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SUEZ (Arabic : السويس‎‎ as-Suways ; Egyptian Arabic : ‎‎ es-Sewēs, el-Sewēs pronounced ) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt
Egypt
, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea
Red Sea
), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
, having the same boundaries as Suez
Suez
governorate . It has three harbors, Adabya , Ain Sukhna and Port Tawfiq , and extensive port facilities. Together they form a metropolitan area . Railway lines and highways connect the city with Cairo
Cairo
, Port Said
Port Said
, and Ismailia
Ismailia
. Suez
Suez
has a petrochemical plant, and its oil refineries have pipelines carrying the finished product to Cairo.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Early Islamic era * 1.2 Ottoman and Egyptian rule * 1.3 Modern era

* 2 City districts

* 2.1 Arbaeen District * 2.2 Suez
Suez
District * 2.3 Ganayen District * 2.4 Faisal District * 2.5 Attaka District

* 3 Suez Canal
Suez Canal
* 4 Climate

* 5 International relations

* 5.1 Twin towns — Sister cities

* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links

HISTORY

Painting of Suez, 1841

EARLY ISLAMIC ERA

In the 7th century AD a town named "Kolzum" stood just north of the site of present-day Suez
Suez
and served as eastern terminus of a canal built by Amr ibn al-\'As linking the Nile River
Nile River
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
. Kolzum's trade fell following the closure of the canal in 770 by the second Abbasid
Abbasid
caliph al-Mansur to prevent his enemies in Arabia
Arabia
from accessing supplies from Egypt
Egypt
and the lands north of it. Nonetheless, the town benefited from the trade that remained between Egypt
Egypt
and Arabia. By 780 al-Mansur's successor al-Mahdi restored part of the canal. The Qarmatians led by Hasan ibn Ahmad defeated a Fatimid army headed by Gawhar al-Siqilli at Kolzum in 971 and thereby captured the town. Following his defeat in Cairo
Cairo
by al-Siqilli at the end of that year, Hasan and his forces retreated to Arabia
Arabia
via Kolzum. Suez
Suez
was situated nearby and served as a source of drinking water for Kolzum according to Arab
Arab
traveler al-Muqaddasi who visited in 986.

The Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, Saladin
Saladin
, fortified both Kolzum and Suez in to defend Egypt's eastern frontier from Crusader raids by Raynald of Chatillon . Between 1183-84, Raynald had ships stationed in the Red Sea
Red Sea
to prevent the Ayyubid garrison at Kolzum from accessing water. In response, Saladin's brother al-Adil had Husam ad-Din Lu\'lu build a naval fleet which sailed to the southern port of Aidab to end Raynald's venture. By the 13th century it was recorded that Kolzum was in ruins as was Suez
Suez
which had gradually replaced the former as a population center. According to Muslim historians al-Maqrizi and al-Idrisi , Kolzum had once been a prosperous town, until it was occupied and plundered by Bedouins . Arab
Arab
geographer al-Dimashqi noted that Kolzum belonged to the Mamluk province of al-Karak at the time.

OTTOMAN AND EGYPTIAN RULE

To prevent Portuguese attacks against Egyptian coastal towns and the Red Sea
Red Sea
port of Jeddah
Jeddah
, Qansuh al-Ghawri the last Mamluk sultan ordered a 6,000-man force headed by Selman Reis to defend Suez
Suez
in 1507, which in turn limited the Mamluk military's capabilities against the Ottomans in the Mediterranean sea
Mediterranean sea
. Following the Ottoman's conquest of Egypt
Egypt
at the beginning of the 16th century, Suez
Suez
became both a major naval and trading station. The Ottoman fleets at Suez were instrumental in disputing control with the Portuguese over Indian Ocean trade.

German explorer Carsten Niebuhr
Carsten Niebuhr
noted that in the 18th century a 20-vessel fleet sailed annually from Suez
Suez
to Jeddah—which served as the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Mecca
's port and Egypt's gateway for trade with India
India
. However, by 1798, during Napoleonic invasion , Suez
Suez
had devolved into an unimportant town. Fighting between the French and the British in 1800 left most of the town in ruins. Its importance as a port increased after the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
opened in 1869.

MODERN ERA

The city was virtually destroyed during battles in the late 1960s and early 1970s between Egyptian and Israeli forces occupying the Sinai Peninsula . The town was deserted following the Six Day War in 1967. Reconstruction of Suez
Suez
began soon after Egypt
Egypt
reopened the Suez
Suez
Canal, following the October War with Israel.

Suez
Suez
was the first city to hold major protests against the government of Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
during the 2011 Egyptian revolution and was the scene of the first fatality of that uprising. On account of this, it has been called the Sidi Bouzid
Sidi Bouzid
of Egypt, recalling that small town's role in the 2010–2011 Tunisian revolution . View of Suez
Suez
from the canal in 1982

CITY DISTRICTS

The city is divided into five main districts:

ARBAEEN DISTRICT

It is most populous district of the city. It has most of the government buildings and public institutions. It also has the city's main fruit and vegetable markets in addition to other markets and stores selling various commodities.

SUEZ DISTRICT

It is more modern than Arbaeen district in terms of how the buildings look. The real estate there is significantly more expensive than any other district in the city. Suez
Suez
district is considered the most affluent area in the city. It includes the affluent neighborhood of Port Tawfik, which directly overlooks the Suez
Suez
Canal. Port Tawfik includes some old-style houses that date back to the English colonization era. The district also includes two of Egypt's most important oil refineries; El-Nasr Petroleum Company and Suez
Suez
Petroleum Company. Also, Suez
Suez
Port, one of Egypt's main ports, lies within the perimeter of Suez
Suez
District.

GANAYEN DISTRICT

That district stretches all the way to the border with Ismailia Governorate. It has all the rural areas of the city and can be thought of as the city's "countryside".

FAISAL DISTRICT

It includes the newer neighborhoods of the city. Most of the areas at Faisal District were established after the 1973 war, which had destroyed vast areas of the city. Examples of Faisal District include Al-Sabbah, Al-Amal and Al-Mushi, to name a few.

ATTAKA DISTRICT

It is characterized by the existence of many industrial areas. Plants and factories working in various fields are located in that District. There are factories specialized in fertilizers, cement, steel, cooking oil, flour products, oil rigs, ceramic tiles, sugar, and many other products. There is also Attaka Power Plant. The district also includes Ain Sokhna, one of Egypt's most important sea resorts, overlooking the Gulf of Suez. Ain Sokhna has got numerous high-class sea resorts and is frequented by many tourists, Egyptians and foreigners, all over the year due to its warm weather. The district is also home to Ain Sokhna Sea Port, one of Egypt's main sea ports. The port is operated by the Dubai-based DP World Company. Also, the district includes Al-Ataka Fishing Port, which is the city's main fish production port.

SUEZ CANAL

Main article: Suez Canal
Suez Canal
Northernmost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez
Suez
on map of 1856 Detail view of one of the main pylons.

There was a canal from the Nile delta to the Gulf of Suez in ancient times, when the gulf extended further north than it does today. This fell into disuse, and the present canal was built in the nineteenth century. Sunset
Sunset
view from land to Suez Canal
Suez Canal
Bridge , which links Africa with Asia

The Suez Canal
Suez Canal
offers a significantly shorter passage for ships than passing round the Cape of Good Hope. The construction of the Suez Canal was favoured by the natural conditions of the region: the comparatively short distance between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, the occurrence of a line of lakes or depressions which became lakes ( Lake Manzala in the north, and depressions, Timsah and the Bitter Lakes, part way along the route), and the generally flat terrain. The construction of the canal was proposed by the engineer and French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps
Ferdinand de Lesseps
, who acquired from Said Pasha the rights of constructing and operating the canal for a period of 99 years. The Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez
Suez
was formed. Construction took 11 years, and the canal opened on 17 November 1869. The canal had an immediate and dramatic effect on world trade.

In July 1956, just a few days after the fourth anniversary of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 , the Egyptian government under President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
nationalised the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
Company, which had been run by the French and owned privately, with the British as the largest shareholders. The Israeli-British-French invasion of Egypt
Egypt
which followed is known in Egypt
Egypt
as the Tripartite Aggression but elsewhere as the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
. Following Israel's invasion and occupation of Egypt's Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
in the Six Day War of 1967, the Canal was closed, and did not reopen until 1975.

Today, the Canal is a vital link in world trade, and contributes significantly to the Egyptian economy; in 2009 the income generated from the canal accounted for 3.7% of Egypt's GDP.

CLIMATE

Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as a hot desert (BWh).

The hottest recorded temperature was 49 °C (120 °F) on June 14, 1965 while the coldest recorded temperature was 1 °C (34 °F) on February 23, 2004.

CLIMATE DATA FOR SUEZ

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 29.4 (84.9) 39.0 (102.2) 36.9 (98.4) 42.8 (109) 43.5 (110.3) 46.1 (115) 44.1 (111.4) 45.8 (114.4) 41.2 (106.2) 39.2 (102.6) 37.0 (98.6) 28.4 (83.1) 46.1 (115)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 19.4 (66.9) 21.2 (70.2) 23.6 (74.5) 28.5 (83.3) 32.4 (90.3) 35.1 (95.2) 36.1 (97) 35.7 (96.3) 33.2 (91.8) 30.1 (86.2) 25.4 (77.7) 20.7 (69.3) 28.4 (83.1)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 14.8 (58.6) 16.0 (60.8) 18.2 (64.8) 22.3 (72.1) 25.7 (78.3) 28.1 (82.6) 29.3 (84.7) 29.3 (84.7) 27.3 (81.1) 24.5 (76.1) 20.2 (68.4) 16.0 (60.8) 22.6 (72.7)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 10.5 (50.9) 11.3 (52.3) 13.1 (55.6) 16.4 (61.5) 19.5 (67.1) 22.4 (72.3) 23.9 (75) 24.2 (75.6) 22.8 (73) 20.0 (68) 15.7 (60.3) 11.8 (53.2) 17.6 (63.7)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 4.1 (39.4) 5.6 (42.1) 7.4 (45.3) 8.7 (47.7) 13.6 (56.5) 17.7 (63.9) 19.4 (66.9) 19.7 (67.5) 16.9 (62.4) 14.5 (58.1) 9.9 (49.8) 5.5 (41.9) 4.1 (39.4)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 5 (0.2) 2 (0.08) 4 (0.16) 1 (0.04) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (0.08) 3 (0.12) 17 (0.67)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 0.6 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 1.7

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 58 56 53 45 44 47 52 54 55 57 58 60 53

Source: NOAA

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Egypt
Egypt

TWIN TOWNS — SISTER CITIES

Suez
Suez
is twinned with:

* Skopje
Skopje
, Macedonia * Djibouti
Djibouti
City , Djibouti

SEE ALSO

* Suez Port

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D Chisholm, p.22. * ^ Houtsma, p.498. * ^ A B C Houtsma, p.1115. * ^ Forgotten Books, p.61. Quotes al-Muqaddasi . * ^ Houtsma, 1993, p.341. * ^ Brummett, p.85 and p.115. * ^ Suez: Cradle of Revolt. Al Jazeera English . 2012-01-17. Retrieved on 2012-03-10. * ^ Could Suez
Suez
be Egypt\'s Sidi Bouzid?. Reuters
Reuters
. 2011-01-27. Retrieved on 2012-03-10. * ^ The Economist, July 17–23, 2010, A Favored Spot: Egypt
Egypt
is making the most of its natural advantages. * ^ " Ismailia
Ismailia
(Port Taufiq), Egypt". Voodoo Skies. Retrieved 5 July 2013. * ^ "El Suez
Suez
Climate Normals 1961–1990" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved January 25, 2015. * ^ "Official portal of City of Skopje
Skopje
- Skopje
Skopje
Sister Cities". © 2006-2009 City of Skopje. Archived from the original on 2013-10-24. Retrieved 2009-07-14. External link in publisher= (help )

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Chrisholm, Hugh (1911), The Encyclopædia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Encyclopædia Britannica * Forgotten Books, The Churches and Monasteries of Egypt
Egypt
and Some Neighbouring Countries, Forgotten Books, ISBN 1440060096 * Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor; Wensinck, A.J. (1993), E.J. Brill\'s First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, BRILL

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Suez-online.com * Suez

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