heritage.
While most of Sacramento's Chinatown has now been razed, a small
Chinatown mall remains as well as a museum dedicated to the history of
Sacramento's Chinatown and the contributions Chinese Americans have
made to the city.
See also: Urban redevelopment in Sacramento,
Begun in 1860 to be reminiscent of the
With its new status and strategic location, Sacramento quickly
prospered and became the western end of the
In 1850 and again in 1861, Sacramento citizens were faced with a completely flooded town. After the devastating 1850 flood, Sacramento experienced a cholera epidemic and a flu epidemic, which crippled the town for several years. In 1861, Governor Leland Stanford, who was inaugurated in early January 1861, had to attend his inauguration in a rowboat, which was not too far from his house in town on N street. The flood waters were so bad, the legend says, that when he returned to his house, he had to enter into it through the second floor window. From 1862 until the mid-1870s Sacramento raised the level of its downtown by building reinforced brick walls on its downtown streets, and filling the resulting street walls with dirt. Thus the previous first floors of buildings became the basements , with open space between the street and the building, previously the sidewalk, now at the basement level. Most property owners used screw jacks to raise their buildings to the new grade. The sidewalks were covered, initially by wooden sidewalks, then brick barrel vaults, and eventually replaced by concrete sidewalks. Over the years, many of these underground spaces have been filled or destroyed by subsequent development. However, it is still possible to view portions of the "Sacramento Underground ".
The same rivers that earlier brought death and destruction began to
provide increasing levels of transportation and commerce. Both the
American and especially Sacramento rivers would be key elements in the
economic success of the city. In fact, Sacramento effectively
controlled commerce on these rivers, and public works projects were
funded though taxes levied on goods unloaded from boats and loaded
onto rail cars in the historic Sacramento Rail Yards . Now both rivers
are used extensively for recreation . The
The city's current charter was adopted by voters in 1920. As a charter city , Sacramento is exempt from many laws and regulations passed by the state legislature . The city has expanded continuously over the years. The 1964 merger of the City of North Sacramento with Sacramento substantially increased its population, and large annexations of the Natomas area eventually led to significant population growth throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.
Sacramento County (along with a portion of adjacent Placer County ) is served by a customer-owned electric utility, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). Sacramento voters approved the creation of SMUD in 1923. In April 1946, after 12 years of litigation, a judge ordered Pacific Gas & Electric to transfer title of Sacramento's electric distribution system to SMUD. Today SMUD is the sixth-largest public electric utility in the U.S., and is a leader for innovative programs and services, including the development of clean fuel resources, such as solar power . The year following the creation of SMUD, 1924, brought several events in Sacramento: Standard Oil executive Verne McGeorge established McGeorge School of Law , American department store Weinstock "> Barracks set up for families of Japanese ancestry at the Sacramento Assembly Center.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to JAPANESE AMERICAN INTERNMENT PROCESSING IN SACRAMENTO .
Early in World War II, the Sacramento Assembly Center (also known as the Walerga Assembly Center) was established to house Japanese Americans forcibly "evacuated" from the West Coast under Executive Order 9066 . The camp was one of fifteen temporary detention facilities where over 110,000 Japanese Americans , two-thirds of them U.S. citizens, were held while construction on the more permanent War Relocation Authority camps was completed. The assembly center was built on the site of a former migrant labor camp, and inmates began arriving from Sacramento and San Joaquin Counties on May 6, 1942. It closed after only 52 days, on June 26, and the population of 4,739 was transferred to the Tule Lake concentration camp. The site was then turned over to the Army Signal Corps and dedicated as Camp Kohler . After the war and the end of the incarceration program, returning Japanese Americans were often unable to find housing and so 234 families temporarily lived at the former assembly center. Camp Kohler was destroyed by a fire in December 1947, and the assembly center site is now part of the Foothill Farms-North Highlands subdivision.
The Sacramento-Yolo Port District was created in 1947, and ground was
broken on the
Port of Sacramento in 1949. On June 29, 1963, with 5,000
spectators waiting to welcome her, the Motor Vessel Taipei Victory
arrived. The port was open for business. The Nationalist Chinese
flagship, freshly painted for the historic event, was loaded with
5,000 tons of bagged rice for Mitsui Trading Co. bound for
The 1980s and 1990s saw the closure of several local military bases:
McClellan Air Force Base
In the early 1990s,
In spite of military base closures and the decline of agricultural
food processing, Sacramento has continued to experience population
growth in recent years. Primary sources of population growth are an
influx of residents from the nearby
San Francisco Bay Area
In the late 1990s and early 2000s (decade),
Despite a devolution of state bureaucracy, the state government
remains by far Sacramento's largest employer. The City of Sacramento
expends considerable effort to keep state agencies from moving outside
the city limits. In addition, many federal agencies have offices in
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
Depth to groundwater is typically about 30 feet (9 m). Much of the
land to the west of the city (in Yolo County ) is permanently reserved
for a vast flood control basin (the
Yolo Bypass ), due to the city's
historical vulnerability to floods. As a result, the greater
metropolitan area sprawls only four miles (6 km) west of downtown (as
The city is located at the confluence of the
Panoramic view of downtown Sacramento from West Sacramento
The city groups most of its neighborhoods into four areas:
Area One (central/eastern)
Alkali Flat, Boulevard Park , Campus Commons, Sacramento State , Dos Rios Triangle, Downtown , East Sacramento , Fab Forties, Mansion Flats, Marshall School, Midtown , New Era Park , McKinley Village, Newton Booth, Old Sacramento , Poverty Ridge, Richards, Richmond Grove, River Park, Elmhurst, Sierra Oaks , Southside Park .
Area Two (southwestern)
Airport, Carleton Tract, Freeport Manor, Golf Course Terrace, Greenhaven , Curtis Park, Hollywood Park, Land Park , Little Pocket, Mangan Park, Meadowview , Parkway, Pocket , Sacramento City College , South Land Park , Valley Hi / North Laguna, Z'Berg Park.
Area Three (southeastern)
Alhambra Triangle , Avondale , Brentwood , Carleton Tract , Colonial
Colonial Village ,
Colonial Village North , Curtis Park ,
Elmhurst , Fairgrounds, Florin , Industrial Park , Fruitridge Manor ,
Glen Elder , Glenbrook , Granite Regional Park , Lawrence Park , Med
Center , North City Farms , Oak Park ,
Area Four (north Of The American River)
Ben Ali , Del Paso Heights , Gardenland, Hagginwood, McClellan Heights West, Natomas (north, south, west), North Sacramento , Northgate, Robla , Swanston Estates, Terrace Manor, Valley View Acres , and Woodlake.
Additional prominent regions and neighborhoods in the city include
Sacramento has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa),
characterized by damp to wet, mild winters and hot, dry summers. The
wet season is generally October through April, though there may be a
day or two of light rainfall in June or September. The normal annual
mean temperature is 61.0 °F (16.1 °C), with the monthly daily
average temperature ranging from 46.4 °F (8.0 °C) in December to
75.5 °F (24.2 °C) in July. Summer heat is often moderated by a sea
breeze known as the "delta breeze" which comes through the
Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta
The foggiest months are December and January. Tule fog can be extremely dense, lowering visibility to less than 100 feet (30 m) and making driving conditions extremely hazardous. Chilling tule fog events have been known to last for several consecutive days or weeks. During Tule fog events, temperatures do not exceed 50 degrees.
Snowfall is rare in Sacramento, which is only 25 ft (7.6 m) above sea level . In the downtown area, there have been only 3 significant snow accumulations since 1900, the last one being in 1976. During especially cold winter and spring storms, intense showers do occasionally produce a significant amount of hail, which can create hazardous driving conditions. Snowfall that does fall in the city often melts upon ground contact, with traceable amounts occurring in some years. Significant annual snow accumulations occur in the foothills located 40 miles (64 km) east of the city, which had brief and traceable amounts of snowfall in January 2002, December 2009 and February 2011. The greatest snowfall ever recorded in Sacramento was 3 inches (8 cm) on January 5, 1888.
On average, there are 73 days where the high exceeds 90 °F (32 °C), and 14 days where the high exceeds 100 °F (38 °C); On the other extreme, there are 15 days where the temperature does not exceed 50 °F (10 °C), and 15 freezing nights per year. Official temperature extremes range from 18 °F (−8 °C) on December 22, 1990 to 115 °F (46 °C) on June 15, 1961; a station around 5 mi (8.0 km) east-southeast of the city dipped to 17 °F (−8 °C) on December 11, 1932.
The average annual precipitation is 18.52 inches (470 mm). On
average, precipitation falls on 60 days each year in Sacramento, and
nearly all of this falls during the winter months. Average January
rainfall is 3.67 in (93 mm), and measurable precipitation is rare
during the summer months. In February 1992, Sacramento had 16
consecutive days of rain, resulting in an accumulation of 6.41 in (163
mm) for the period. On rare occasions, monsoonal moisture surges from
the Desert Southwest can bring upper-level moisture to the Sacramento
region, leading to increased summer cloudiness, humidity, and even
light showers and thunderstorms. Monsoon clouds do occur, usually
during late July through early September. Sacramento is the second
most flood susceptible city in the
Sacramento has been noted as being the sunniest location on the planet for three months of the year, from July through September. It holds the distinction as the sunniest month, in terms of percent possible sunshine, of anywhere in the world; July in Sacramento averages 14 hours and 12 minutes of sunshine per day, amounting to approximately 98% of possible sunshine.
CLIMATE DATA FOR SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA (SACRAMENTO EXECUTIVE AIRPORT ), 1981–2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1941–PRESENT
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 76 (24) 76 (24) 88 (31) 95 (35) 105 (41) 115 (46) 114 (46) 110 (43) 108 (42) 104 (40) 87 (31) 73 (23) 115 (46)
MEAN MAXIMUM °F (°C) 64.0 (17.8) 70.5 (21.4) 76.8 (24.9) 87.2 (30.7) 95.8 (35.4) 102.3 (39.1) 105.0 (40.6) 103.7 (39.8) 100.1 (37.8) 91.6 (33.1) 76.1 (24.5) 64.6 (18.1) 106.8 (41.6)
AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 53.8 (12.1) 60.3 (15.7) 65.1 (18.4) 71.1 (21.7) 79.9 (26.6) 87.1 (30.6) 92.1 (33.4) 91.2 (32.9) 87.2 (30.7) 77.6 (25.3) 63.8 (17.7) 53.9 (12.2) 73.6 (23.1)
AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 38.8 (3.8) 41.4 (5.2) 44.1 (6.7) 46.2 (7.9) 51.1 (10.6) 55.8 (13.2) 58.4 (14.7) 58.0 (14.4) 55.7 (13.2) 50.2 (10.1) 42.8 (6) 38.4 (3.6) 48.4 (9.1)
MEAN MINIMUM °F (°C) 29.1 (−1.6) 31.5 (−0.3) 35.1 (1.7) 38.0 (3.3) 42.9 (6.1) 48.7 (9.3) 53.1 (11.7) 53.0 (11.7) 49.2 (9.6) 41.7 (5.4) 32.5 (0.3) 28.5 (−1.9) 26.6 (−3)
RECORD LOW °F (°C) 20 (−7) 23 (−5) 26 (−3) 31 (−1) 34 (1) 41 (5) 48 (9) 48 (9) 42 (6) 35 (2) 26 (−3) 18 (−8) 18 (−8)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 3.64 (92.5) 3.47 (88.1) 2.75 (69.9) 1.15 (29.2) 0.68 (17.3) 0.21 (5.3) 0 (0) 0.05 (1.3) 0.29 (7.4) 0.95 (24.1) 2.08 (52.8) 3.25 (82.6) 18.25 (463.6)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 10.3 9.4 9.1 4.9 3.2 1.2 0 0.3 1.3 3.6 6.9 9.9 60.0
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 83.3 76.8 71.6 64.5 58.9 55.0 53.2 55.7 57.0 63.1 75.6 82.9 66.5
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 145.5 201.3 278.0 329.6 406.3 419.5 440.2 406.9 347.8 296.7 194.9 141.1 3,607.8
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 48 67 75 83 92 94 98 96 93 86 64 48 81
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)
CLIMATE DATA FOR SACRAMENTO 5 ESE, CALIFORNIA (1981–2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1877–PRESENT)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 79 (26) 80 (27) 90 (32) 98 (37) 107 (42) 112 (44) 114 (46) 111 (44) 109 (43) 102 (39) 86 (30) 72 (22) 114 (46)
MEAN MAXIMUM °F (°C) 65.7 (18.7) 72.8 (22.7) 80.0 (26.7) 90.2 (32.3) 97.9 (36.6) 104.1 (40.1) 106.6 (41.4) 105.4 (40.8) 101.7 (38.7) 93.1 (33.9) 77.0 (25) 65.6 (18.7) 108.3 (42.4)
AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 54.4 (12.4) 61.2 (16.2) 66.8 (19.3) 72.7 (22.6) 80.9 (27.2) 87.9 (31.1) 93.3 (34.1) 92.2 (33.4) 87.9 (31.1) 77.9 (25.5) 63.7 (17.6) 54.3 (12.4) 74.4 (23.6)
AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 40.7 (4.8) 43.7 (6.5) 46.5 (8.1) 49.0 (9.4) 53.9 (12.2) 58.4 (14.7) 60.9 (16.1) 60.5 (15.8) 58.4 (14.7) 52.8 (11.6) 45.5 (7.5) 40.4 (4.7) 50.9 (10.5)
MEAN MINIMUM °F (°C) 32.8 (0.4) 35.0 (1.7) 38.7 (3.7) 41.9 (5.5) 46.7 (8.2) 51.6 (10.9) 55.0 (12.8) 55.3 (12.9) 52.1 (11.2) 45.1 (7.3) 35.7 (2.1) 31.5 (−0.3) 30.1 (−1.1)
RECORD LOW °F (°C) 19 (−7) 21 (−6) 29 (−2) 34 (1) 37 (3) 43 (6) 47 (8) 48 (9) 44 (7) 34 (1) 27 (−3) 17 (−8) 17 (−8)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 3.97 (100.8) 3.69 (93.7) 3.02 (76.7) 1.30 (33) 0.76 (19.3) 0.19 (4.8) 0 (0) 0.03 (0.8) 0.35 (8.9) 1.05 (26.7) 2.43 (61.7) 3.48 (88.4) 20.27 (514.9)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 11.2 9.8 9.2 5.2 3.2 1.2 0.1 0.4 1.4 3.6 7.4 10.5 63.5
Source: NOAA , Western Regional Climate Center
EST. 2016 495,234
U.S. Decennial Census
Sacramento is notably diverse racially, ethnically, and by household
income, and has a notable lack of interracial disharmony. In 2002, the
Civil Rights Project at
RACIAL COMPOSITION 2010 1990 1970 1940
White 45.0% 60.1% 81.5% 94.2%
—Non-Hispanic 34.5% 53.4% 71.4% n/a
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 26.9% 16.2% 11.0% n/a
Asian 18.3% 15.0% 6.5% 4.3%
Map of racial distribution in Sacramento, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: WHITE, BLACK, ASIAN, HISPANIC or OTHER (yellow)
The racial makeup of Sacramento was :
* 210,006 (45.0%) White
* 68,335 (14.6%)
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 125,276 persons (26.9%); 22.6% of Sacramento's population is of Mexican heritage, 0.7% Puerto Rican, 0.5% Salvadoran, 0.2% Guatemalan, and 0.2% Nicaraguan. Non-Hispanic Whites were 34.5% of the population in 2010, down from 71.4% in 1970.
The Census reported that 458,174 people (98.2% of the population) lived in households, 4,268 (0.9%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 4,046 (0.9%) were institutionalized. Also, with the recent housing crash there have been no changes to these numbers.
There were 174,624 households, out of which 57,870 (33.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 65,556 (37.5%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 27,640 (15.8%) had a female householder with no husband present, 10,534 (6.0%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 13,234 (7.6%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships , and 2,498 (1.4%) same-sex married couples or partnerships . 53,342 households (30.5%) were made up of individuals and 14,926 (8.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62. There were 103,730 families (59.4% of all households); the average family size was 3.37.
Sacramento has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita,
ranking seventh among major American cities, and third in California
The age distribution of the city was follows: 116,121 people (24.9%) were under the age of 18, 52,438 people (11.2%) aged 18 to 24, 139,093 people (29.8%) aged 25 to 44, 109,416 people (23.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 49,420 people (10.6%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.0 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.
There were 190,911 housing units at an average density of 1,907.1 per square mile (736.3/km²), of which 86,271 (49.4%) were owner-occupied, and 88,353 (50.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 8.3%. 231,593 people (49.6% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 226,581 people (48.6%) lived in rental housing units.
The Roman Catholic Cathedral of the
As of the census of 2000, there are 407,018 people, 154,581
households, and 91,202 families residing in the city. The population
density is 4,189.2 people per square mile (1,617.4/km²). There are
163,957 housing units at an average density of 1,687.5 per square mile
(651.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 41.1% White , 19.5%
There are 154,581 households out of which 30.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.4% are married couples living together, 15.4% have a female householder with no husband present, and 41.0% are non-families. 32.0% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.2% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.57 and the average family size is 3.35.
In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 27.3% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, and 11.4% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 33 years. For every 100 females there are 94.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 91.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $37,049, and the median income for a family is $42,051. Males have a median income of $35,946 versus $31,318 for females. The per capita income for the city is $18,721. 20.0% of the population and 15.3% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 29.5% of those under the age of 18 and 9.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
As of 2012, the top employers in the County of Sacramento were:
# EMPLOYER EMPLOYEES
2 Sacramento County 11,450
7 Sutter Health 5,765
10 San Juan Unified School District 4,700
11 City of Sacramento 4,083
CULTURE AND ARTS
The Big Four Building in Old Sacramento
The oldest part of the town besides Sutter\'s Fort is Old Sacramento , which consists of cobbled streets and many historic buildings, several from the 1850s and 1860s. Buildings have been preserved, restored or reconstructed, and the district is now a substantial tourist attraction, with rides on steam-hauled historic trains and horse-drawn carriages.
The historic buildings include the Lady Adams Building, built by the passengers and ship's carpenters of the ship Lady Adams. Having survived the Great Conflagration of November 1852, it is the oldest surviving building in Sacramento other than Sutter's Fort. Reconstruction of California's first permanent theatre, the Eagle Theatre (Sacramento, California)
Another surviving landmark is the B.F. Hastings building, built in
1853. Early home of the
The "Big Four Building", built in 1852, was home to the offices of
Collis Huntington , Mark Hopkins ,
The Community Center Theatre (foreground)
There are several major theatre venues for Sacramento. The Sacramento
Convention Center Complex governs both the Community Center Theatre
and Memorial Auditorium . The
Wells Fargo Pavilion
Professional theatre is represented in Sacramento by a number of
During the fall, winter and spring seasons Broadway Sacramento brings bus and truck tours to the Community Center Theater. At the B Street Theatre , smaller and more intimate professional productions are performed as well as a children's theatre that will soon be opening a larger theatre complex in the heart of midtown in 2014. Rounding out the professional companies is Capital Stage, which performed aboard the Delta King until the end of the 2010–2011 season and soon took up residence at its own venue along the J-Street corridor.
The Sacramento area has one of the largest collection of community theatres in California. Some of these include the Thistle Dew Dessert Theatre and Playwrights Workshop, Davis Musical Theatre Co., El Dorado Musical Theatre, Runaway Stage Productions, River City Theatre Company, Flying Monkey Productions, The Actor's Theatre, KOLT Run Productions, Kookaburra Productions, Big Idea Theatre, Celebration Arts, Lambda Player, Light Opera Theatre of Sacramento, Synergy Stage and the historic Eagle Theatre. The Sacramento Shakespeare Festival provides entertainment under the stars every summer in William Land Park. Many of these theatres compete annually for the Elly Awards overseen by The Sacramento Area Regional Theatre Alliance or SARTA.
The Sacramento Metropolitan Arts Commission is an organization which was established as the Sacramento arts council in 1977 to provide several arts programs for the city. These include Art in Public Places, Arts Education, Grants and Cultural Programs, Poet Laureate Program, Arts Stabilization Programs and Other Resources and opportunities.
Sacramento Second Saturday Art Walk is a program of local art galleries that stay open into the late evenings every second Saturday of each month, providing a unique experience for the local population as well as tourists to view original art and meet the artists themselves.
Sacramento has several major museums. The
Crocker Art Museum is the
oldest public art museum west of the
Also of interest is the Governor\'s Mansion State Historic Park , a
large Victorian Mansion which was home to 13 of California's
Governors, as well as the official residence for current governor
There is a Museum Day held in Sacramento every year, when 26 museums in the greater Sacramento area offer free admission. The 2009 Sacramento Museum Day brought out more than 80,000 people, the largest number the event has gathered. Sacramento Museum Day is held every year on the first Saturday of February.
Tower Records was started and based in Sacramento until its closing.
Marvaless , and
Lunasicc are among those native to the
area. Classical music is widely available. The Sacramento Philharmonic
Orchestra , the Sacramento Baroque Soloists, the Sacramento Choral
Society plus some other famous musicians like record producer and
Charlie Peacock , Bob Stubbs of
Scottish pop band Middle of the Road sang kindly of Sacramento in their 1972 European hit song "Sacramento". Experimental groups such as Hella , Death Grips , and Tera Melos also come out of Sacramento.
Sacramento is home to the Sacramento French Film Festival , a cultural event held every year in July that features U.S. premieres of French films and classic masterpieces of French cinema and the Sacramento Japanese Film Festival, also held in July. In addition, Sacramento is home to the Trash Film Orgy, a summer film festival celebrating the absurd, B-movies, horror, monster, exploitation. Founded in 2007, the Sacramento Horror Film Festival showcases feature-length and short films as well as live musical and theatrical performances in the horror and macabre genres.
Of note, Sacramento has been home to various actors, including Eddie Murphy , who resided in the Riverlake community of Pocket-Greenhaven with his then wife Nicole Mitchell Murphy , a fashion model and Sacramento native.
FOOD AND DRINK
In 2012, Sacramento started the marketing campaign as "America's Farm-to-Fork Capital" due to Sacramento's many restaurants that source their food locally from the numerous surrounding farms. The city has an annual Farm-to-Fork festival that showcases various grocers and growers in the industry. In 2012, The Kitchen was nominated for Outstanding Restaurant by the James Beard Foundation. It continues to excel, earning the AAA 's Five Diamond dining award since 2011. Sacramento is home to well-known cookbook authors, Biba Caggiano of Biba's Restaurant and Mai Pham of Lemongrass and Star Ginger.
Sacramento is also known for its beverage culture, with keystone
events that include
Cal Expo 's Grape and Gourmet, Sacramento Beer
Week, and Sacramento Cocktail Week. Its growing beer scene is evident,
with over 60 microbreweries in the region as of 2017. Some local
brews include Track 7 Brewing Company, Big Stump Brew Co, Oak Park
Brewing Co., and Sactown Union Brewery. Numerous beer festivals around
the region highlight both local and visitor beers. In addition to
festivals in Elk Grove, Davis, Roseville, Placerville, and Woodland,
Sacramento hosts the annual
Sacramento's contemporary culture is reflected in its coffee. An "underrated coffee city", Sacramento has above-average marks for local coffee. The city has numerous community roasters and coffee shops. Examples include Temple Coffee, Insight Coffee Roasters, Old Soul Co., Chocolate Fish Roasters, Naked Lounge, Pachamama Roasting Co., and Identity Coffees. In addition to local brands, the region offers other chains like Starbucks, Peet's Coffee "> The Sacramento LGBT Community Center (formerly the Lambda Center), located in the Lavender Heights district.
Sacramento has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita,
ranking seventh among major American cities, and third in California
Sacramento professional teams (ranked by attendance) CLUB LEAGUE SPORT VENUE ATTENDANCE ESTABLISHED CHAMPIONSHIPS
Golden 1 Center
SACRAMENTO REPUBLIC FC USL (D2 ) Soccer Papa Murphy\'s Park 13,763 2012 1 USL Pro
SACRAMENTO RIVER CATS
PCL (AAA )
Sacramento has frequently hosted the NCAA Men\'s Outdoor Track and
Field Championship as well as the 1st and 2nd rounds of the NCAA
Men\'s Division I Basketball Championship . The California
International Marathon (est. 1983) attracts a field of international
elite runners who vie for a share of the $50,000 prize purse. The fast
course is popular for runners seeking to achieve a
PARKS AND RECREATION
Sacramento boasts an extensive park system consisting of over 5,000
acres (2,023 ha) of parkland and recreation centers. The city
features a collection of smaller parks in the Downtown districts,
including Crocker Park, Pioneer Landing and Southside Park. Popular
parks outside the central core include
In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The
Trust for Public Land reported
that Sacramento was tied with
Sacramento is a hotbed for high school rugby. Jesuit High is the
recent defending national champion (winning five times in total).
Their arch-rival school Christian Brothers came in second nationwide.
Burbank, Del Campo and Vacaville have also placed well in the national
competition over the years. The
Sacramento hosts some recreational facilities and events. The
Jedediah Smith Memorial Trail that runs between
Old Sacramento and
Among other recreational options in Sacramento is Discovery Park, a
275-acre (1.1 km2) park studded with stands of mature trees and
grasslands. This park is situated where the
In amateur sports, Sacramento claims many prominent Olympians such as Mark Spitz, Debbie Meyer (6 time gold medalist in for US swimming), Mike Burton, Summer Sanders (Gold medalist in swimming, and trained in childhood by Debbie Meyer at Rio Del Oro Racquet Club), Jeff Float (all swimming), and Billy Mills (track). Coach Sherm Chavoor founded his world-famous Arden Hills Swim Club just east of the city and trained Burton, Spitz and others.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
Main article: Government of Sacramento,
The government of Sacramento operates as a charter city (as opposed
to a general law city) under the Charter of the City of Sacramento.
The elected government is composed of the
Sacramento City Council with
8 city council districts and the
See also: Government of Sacramento County,
The City of Sacramento is part of Sacramento County , for which the
government of Sacramento County is defined and authorized under the
FEDERAL AND STATE REPRESENTATION
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
The Sacramento area hosts a wide variety of higher educational opportunities. There are two major public universities, many private institutions, community colleges, vocational schools, and McGeorge School of Law.
Sacramento State north entrance
Sacramento is home to
Sacramento State (
The University of
Los Rios Community College District consists of several two-year
colleges in the Sacramento area—
Private, Not For Profit
University of the Pacific has its Sacramento Campus in the Oak Park neighborhood of Sacramento. The campus houses McGeorge School of Law , a top 100 law school according to U.S. News & World Report 's annual rankings of U.S. law schools (2006, 2007 & 2008). In 2015, the campus was expanded to become a comprehensive graduate and professional campus, including programs in analytics, business, education, health sciences, and public policy.
The National University Sacramento regional campus offers bachelor's and master's degrees in business, education, health-care and teaching credential programs.
University of San Francisco
The private University of Southern
Western Seminary has one of its four campuses in Sacramento, which opened on the campus of Arcade Church in 1991. Western is an evangelical, Christian graduate school that provides theological training for students who hope to serve in a variety of ministry roles including pastors, marriage and family therapists, educators, missionaries and lay leadership. The Sacramento campus offers four master's degrees, and a variety of other graduate-level programs.
Private, For Profit
Sacramento has a number of private vocational schools as well.
A satellite campus of Alliant International University offers graduate and undergraduate programs of study.
The Art Institute of
The Sacramento Public Library system has 28 branches located in the greater area. The Sacramento area is served by various public school districts, including the Sacramento City Unified School District , Natomas Unified School District , San Juan Unified School District , Twin Rivers Unified School District , and Elk Grove Unified School District . As of 2009, the area's schools employed 9,600 elementary school teachers (not including special education teachers), and 7,410 middle school teachers (not including special education or vocational teachers).
Almost all areas south of the
Areas north of the
While Roman Catholic institutions still dominate the independent
school scene in the Sacramento area, in 1964, Sacramento Country Day
School opened and offered Sacramento citizens an independent school
that is affiliated with the
Other Religious Schools
Shalom School is the only Jewish day school in Sacramento; however, Brookefield School on property owned by Congregation B'nai Israel provides extracurricular Jewish education.
Capital Christian School is a pre-school–12th grade private, Christian school. There is a small Bible college on campus offering associate degrees in Bible studies or theology. Sacramento Adventist Academy is another Christian school in Greater Sacramento. This is a pre-school–12 institution, as well.
There is one Islamic school in Sacramento, Masjid Annur, founded in 1988.
Top two newspapers
The Sacramento Bee
Further information: List of radio stations in Sacramento
CHANNEL CALL SIGN NETWORK SUBCHANNELS
Sacramento is the northern terminus of the
Sacramento is a stop along Amtrak's
A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Sacramento 24th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.
SACRAMENTO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Sacramento International Airport (IATA : SMF, ICAO : KSMF, FAA LID :
SMF) is a public airport 10 miles (16 km) northwest of downtown
Sacramento, in Sacramento County,
The airport is best known for its red rabbit installation by Lawrence Argent entitled "Leap".
OTHER TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS
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Regional Transit (RT) light rail train pulls onto K Street
The city and its suburbs are served by Sacramento Regional Transit
District , which ranks as the eleventh busiest in the
There is commuter bus service from Yolo County on
* East Lawn Memorial Park border:solid #aaa 1px">
* List of cities and towns in
* ^ A B Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. * ^ Official records for Sacramento were kept exclusively at the airport since 10 November 1941.
* ^ "
* ^ A B C "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved December 6, 2012.
* ^ "Forecasters Say Snow Possible In Sacramento". capradio.org.
February 24, 2011. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
* ^ "Snow in Sacramento". YouTube. December 19, 2009. Retrieved
November 16, 2012.
* ^ "Arctic Blast Could Bring Dusting Of Snow To Sacramento Valley
and Several Feet To Sierra"
* ^ Sweeney, Adam (September 14, 2011). "Exclusive Interview: Colin Hanks". Playmaker. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
* a "I was born and raised in Sacramento, California, which most people don't know is where Tower started and was based until the end." — ¶ 4.
* ^ "Deathwish Inc". Deathwish Inc. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
* ^ "Trash Talk\'s anthology \'Shame\' is released this week, Band
Of The Week is in the bag!".