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SS Great Western
SS Great Western
of 1838, was an oak-hulled paddle-wheel steamship, the first steamship purpose-built for crossing the Atlantic, and the initial unit of the Great Western Steamship
Steamship
Company.[3] She was the largest passenger ship in the world from 1837 to 1839. Designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Great Western proved satisfactory in service and was the model for all successful wooden Atlantic paddle-steamers.[4] She was capable of making record Blue Riband voyages as late as 1843.[4] Great Western worked to New York for 8 years until her owners went out of business.[5] She was sold to the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company
Royal Mail Steam Packet Company
and was scrapped in 1856 after serving as a troop ship during the Crimean War.[3]

Contents

1 Development and design 2 Service history 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Development and design[edit] In 1836, Isambard Brunel, his friend Thomas Guppy and a group of Bristol
Bristol
investors formed the Great Western Steamship Company
Great Western Steamship Company
to build a line of steamships for the Bristol-New York route.[3] The idea of regular scheduled transatlantic service was under discussion by several groups and the rival British and American Steam Navigation Company was established at the same time.[6] Great Western's design sparked controversy from critics that contended that she was too big.[3] The principle that Brunel understood was that the carrying capacity of a ship increases as the cube of its dimensions, whilst the water resistance only increases as the square of its dimensions. This meant that large ships were more fuel efficient, something very important for long voyages across the Atlantic.[7] Great Western was an iron-strapped, wooden, side-wheel paddle steamer, with four masts to hoist the auxiliary sails. The sails were not just to provide auxiliary propulsion, but also were used in rough seas to keep the ship on an even keel and ensure that both paddle wheels remained in the water, driving the ship in a straight line. The hull was built of oak by traditional methods. She was the largest steamship for one year, until the British and American's British Queen went into service. Built at the shipyard of Patterson & Mercer in Bristol, Great Western was launched on 19 July 1837 and then sailed to London, where she was fitted with two side-lever steam engines from the firm of Maudslay, Sons & Field, producing 750 indicated horsepower between them.[3] Service history[edit]

The Great-Western Steam Ship
Steam Ship
in 1838, engraved by H. Papprill after a painting by J.S. Coteman

On 31 March 1838, Great Western sailed for Avonmouth
Avonmouth
(Bristol) to start her maiden voyage to New York. Before reaching Avonmouth, a fire broke out in the engine room. During the confusion Brunel fell 20 feet (6.1 m), and was injured. The fire was extinguished, and the damages to the ship were minimal, but Brunel had to be put ashore at Canvey Island.[3] As a result of the accident, more than 50 passengers cancelled their bookings for the Bristol-New York voyage and when Great Western finally departed Avonmouth, only 7 passengers were aboard.[2] Construction of the rival British and American's first ship was delayed, and the company chartered Sirius to beat Great Western to New York. Sirius was a 700 GRT Irish Sea steam packet on the London – Cork route, and had part of her passenger accommodation removed to make room for extra coal bunkers.[7] She left London three days before Great Western, refuelled at Cork, and departed for New York on 4 April.[8] Great Western was delayed in Bristol
Bristol
because of the fire and did not depart until 8 April.[7] Even with a four-day head start, Sirius only narrowly beat Great Western, arriving on 22 April.[6] When coal ran low, the crew burned 5 drums of resin. Great Western arrived the following day, with 200 tons of coal still aboard.[3] Although the term Blue Riband
Blue Riband
was not coined until years later, Sirius is often credited as the first winner at 8.03 knots (14.87 km/h). However, Sirius only held the record for a day because Great Western's voyage was faster at 8.66 knots (16.04 km/h). Great Western proved completely satisfactory in service and influenced the design of other Atlantic
Atlantic
paddlers. Even Cunard's Britannia was a reduced version of Great Western.[4] During 1838–1840, Great Western averaged 16 days, 0 hours (7.95 knots) westward to New York and 13 days, 9 hours (9.55 knots) home. In 1838, the company paid a 9% dividend, but that was to be the firm's only dividend because of the expense of building the company's next ship.[4] After the collapse of British and American, Great Western alternated between Avonmouth
Avonmouth
and Liverpool, before abandoning Avonmouth
Avonmouth
entirely in 1843.[4] The ship remained profitable even though she lacked a running mate because of the protracted construction on Great Britain. In 1843, Great Western's receipts were GB£33,400 against expenditures of GB£25,600.[3] The company's fortunes improved in 1845 when Great Britain entered service.[4] However, in September 1846 Great Britain ran ashore because of a navigational error and was not expected to survive the winter. The directors suspended all sailings of Great Western and went out of business.[3] Great Western had completed 45 crossings for her owners in eight years.[5] In 1847 she was sold to the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company and used on the West Indies
West Indies
run. Later, after serving as a troopship in the Crimean War, in 1856 she was broken up at Castles' Yard, Millbank on the Thames.[4] See also[edit]

SS Great Britain SS Great Eastern List of world's largest wooden ships

References[edit]

^ About Great Western from Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool ^ a b MaritimeQuest.com about SS Great Western ^ a b c d e f g h i Corlett, Ewan (1975). The Iron Ship: the Story of Brunel's SS Great Britain. Conway.  ^ a b c d e f g Gibbs, Charles Robert Vernon (1957). Passenger Liners of the Western Ocean: A Record of Atlantic
Atlantic
Steam and Motor Passenger Vessels from 1838 to the Present Day. John De Graff. pp. 41–45.  ^ a b Kludas, Arnold (1999). Das blaue Band des Nordatlantiks (in German). Hamburg: Koehler. p. 36. ISBN 3-7822-0742-4.  ^ a b American Heritage (1991). The Annihilation of Time and Space.  ^ a b c Rolt, L.T.C., "Victorian Engineering", 1970, Allen Lane The Penguin Press, ISBN 0-7139-0104-7 ^ MaritimeQuest.com about SS Sirius

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Great Western (ship, 1838).

Houghton-Mifflin "Ships of the World" Maritimequest Great Western photo gallery

Records

Preceded by Sirius Holder of the Blue Riband
Blue Riband
(Westbound) 1838–1841 Succeeded by Columbia

Atlantic
Atlantic
Eastbound Record 1838–1840 Succeeded by Britannia

Preceded by Britannia Atlantic
Atlantic
Eastbound Record 1842–1843 Succeeded by Columbia

Preceded by Columbia Holder of the Blue Riband
Blue Riband
(Westbound) 1843–1845 Succeeded by Cambria

v t e

Largest wooden ships

Ancient ships

Caligula's Giant Ship Marsala Nemi ships Isis Syracusia Tessarakonteres Hatshepsut's barge Thalamegos

Medieval and modern oar-powered ships

Galera Real Galère Réale

Wind-powered only

Peter von Danzig Götheborg Tenacious Orient (Océan class) Grace Dieu Great Harry Victory Vasa Chinese treasure ship Sovereign of the Seas Soleil Royal São João Baptista Flor de la Mar Santisima Trinidad Adler von Lübeck Baron of Renfrew Great Republic Pretoria Wyoming Great Michael Columbus Roanoke William D. Lawrence

Steam-powered

Great Western Jylland Eureka Appomattox Santiago La Bretagne Orlando Mersey Dunderberg Frank O'Connor Australasia L.R. Doty Iosco

Immobile

Al-Hashemi-II

v t e

Timeline of the world's largest passenger ships

Syracusia
Syracusia
(240 BC) Thalamegos
Thalamegos
(200 BC) Caravel
Caravel
ships (1400s) SS Royal William (1831) SS Great Western (1837) SS British Queen (1839) SS President (1840) SS Great Britain (1845) HMS Himalaya (1854) RMS Atrato (1854) SS Great Eastern (1858) RMS Celtic (1901) RMS Baltic (1903) RMS Empress of Scotland (1906) RMS Lusitania (1907) RMS Mauretania (1907) RMS Olympic (1911) RMS Titanic (1912) SS Imperator (1913) SS Leviathan (1913) RMS Majestic (1914) SS Normandie (1935) RMS Queen Mary (1936) RMS Queen Elizabeth (1940) MS Sovereign
MS Sovereign
of the Seas (1987) MS Sun Princess
Sun Princess
(1995) MS Carnival Sunshine
Carnival Sunshine
(1996) MS Grand Princess
Grand Princess
(1997) MS Voyager of the Seas (1999) MS Explorer of the Seas (2000) MS Navigator of the Seas (2002) RMS Queen Mary 2 (2004) MS Freedom of the Seas / MS Liberty of the Seas / MS Independence of the Seas (2006) MS Oasis of the Seas (2009) MS Allure of the Seas (2010) MS Harmony of the Seas (2016) MS Symphony of the Seas (2018)

v t e

Works of Isambard Kingdom Brunel

Great Western Railway Wharncliffe Viaduct Maidenhead Bridge Windsor Bridge Chepstow Bridge Royal Albert Bridge Box Tunnel Thames Tunnel Atmospheric railway South Devon Railway sea wall Hungerford Bridge Clifton Suspension Bridge SS Great Western SS Great Britain SS Great Eastern Oth

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