Saarbrücken (German pronunciation:
[zaːɐ̯ˈbʁʏkn̩] ( listen), French: Sarrebruck
[saʁbʁyk], Rhine Franconian: Saarbrigge [zaːˈbʁɪgə]) is the
capital and largest city of the state of Saarland, Germany.
Saarbrücken is Saarland's administrative, commercial and cultural
centre. The city is situated next to the French border at the heart of
the metropolitan area of Saarland.
Saarbrücken was created in 1909 by the merger of three towns,
Saarbrücken, St. Johann, and Malstatt-Burbach. It used to be the
industrial and transport centre of the Saar coal basin. Products
included iron and steel, sugar, beer, pottery, optical instruments,
machinery, and construction materials.
Historic landmarks in the city include the stone bridge across the
Saar (1546), the Gothic church of St. Arnual, the 18th-century
Saarbrücken Castle, and the old part of the town, the Sankt Johanner
Markt (Market of St. Johann).
Twice in the 20th century
Saarbrücken was separated from Germany: in
1920–35 as capital of the Territory of the Saar Basin and in
1947–56 as capital of the Saar Protectorate.
1.1 Briga (rock)
1.2 Brucca (ford)
1.3 Bruco (swamp)
2.1 Roman Empire
2.2 Middle Ages to 18th century
2.3 19th century
2.4 20th century
2.4.1 World War II
2.4.2 After World War II
5.1 Science and Education
7 International relations
7.1 Twin towns – Sister cities
8 Notable people
8.1 Honorary citizens
11 External links
In modern German,
Saarbrücken literally translates to Saar bridges
(Brücken is the plural of Brücke), and indeed there are about a
dozen bridges across the Saar river. However, the name actually
predates the oldest bridge in the historic center of Saarbrücken, the
Alte Brücke, by at least 500 years.[wp 1]
The name Saar stems from the Celtic word sara (streaming water), and
the Roman name of the river, saravus.
However, there are three theories about the origin of the second part
of the name Saarbrücken.
The most popular theory states that the historical name of the town,
Sarabrucca, derived from the Celtic word briga (hill, or rock, big
stone), which became Brocken (can mean rock or boulder) in High
German. The castle of Sarabrucca was located on a large rock by the
name of Saarbrocken overlooking the river Saar.
A minority opinion holds that the historical name of the town,
Sarabrucca, derived from the Old
High German word Brucca(in German),
meaning bridge, or more precisely a Corduroy road, which was also used
in fords. Next to the castle, there was a ford allowing land-traffic
to cross the Saar.
A mostly rejected theory claims that the historical name of the town,
Sarabrucca, derived from the Germanic word bruco (swamp, marsh). There
is an area in St Johann called Bruchwiese (wiese meaning meadow),
which used to be swampy before it was developed, and there were
flood-meadows along the river, and those are often marshy. However,
Saarbrücken area was first settled by
Celts and not by Germanic
Ruins of the Roman camp Römerkastell
In the last centuries BC, the
Mediomatrici settled in the Saarbrücken
area. When Julius Caesar conquered Gaul in the 1st century BC, the
area was incorporated into the Roman Empire.
The Mithras shrine at Halberg hill
From the 1st century AD to the 5th century, there was the
Gallo-Roman settlement called vicus Saravus west of Saarbrücken's
Halberg hill, on the roads from
Metz to Worms and from
Strasbourg. Since the 1st or 2nd century AD, a wooden bridge,
later upgraded to stone, connected vicus Saravus with the
south-western bank of the Saar, today's St Arnual, where at least
Roman villa was located. In the 3rd century AD, a Mithras
shrine was built in a cave in Halberg hill, on the eastern bank of the
Saar river, next to today's old "Osthafen" harbor, and a small
Roman camp was constructed at the foot of Halberg hill next to the
Toward the end of the 4th century, the
Alemanni destroyed the castra
and vicus Saravus, removing permanent human presence from the
Saarbrücken area for almost a century.
Middle Ages to 18th century
See also: History of
The Saar area came under the control of the
Franks towards the end of
the 5th century. In the 6th century, the Merovingians gave the village
Merkingen, which had formed on the ruins of the villa on the
south-western end of the (in those times still usable) Roman bridge,
to the Bishopric of Metz. Between 601 and 609, Bishop Arnual founded a
community of clerics, a Stift, there. Centuries later the Stift, and
in 1046 Merkingen, took on his name, giving birth to
The oldest documentary reference to
Saarbrücken is a deed of donation
from 999, which documents that Emperor Otto III gave the "castellum
Saarbrücken castle) to the Bishops of Metz. The Bishops
gave the area to the Counts of Saargau as a fief. By 1120, the
Saarbrücken had been formed and a small settlement around
the castle developed. In 1168, Emperor Barbarossa ordered the
Saarbrücken because of a feud with
Count Simon I. The
damage cannot have been grave, as the castle continued to exist.
Count Johann I of Saarbrücken-Commercy gave city
status to the settlement of
Saarbrücken and the fishing village of
St Johann on the opposite bank of the Saar, introducing a joint
administration and emancipating the inhabitants from serfdom.
From 1381 to 1793 the counts of Nassau-
Saarbrücken were the main
local rulers. In 1549, Emperor Charles V prompted the construction of
the Alte Brücke (old bridge) connecting
St Johann. At the beginning of the 17th century,
Count Ludwig II
ordered the construction of a new Renaissance-style castle on the site
of the old castle, and founded Saarbrücken's oldest secondary school,
the Ludwigsgymnasium. During the Thirty Years' War, the population of
Saarbrücken was reduced to just 70 by 1637, down from 4500 in 1628.
During the Franco-Dutch War, King Louis XIV's troops burned down
Saarbrücken in 1677, almost completely destroying the city such that
just 8 houses remained standing. The area was incorporated into
France for the first time in the 1680s. In 1697
France was forced to
relinquish the Saar province, but from 1793 to 1815 regained control
of the region.
Ludwigskirche (Ludwig Church)
During the reign of Prince William Henry from 1741 to 1768, the coal
mines were nationalized and his policies created a
proto-industrialized economy, laying the foundation for Saarland's
later highly industrialized economy.
Saarbrücken was booming, and
Prince William Henry spent on building and on infrastructure like the
Saarkran river crane (1761), far beyond his financial means. However,
the famous baroque architect Friedrich Joachim Stengel created not
only the Saarkran, but many iconic buildings that still shape
Saarbrücken's face today, like the Friedenskirche (Peace Church),
which was finished in 1745, the Old City Hall (1750), the catholic
St. John's Basilica (1754), and the famous
Lulustein in 1871, commemorating Prince Louis Bonaparte's first cannon
Saarbrücken was captured by French revolutionary troops and
in the treaties of Campo Formio and Lunéville, the county of
Saarbrücken was ceded to France.
Saarbrücken became part of the Prussian Rhine Province.
The office of mayor
Saarbrücken administrated the urban
Saarbrücken and St Johann, and the rural
municipalities Malstatt, Burbach, Brebach, and Rußhütte. The coal
and iron resources of the region were developed: in 1852, a railway
connecting the Palatine Ludwig Railway with the French Eastern Railway
was constructed, the Burbach ironworks started production in 1856,
beginning in 1860 the Saar up to Ensdorf was channeled, and
Saarbrücken was connected to the French canal network.
At the start of the Franco-Prussian War,
Saarbrücken was the first
target of the French invasion force which drove off the Prussian
vanguard and occupied Alt-
Saarbrücken on 2 August 1870. Oral
tradition has it that 14-year-old French Prince Napoléon Eugène
Louis Bonaparte fired his first cannon in this battle, an event
commemorated by the Lulustein memorial in Alt-Saarbrücken. On
4 August 1870 the French left Saarbrückenand, driven away
Metz in the
Battle of Spicheren
Battle of Spicheren on 6 August 1870.
In 1909 the cities of Saarbrücken, St Johann und Malstatt-Burbach
merged and formed the major city of
Saarbrücken with a population of
During World War I, factories and railways in
Royal Naval Air Service
Royal Naval Air Service raided
11 DH4s on October 17, 1917, and a week later with
9 HP11s. The
Royal Flying Corps
Royal Flying Corps raided Saarbrücken's railway
station with 5 DH9s on July 31, 1918, on which occasion one
DH9 crashed near the town centre.
Saarbrücken became capital of the Saar territory established in 1920.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles (1919), the Saar coal mines were made
the exclusive property of
France for a period of 15 years as
compensation for the destruction of French mines during the First
World War. The treaty also provided for a plebiscite, at the end of
the 15-year period, to determine the territory's future status, and in
1935 more than 90% of the electorate voted for reunification with
Germany, while only 0.8% voted for unification with France. The
remainder wanted to rejoin
Germany but not while the Nazis were in
power. This "status quo" group voted for maintenance of the League of
Nations' administration. In 1935, the Saar territory rejoined Germany
and formed a district under the name Saarland.
World War II
Saarbrücken was heavily bombed in World War II. In total 1,234
people (1.1 percent of the population) in
Saarbrücken were killed in
bombing raids 1942-45. 11,000 homes were destroyed and 75 percent
of the city left in ruins.
The Royal Air Force raided
Saarbrücken at least 10 times. Often
employing area bombing, the Royal Air Force used total of at least
1495 planes to attack Saarbrücken, killing a minimum of 635 people
and heavily damaging more than 8400 buildings, of which more than 7700
were completely destroyed, thus dehousing more than 50,000 people.
The first major raid on
Saarbrücken was done by 291 aircraft of
the Royal Air Force on July 29, 1942, targeting industrial
facilities. Losing 9 aircraft, the bombers destroyed almost
400 buildings, damaging more than 300 others, and killed more
than 150 people. On August 28, 1942, 113 Royal Air Force
Saarbrücken doing comparably little damage due to
widely scattered bombing. After the Royal Air Force mistakenly
Saarlouis instead of
Saarbrücken on September 1, 1942, it
Saarbrücken with 118 planes on September 19, 1942,
causing comparably little damage as the bombing scattered to the west
Saarbrücken due to ground haze. There were small raids with
28 Mosquitos on April 30, 1944, with
33 Mosquitos on June 29, 1944, and with just
2 Mosquitos on July 26, 1944. At the request of the
American Third Army, the Royal Air Force massively raided Saarbrücken
on October 5, 1944, in order to destroy supply lines, especially
the railway. The 531 Lancasters and 20 Mosquitos achieved
these goals, but lost 3 Lancasters and destroyed large parts of
Malstatt and nearly all of Alt-Saarbrücken. From January 13
to January 14, the Royal Air Force raided
times, targeting the railway yard. The attacks with 158, 274, and 134
planes, respectively, were very effective.
The 8th US Air Force raided
Saarbrücken at least 16 times, from
October 4, 1943, to November 9, 1944. Targeting mostly the
marshalling yards, a total of at least 2387 planes of the
8th. USAF killed a minimum of 543 people and heavily damaged more
than 4400 buildings, of which more than 700 were completely destroyed,
thus depriving more than 2300 people of shelter. Donald J. Gott
William E. Metzger, Jr. were posthumously awarded the Medal of
Honor for their actions during the bombing run on November 9,
Machine-gun emplacement of a bunker. Saarbrücken, 1940.
M24, donated by veterans of the 70th US-Infantry, facing ruins of
On the ground,
Saarbrücken was defended by the 347.
Infanterie-Division commanded by
Wolf-Günther Trierenberg in
1945. The US 70th Infantry Division was tasked with punching
Siegfried Line and taking Saarbrücken. As the
fortifications were unusually strong, it first had to take the
Siegfried Line fortifications on the French heights near Spicheren
overlooking Saarbrücken. This Spichern-Stellung had been constructed
in 1940 after the French had fallen back on the
Maginot Line during
the Phoney War. The 276th Infantry Regiment attacked
February 19, 1945, and a fierce battle ensued, halting the
American advance at the rail-road tracks cutting through
February 22, 1945. The 274th and 275th Infantry Regiments
Spicheren on February 20, 1945. When the 274th Infantry
Regiment captured the
Spicheren Heights on February 23, 1945,
after a heavy battle on the previous day, the Germans counter-attacked
for days, but by February 27, 1945, the heights were fully under
American control. A renewed attack on March 3, 1945, allowed
units of the 70th Infantry Division to enter
Stiring-Wendel and the
remainder of Forbach. By March 5, 1945, all of
Forbach and major
Stiring-Wendel had been taken. However, fighting for
Stiring-Wendel, especially for the Simon mine, continued for days.
After the German defenders of
Stiring-Wendel fell back to Saarbrücken
on March 12 and 13, 1945, the 70th Infantry Division still
faced a strong segment of the Siegfried Line, which had been
Saarbrücken as late as 1940. After having the
German troops south of the Saar fall back across the Saar at night,
the German defenders of
Saarbrücken retreated early on March 20,
1945. The 70th Infantry Division flanked
Saarbrücken by crossing the
Saar north-west of Saarbrücken. The 274th Infantry Regiment entered
Saarbrücken on March 20, 1945, fully occupying it the following
day, thus ending the war for Saarbrücken.
After World War II
Saarbrücken temporarily became part of the French Zone of
Occupation. In 1947,
France created the nominally politically
independent Saar Protectorate and merged it economically with France
in order to exploit the area's vast coal reserves.
capital of the new Saar state. A referendum in 1955 came out with over
two thirds of the voters rejecting an independent Saar state. The area
rejoined the Federal Republic of
Germany on 1 January 1957, sometimes
called Kleine Wiedervereinigung (little reunification). Economic
reintegration would, however, take many more years. Saarbrücken
became capital of the Bundesland (federal state) Saarland. After the
administrative reform of 1974, the city had a population of more than
Saarkran, reconstructed next to William-Henry-Bridge in 1991
From 1990 to 1993, students and an arts professor from the town first
secretly, then officially, created an invisible memorial to Jewish
cemeteries. It is located on the fore-court of the Saarbrücken
On March 9, 1999 at 4:40am, there was a bomb attack on the
Wehrmachtsausstellung exhibition next to Saarbrücken
Castle, resulting in minor damage to the Volkshochschule building
housing the exhibition and the adjoining Schlosskirche church; this
attack, fortunately, did not cause any injuries.
Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and
there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate
Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast
Climate data for Saarbrücken
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average rainy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Wetterkontor 
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst  World Weather Information
Some of the closest cities are Trier, Luxembourg, Nancy, Metz,
Karlsruhe and Mannheim.
Saarbrücken is connected by
the city's public transport network to the town of
France, and to the neighboring town of Völklingen, where the old
steel works were the first industrial monument to be declared a World
Heritage Site by
UNESCO in 1994 — the Völklinger Hütte.
Largest groups of foreign residents
Country of birth
The city is served by
Saarbrücken Airport (SCN), and since June 2007
ICE high speed train services along the
LGV Est line provide high
speed connections to
Saarbahn (modelled on the
Karlsruhe model light rail)
crosses the French–German border, connecting to the French city of
Science and Education
Saarbrücken is also the home of the main campus of Saarland
University (Universität des Saarlandes). Co-located with the
University are several research centres including:
the Max Planck Institute for Informatics,
the Max Planck Institute for Software Systems,
the Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland
the Fraunhofer Institute for Non-destructive Testing,
the German Research Centre for Artificial Intelligence,
the Center for Bioinformatics,
the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Europe Research Society,
the Leibniz Institute for New Materials (INM), and
Intel Visual Computing Institute,
the Center for IT-Security, Privacy, and Accountability (CISPA),
the Society for Environmentally Compatible Process Technology,
the Institut für Angewandte Informationsforschung for applied
several institutes focusing on transfer of technology between academia
and companies, and the Science Park Saar startup incubator.
Saarland University also has a Centre Juridique Franco-Allemand,
offering a French and a German law degree program.
Botanischer Garten der Universität des Saarlandes (a botanical
garden) was closed in 2016 due to budget cuts.
Saarbrücken houses the administration of the
Franco-German University (Deutsch-Französische Hochschule), a
French-German cooperation of 180 institutions of tertiary education
Germany but also from Bulgaria, Canada, Spain,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Great Britain, Russia and
Switzerland, which offers bi-national French-German degree programs
and doctorates as well as tri-national degree programs.
Saarbrücken houses several other institutions of tertiary education
the University of Applied Sciences Hochschule für Technik und
Wirtschaft des Saarlandes,
the University of Arts Hochschule der Bildenden Künste Saar,
the University of Music Hochschule für Musik Saar, and
Fachhochschule for health promotion and physical fitness
Deutsche Hochschule für Prävention und Gesundheitsmanagement
Saarbrücken also houses a Volkshochschule.
With the end of coal mining in the Saar region, Saarbrücken's
Fachhochschule for mining, the
Fachhochschule für Bergbau Saar, was
closed at the beginning of the 21st century. The Roman Catholic
Diocese of Trier's Katholische Hochschule für Soziale Arbeit, a
Fachhochschule for social work, was closed in 2008 for cost cutting
reasons. The Saarland's
Fachhochschule for administrative personnel
working for the government, the
Fachhochschule für Verwaltung des
Saarlandes, was moved from
Saarbrücken to Göttelborn in 2012.
Saarbrücken houses several institutions of primary and secondary
education. Notable is the Saarland's oldest grammar school, the
Ludwigsgymnasium, which was founded in 1604 as a latin school. The
building of Saarbrücken's bi-lingual French-German
Deutsch-Französisches Gymnasium, founded in 1961 and operating as a
laboratory school under the Élysée Treaty, also houses the École
française de Sarrebruck et Dilling, a French primary school which
offers bi-lingual German elements. Together with several Kindergartens
offering bi-lingual French-German education,
Saarbrücken thus offers
a full bi-lingual French-German formal education.
The city is home to several different teams, most notable of which is
association football team based at the Ludwigsparkstadion, 1. FC
Saarbrücken, which also has a reserve team and a women's section. In
the past a top-flight team, twice the country's vice-champions, and
participant in European competitions, the club draws supporters from
across the region.
Lower league SV Saar 05
Saarbrücken is the other football team in the
Saarland Hurricanes are one of the top
American football teams in
the country, with its junior team winning the
German Junior Bowl in
Various sporting events are held at the Saarlandhalle, most notable of
which was the badminton Bitburger Open Grand Prix Gold, part of the
BWF Grand Prix Gold and Grand Prix tournaments, held in 2013 and 2012.
Saarbrücken named after Tbilisi, Georgia
Saarbrücken is a fellow member of the QuattroPole union of cities,
along with Luxembourg, Metz, and
Trier (formed by cities from three
neighbouring countries: Germany, Luxembourg and France).
Twin towns – Sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Saarbrücken is twinned with:
Saarbrücken has a Städtefreundschaft (city friendship) with:
Some boroughs of
Saarbrücken are also twinned:
Duttweiler, a borough of Neustadt an der Weinstraße, Germany[wp
Saint-Avold, France[wp 4]
Coucy-le-Château-Auffrique, France[wp 4]
Edmond Pottier (1855-1934), French art historian and archaeologist
Carl Röchling (1855-1920), painter and illustrator
Peter Kurtz (1881–1977), native of Saarbrücken; introduced the
Peer Gynt to America
Walther Poppelreuter (1886-1939), neurologist and psychiatrist
Alfred Sturm (1888-1962), German general lieutenant in the Second
Margot Benary-Isbert (1889-1979), author
Hans Wagner (1896-1967), German general lieutenant in the Second World
Peter Altmeier (1899-1977), politician
Max Ophüls (1902–1957), film director
Wolfgang Staudte (1906–1984), film director
Walter Schellenberg (1910–1952), Senior German SS officer (head of
Gerhard Schröder in 1980
Gerhard Schröder (1910–1989), politician (CDU)
Otto Steinert (1915–1978), photographer
Frédéric Back (1924–2013), Canadian animator
Michel Antoine (1925–2015), French historian
Frederic Vester (1925–2003), biochemist
Hannelore Baron (1926–1987), collage and assemblage artist,
emigrated to the United States in 1941
Sandra Cretu (born 1962), singer
Claudia Kohde-Kilsch (born 1963), tennis player
Nicole (born 1964), singer
Manfred Trenz (born 1965), game designer
Saskia Vester (born 1959), actress and author
Willi Graf (1918–1943), member of the
White Rose resistance group
Tzvi Avni (born Hermann Jakob Steinke, 1927), Israeli composer
Friedenskirche, seen from Ludwigsplatz
St. John's Basilica
The Wilhelm-Heinrich-Bridge with the reconstructed Saarkran river
The Alte Brücke (Old Bridge)
The Staatstheater (theatre)
The campus of the
The Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz (DFKI),
the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence
The central station
Saarbrücken, Harbour Road
^  Euro District Saar-Moselle
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Saarbrücken hat nichts mit Brücken zu
tun?" (in German). Retrieved 2012-07-22.
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^ "Mithras-Heiligtum Saarbrücken" (in German). Tourismus Zentrale
Saarland GmbH. Archived from the original on 2015-04-28. Retrieved
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[History of the Saarland] (in German). München: C.H.Beck. p. 21.
ISBN 978-3-406-62520-6. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
^ "Development of the Strategic Bomber". RAF History – Bomber
Command 60th Anniversary. 2006-03-13. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
^ "No. 99 Squadron". RAF History – Bomber Command 60th Anniversary.
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^ a b c Klaus Zimmer (2012-07-27). "air raids". The results of the air
war 1939–1945 in the Saarland. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
^ After the Battle Magazine, Issue 170, November 2015, page 34
^ a b c d e f g h "Campaign Diary". RAF History – Bomber Command
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1942: July, August, September,
1944: April, June, July, October,
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^ a b c d 70th Regional Readiness Command (2004-11-10). "Abbreviated
History of the 70th Infantry Division" (PDF). taken from "The 50th
Anniversary program book of the 70th Division (Training)". Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-14. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
^ Charlie Pence (2013-02-01). "The Battle for
taken from "Trailblazer" magazine, Fall 1997, pp. 10–12. Archived
from the original on 2010-10-31. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
^ a b Headquarters 274th Infantry – APO 461 US Army. "Period from 1
Mar 1945 to 31 Mar 1945". Narrative Report of Operations. Archived
from the original on 2008-11-20. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
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Saarland (in German). 2005-05-15. Retrieved
^ Karl-Otto Sattler (1999-03-10). "Sprengstoffanschlag auf
Berliner Zeitung (in German). Retrieved
^ Climate Summary for
Saarbrücken from Weatherbase.com
^ "Klima Deutschland, Saarbrücken". Retrieved June 22, 2014.
^ "Sonnenscheindauer: langjährige Mittelwerte 1981 - 2010". Retrieved
June 22, 2014.
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^ Waespi-Oeß, Rainer. "Die Bevölkerung Saarbrückens im Jahr 2013".
Amt für Entwicklungsplanung, Statistik und Wahlen. Retrieved
^ "Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research : About HIPS".
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Worlds". Retrieved 2013-06-25.
^ "About CISPA CISPA". Retrieved 2015-12-07.
^ a b c "Town Twinnings". Landeshauptstadt Saarbrücken. Retrieved
^ "Our twin cities – Cottbus". http://www.cottbus.de/. Retrieved
2013-06-24. External link in publisher= (help)
Tbilisi Sister Cities".
Tbilisi City Hall.
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^ "Städtepartnerschaften" (in German). Landeshauptstadt Saarbrücken.
Archived from the original on 2013-05-28. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
^ Tauchert, Wolfgang. "
Saarbrücken – Diriamba".
Saarland:Parnterschaftsprojekte (in German). Staatskanzlei des
Saarlandes. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
Tzvi Avni Saarbrücker Ehrenbürger" (in German). Landeshauptstadt
Saarbrücken. Retrieved 2012-09-29.
^ a b Saarbrücken#Stadtname (in German), Retrieved June 11, 2013
^ Dudweiler#Partnerschaften/Patenschaft (in German), Retrieved June
^ Duttweiler (Neustadt)#Politik (in German), Retrieved June 11, 2013
^ a b Saarbrücken#Städtepartnerschaften (in German), Retrieved June
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Saarbrücken.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saarbrücken.
Official website (in German)
Saarbrücken-Ensheim Airport (in German)
Capitals of states of the Federal Republic of Germany
Capitals of area states
Düsseldorf (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Hanover (Lower Saxony)
Bremen (State of Bremen)
Capitals of former states
Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau (South Baden, 1949–1952)
Stuttgart (Württemberg-Baden, 1949–1952)
Tübingen (Württemberg-Hohenzollern, 1949–1952)
1 Unlike the mono-city states
Berlin and Hamburg, the State of Bremen
consists of two cities, thus state and capital are not identical.
Germany by population
Freiburg im Breisgau
Mülheim an der Ruhr
Offenbach am Main
cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants
Towns and municipalities in