**SPSS**

SPSS STATISTICS is a software package used for logical batched and
non-batched statistical analysis . Long produced by
**SPSS Inc.** , it was
acquired by
**IBM**

IBM in 2009. The current versions (2015) are officially
named
**IBM**

IBM
**SPSS**

SPSS STATISTICS. Companion products in the same family are
used for survey authoring and deployment (
**IBM**

IBM
**SPSS**

SPSS
**Data**

Data Collection,
now divested under UNICOM Intelligence), data mining (
**IBM**

IBM
**SPSS**

SPSS Modeler
), text analytics , and collaboration and deployment (batch and
automated scoring services).

The software name originally stood for STATISTICAL PACKAGE FOR THE
SOCIAL SCIENCES (SPSS), reflecting the original market, although the
software is now popular in other fields as well, including the health
sciences and marketing.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview
* 2 Versions and ownership history
* 3 See also
* 4 Notes
* 5 References
* 6 External links

OVERVIEW

**SPSS**

SPSS is a widely used program for statistical analysis in social
science . It is also used by market researchers, health researchers,
survey companies, government, education researchers, marketing
organizations, data miners, and others. The original
**SPSS**

SPSS manual
(Nie, Bent "> The
**SPSS**

SPSS logo used prior to the renaming in January
2010.

**SPSS**

SPSS
**Statistics**

Statistics Server is a version of
**SPSS**

SPSS
**Statistics**

Statistics with a
client/server architecture. It had some features not available in the
desktop version, such as scoring functions . (Scoring functions are
included in the desktop version from version 19.) Since March 2017,
**SPSS**

SPSS
**Statistics**

Statistics created a subscription based pricing option. This
allows users to use the software based on a $99/month fee.

**SPSS**

SPSS
**Statistics**

Statistics launched V25 on Aug 08, 2017.
**SPSS**

SPSS v25 adds new and
advanced statistics, such as random effects solution results
(GENLINMIXED), robust standard errors (GLM/UNIANOVA), and profile
plots with error bars within the Advanced
**Statistics**

Statistics and Custom Tables
add-on. V25 also includes new Bayesian
**Statistics**

Statistics capabilities, a
method of statistical inference and publication ready charts, such as
powerful new charting capabilities, including new default templates
and the ability to share with Microsoft Office applications. Lastly,
v25 has a subscription model to buy, manage, download, update, and
license
**SPSS**

SPSS Statistics.

**SPSS**

SPSS
**Statistics**

Statistics is available as a 14-day free trial with base +
add-on features.

For support information, click here.

VERSIONS AND OWNERSHIP HISTORY

The software was released in its first version in 1968 as the
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) after being
developed by
**Norman H. Nie** , Dale H. Bent, and C. Hadlai Hull. Those
principals incorporated as
**SPSS Inc.** in 1975. Early versions of SPSS
**Statistics**

Statistics were designed for batch processing on mainframes ,
including for example
**IBM**

IBM and ICL versions, originally using punched
cards for input. A processing run read a command file of
**SPSS**

SPSS commands
and either a raw input file of fixed format data with a single record
type, or a 'getfile' of data saved by a previous run. To save precious
computer time an 'edit' run could be done to check command syntax
without analysing the data. From version 10 (SPSS-X) in 1983, data
files could contain multiple record types.

**SPSS**

SPSS
**Statistics**

Statistics versions 16.0 and later run under Windows, Mac, and
Linux. The graphical user interface is written in Java . The Mac OS
version is provided as a
**Universal binary** , making it fully compatible
with both PowerPC and Intel-based Mac hardware.

Prior to
**SPSS**

SPSS 16.0, different versions of
**SPSS**

SPSS were available for
**Windows**

Windows ,
**Mac OS X** and
**Unix**

Unix . The
**Windows**

Windows version was updated more
frequently and had more features than the versions for other operating
systems .

**SPSS**

SPSS
**Statistics**

Statistics version 13.0 for
**Mac OS X** was not compatible with
**Intel**

Intel -based Macintosh computers, due to the Rosetta emulation
software causing errors in calculations.
**SPSS**

SPSS
**Statistics**

Statistics 15.0 for
**Windows**

Windows needed a downloadable hotfix to be installed in order to be
compatible with
**Windows**

Windows Vista .

**SPSS**

SPSS Inc announced on July 28, 2009 that it was being acquired by IBM
for US$1.2 billion. Because of a dispute about ownership of the name
"SPSS", between 2009 and 2010, the product was referred to as PASW
(Predictive Analytics SoftWare). As of January 2010, it became "SPSS:
An
**IBM**

IBM Company". Complete transfer of business to
**IBM**

IBM was done by
October 1, 2010. By that date, SPSS: An
**IBM**

IBM Company ceased to exist.
**IBM**

IBM
**SPSS**

SPSS is now fully integrated into the
**IBM**

IBM Corporation, and is one
of the brands under
**IBM**

IBM Software Group's Business Analytics Portfolio,
together with
**IBM**

IBM Algorithmics ,
**IBM**

IBM
**Cognos** and
**IBM**

IBM
**OpenPages** .

**SPSS**

SPSS
**Data**

Data Collection was acquired October 31, 2015 by UNICOM Systems,
Inc., a division of
**UNICOM Global** , under the UNICOM Intelligence
brand.

SEE ALSO

*
**Comparison of statistical packages**
*
**PSPP** – an open source alternative
*
**JASP** – another open source alternative with slightly other
emphases
*
**SPSS Modeler**

NOTES

* ^
**IBM**

IBM
**SPSS**

SPSS
**Statistics**

Statistics 24 Documentation.
* ^ Quintero, Dino; et al. "Workload Optimized Systems: Tuning
POWER7 for Analytics". Abstract.
* ^ "KDnuggets Annual Software Poll: Analytics/
**Data mining** software
used?". KDnuggets. May 2013.
* ^ Wellman. 1998. pp. 71–78.
* ^
**IBM**

IBM press release. 2009.
* ^ Sachdev, Ameet (September 27, 2009). "IBM\'s $1.2 billion bid
for
**SPSS Inc.** helps resolve trademark dispute". Chicago Tribune.
* ^ "
**IBM**

IBM
**SPSS**

SPSS
**Data**

Data Collection Divestiture". 2 February 2016.
Retrieved 7 June 2017.
* ^ "UNICOM® Global Acquires IBM®
**Data**

Data Collection Suite from IBM
Corp.". 31 October 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2017.

REFERENCES

* Argyrous, G.
**Statistics**

Statistics for Research: With a Guide to SPSS.
London: SAGE. ISBN 1-4129-1948-7 .
* Bryman, Alan; Cramer, Duncan (2011). Quantitative
**Data**

Data Analysis
with
**IBM**

IBM
**SPSS**

SPSS 17, 18 and 19: A Guide for Social Scientists. New York:
Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-57918-6 .
* Levesque, R. (2007).
**SPSS**

SPSS Programming and
**Data**

Data Management: A Guide
for
**SPSS**

SPSS and SAS Users (4th ed.). Chicago, Illinois:
**SPSS Inc.** ISBN
1-56827-390-8 .
*
**SPSS**

SPSS 15.0 Command Syntax Reference. Chicago, Illinois:
**SPSS**

SPSS Inc.
2006.
* Wellman, B. (1998). "Doing It Ourselves: The
**SPSS**

SPSS Manual as
Sociology's Most Influential Recent Book". In Clawson, Dan. Required
Reading: Sociology's Most Influential Books. Amherst: University of
Massachusetts Press . pp. 71–78. ISBN 978-1-55849-153-3 .

EXTERNAL