SAAD ZAGHLOUL (Arabic : سعد زغلول; also: Saad Zaghlûl,
* 1 Education, activism and exile
* 2 Rise in the bureaucracy
EDUCATION, ACTIVISM AND EXILE
Zaghloul was born in Ibyana village in the Kafr el-Sheikh Governorate
RISE IN THE BUREAUCRACY
Upon his release from prison, he practiced law and distinguished
himself; amassed some independent means, which enabled him to
participate in Egyptian politics, then dominated by the
struggle-moderate and extreme—against British occupation; and
effected useful, permanent links with different factions of Egyptian
nationalists. He became close to
Princess Nazli Fazl , and his
contacts with the Egyptian upper class led to his marriage to the
daughter of the
Egyptian prime minister Mustafa Fahmi
In all his ministerial positions Zaghloul undertook certain measures of reform that were acceptable to both Egyptian nationalists and the British occupation. Throughout this period, he kept himself outside extreme Egyptian nationalist factions, and although acceptable to the British occupation, he was not thereby compromised in the eyes of his Egyptian compatriots. The relationship between Britain and Egypt continued to deteriorate during and after the Great War.
Zaghloul became increasingly active in nationalist movements, and in
1919 he led an official Egyptian delegation (or wafd , the name of the
political party he would later form) to the Paris Peace Conference
demanding that the United Kingdom formally recognise the independence
and unity of
The British in turn demanded that Zaghloul end his political
agitation. When he refused, they exiled him to
Zaghloul's absence caused disturbances in Egypt, ultimately leading
Egyptian Revolution of 1919
The masses considered Zaghloul their national leader, the za'im al-umma, the uncompromising national hero. His opponents were equally discredited as compromisers in the eyes of the masses. Yet he also had finally come to power partly because he had compromised with the palace group and implicitly accepted the conditions governing the safeguarding of British interests in Egypt.
Following the assassination on 19 November 1924 of Sir
Lee Stack ,
the Sirdar and
Zaghloul's wife, Safiya Khānūm , was the daughter of Mustafa Fahmi
* 1857 July: Born into a middle-class peasant family in Ibaynah in the Nile delta.
Young years: Is educated at the Muslim University of Al-Azhar in Cairo, as well as at the Egyptian School of Law.
* 1892: Appointed judge at the Court of Appeal
* 1895: Marries the daughter of the Prime minister of Egypt, Mustafa
— Partakes in the establishment of Hizbu l-Ummah, which was a
moderate group in a time when more and more
* 1910: Zaghloul appointed Minister of justice.
* 1912: Resigns from the post as Minister of justice after a
disagreement with Khedive Abbas Hilmi II.
* 1912: Is elected to the Legislative Assembly.
* 1913: Is appointed Vice-president of the Legislative Assembly, a
position he uses to criticise the government.
* 1914-18: During World War I, Zaghloul and many members from the
old Legislative Assembly form activist groups all over Egypt. The
World War I leads to much hardship on the Egyptian population, because
of the many British restrictions.
* 1918 November 13: With the end of World War I, Zaghloul and two
other former members from the Legislative Assembly call upon the
British high commissioner, asking for the abolishment of the
protectorate. They also ask to be representatives of
— Zaghloul returns to Egypt, and is welcomed as a national hero.
* 1921: Zaghloul uses his supporters to hinder the establishment of
a British-friendly government. Allenby responds by deporting Zaghloul
— Zaghloul experiences that not even he is able to stop demonstrations and riots among Egyptians. — November: After that the British commander in chief over the Egyptian army is killed, Zaghloul is forced to leave office.
* 1926: Zaghloul becomes president of the parliament, and from this position he is able to control the actions of extreme nationalists. * 1927 August 23: Zaghloul dies in Cairo.
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