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SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
is a software package used for logical batched and non-batched statistical analysis. Long produced by SPSS
SPSS
Inc., it was acquired by IBM
IBM
in 2009. The current versions (2015) are officially named IBM
IBM
SPSS
SPSS
Statistics. Companion products in the same family are used for survey authoring and deployment ( IBM
IBM
SPSS
SPSS
Data
Data
Collection, now divested under UNICOM Intelligence), data mining ( IBM
IBM
SPSS Modeler), text analytics, and collaboration and deployment (batch and automated scoring services). The software name originally stood for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS),[2] reflecting the original market, although the software is now popular in other fields as well, including the health sciences and marketing.

Contents

1 Overview 2 Versions and ownership history 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Overview[edit] SPSS
SPSS
is a widely used program for statistical analysis in social science. It is also used by market researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government, education researchers, marketing organizations, data miners,[3] and others. The original SPSS
SPSS
manual (Nie, Bent & Hull, 1970) has been described as one of "sociology's most influential books" for allowing ordinary researchers to do their own statistical analysis.[4] In addition to statistical analysis, data management (case selection, file reshaping, creating derived data) and data documentation (a metadata dictionary was stored in the datafile) are features of the base software. Statistics
Statistics
included in the base software:

Descriptive statistics: Cross tabulation, Frequencies, Descriptives, Explore, Descriptive Ratio Statistics Bivariate statistics: Means, t-test, ANOVA, Correlation
Correlation
(bivariate, partial, distances), Nonparametric tests, Bayesian Prediction for numerical outcomes: Linear regression Prediction for identifying groups: Factor analysis, cluster analysis (two-step, K-means, hierarchical), Discriminant Geo spatial analysis, simulation R extension (GUI)

The many features of SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
are accessible via pull-down menus or can be programmed with a proprietary 4GL command syntax language. Command syntax programming has the benefits of reproducible output, simplifying repetitive tasks, and handling complex data manipulations and analyses. Additionally, some complex applications can only be programmed in syntax and are not accessible through the menu structure. The pull-down menu interface also generates command syntax: this can be displayed in the output, although the default settings have to be changed to make the syntax visible to the user. They can also be pasted into a syntax file using the "paste" button present in each menu. Programs can be run interactively or unattended, using the supplied Production Job Facility. Additionally a "macro" language can be used to write command language subroutines. A Python programmability extension can access the information in the data dictionary and data and dynamically build command syntax programs. The Python programmability extension, introduced in SPSS
SPSS
14, replaced the less functional SAX Basic "scripts" for most purposes, although SaxBasic remains available. In addition, the Python extension allows SPSS
SPSS
to run any of the statistics in the free software package R. From version 14 onwards, SPSS
SPSS
can be driven externally by a Python or a VB.NET
VB.NET
program using supplied "plug-ins". (From Version 20 onwards, these two scripting facilities, as well as many scripts, are included on the installation media and are normally installed by default.) SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
places constraints on internal file structure, data types, data processing, and matching files, which together considerably simplify programming. SPSS
SPSS
datasets have a two-dimensional table structure, where the rows typically represent cases (such as individuals or households) and the columns represent measurements (such as age, sex, or household income). Only two data types are defined: numeric and text (or "string"). All data processing occurs sequentially case-by-case through the file (dataset). Files can be matched one-to-one and one-to-many, but not many-to-many. In addition to that cases-by-variables structure and processing, there is a separate Matrix session where one can process data as matrices using matrix and linear algebra operations. The graphical user interface has two views which can be toggled by clicking on one of the two tabs in the bottom left of the SPSS Statistics
Statistics
window. The ' Data
Data
View' shows a spreadsheet view of the cases (rows) and variables (columns). Unlike spreadsheets, the data cells can only contain numbers or text, and formulas cannot be stored in these cells. The 'Variable View' displays the metadata dictionary where each row represents a variable and shows the variable name, variable label, value label(s), print width, measurement type, and a variety of other characteristics. Cells in both views can be manually edited, defining the file structure and allowing data entry without using command syntax. This may be sufficient for small datasets. Larger datasets such as statistical surveys are more often created in data entry software, or entered during computer-assisted personal interviewing, by scanning and using optical character recognition and optical mark recognition software, or by direct capture from online questionnaires. These datasets are then read into SPSS. SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
can read and write data from ASCII
ASCII
text files (including hierarchical files), other statistics packages, spreadsheets and databases. SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
can read and write to external relational database tables via ODBC and SQL. Statistical output is to a proprietary file format (*.spv file, supporting pivot tables) for which, in addition to the in-package viewer, a stand-alone reader can be downloaded. The proprietary output can be exported to text or Microsoft Word, PDF, Excel, and other formats. Alternatively, output can be captured as data (using the OMS command), as text, tab-delimited text, PDF, XLS, HTML, XML, SPSS dataset or a variety of graphic image formats (JPEG, PNG, BMP and EMF).

The SPSS
SPSS
logo used prior to the renaming in January 2010.

SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
Server is a version of SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
with a client/server architecture. It had some features not available in the desktop version, such as scoring functions. (Scoring functions are included in the desktop version from version 19.) Since March 2017, SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
created a subscription based pricing option. This allows users to use the software based on a $99/month fee. SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
launched V25] on Aug 08, 2017. SPSS
SPSS
v25 adds new and advanced statistics, such as random effects solution results (GENLINMIXED), robust standard errors (GLM/UNIANOVA), and profile plots with error bars within the Advanced Statistics
Statistics
and Custom Tables add-on. V25 also includes new Bayesian Statistics
Statistics
capabilities, a method of statistical inference and publication ready charts, such as powerful new charting capabilities, including new default templates and the ability to share with Microsoft Office applications. Lastly, v25 has a subscription model to buy, manage, download, update, and license SPSS
SPSS
Statistics.[5] Versions and ownership history[edit] The software was released in its first version in 1968 as the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) after being developed by Norman H. Nie, Dale H. Bent, and C. Hadlai Hull. Those principals incorporated as SPSS Inc. in 1975. Early versions of SPSS Statistics
Statistics
were designed for batch processing on mainframes, including for example IBM
IBM
and ICL versions, originally using punched cards for input. A processing run read a command file of SPSS
SPSS
commands and either a raw input file of fixed format data with a single record type, or a 'getfile' of data saved by a previous run. To save precious computer time an 'edit' run could be done to check command syntax without analysing the data. From version 10 (SPSS-X) in 1983, data files could contain multiple record types. SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
versions 16.0 and later run under Windows, Mac, and Linux. The graphical user interface is written in Java. The Mac OS version is provided as a Universal binary, making it fully compatible with both PowerPC and Intel-based Mac hardware. Prior to SPSS
SPSS
16.0, different versions of SPSS
SPSS
were available for Windows, Mac OS X
Mac OS X
and Unix. The Windows
Windows
version was updated more frequently and had more features than the versions for other operating systems.[citation needed] SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
version 13.0 for Mac OS X
Mac OS X
was not compatible with Intel-based Macintosh computers, due to the Rosetta emulation software causing errors in calculations. SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
15.0 for Windows needed a downloadable hotfix to be installed in order to be compatible with Windows
Windows
Vista. SPSS
SPSS
Inc announced on July 28, 2009 that it was being acquired by IBM for US$1.2 billion.[6] Because of a dispute about ownership of the name "SPSS", between 2009 and 2010, the product was referred to as PASW (Predictive Analytics SoftWare).[7] As of January 2010, it became "SPSS: An IBM
IBM
Company". Complete transfer of business to IBM
IBM
was done by October 1, 2010. By that date, SPSS: An IBM
IBM
Company ceased to exist. IBM
IBM
SPSS
SPSS
is now fully integrated into the IBM
IBM
Corporation, and is one of the brands under IBM
IBM
Software Group's Business Analytics Portfolio, together with IBM
IBM
Algorithmics, IBM
IBM
Cognos and IBM OpenPages. SPSS
SPSS
Data
Data
Collection was acquired October 31, 2015 by UNICOM Systems, Inc., a division of UNICOM Global, under the UNICOM Intelligence brand.[8][9] See also[edit]

Comparison of statistical packages SPSS
SPSS
Modeler PSPP, a free SPSS
SPSS
replacement from the GNU Project

Notes[edit]

^ IBM
IBM
SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
24 Documentation.  ^ Quintero, Dino; et al. "Workload Optimized Systems: Tuning POWER7 for Analytics". Abstract.  ^ "KDnuggets Annual Software Poll: Analytics/ Data mining
Data mining
software used?". KDnuggets. May 2013.  ^ Wellman. 1998. pp. 71–78.  ^ "What's New in SPSS
SPSS
Statistics
Statistics
25 & Subscription - SPSS Predictive Analytics". SPSS
SPSS
Predictive Analytics. 18 July 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017.  ^ IBM
IBM
press release. 2009.  ^ Sachdev, Ameet (September 27, 2009). "IBM's $1.2 billion bid for SPSS Inc. helps resolve trademark dispute". Chicago Tribune.  ^ " IBM
IBM
SPSS
SPSS
Data
Data
Collection Divestiture". 2 February 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2017.  ^ "UNICOM® Global Acquires IBM® Data
Data
Collection Suite from IBM Corp". 31 October 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2017. 

References[edit]

Argyrous, G. Statistics
Statistics
for Research: With a Guide to SPSS. London: SAGE. ISBN 1-4129-1948-7.  Bryman, Alan; Cramer, Duncan (2011). Quantitative Data
Data
Analysis with IBM
IBM
SPSS
SPSS
17, 18 and 19: A Guide for Social Scientists. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-57918-6.  Levesque, R. (2007). SPSS
SPSS
Programming and Data
Data
Management: A Guide for SPSS
SPSS
and SAS Users (4th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: SPSS
SPSS
Inc. ISBN 1-56827-390-8.  SPSS
SPSS
15.0 Command Syntax Reference. Chicago, Illinois: SPSS
SPSS
Inc. 2006.  Wellman, B. (1998). "Doing It Ourselves: The SPSS
SPSS
Manual as Sociology's Most Influential Recent Book". In Clawson, Dan. Required Reading: Sociology's Most Influential Books. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. pp. 71–78. ISBN 978-1-55849-153-3. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SPSS.

Wikiversity has learning resources about SPSS

Official website Raynald Levesque's SPSS
SPSS
Tools – library of worked solutions for SPSS
SPSS
programmers (FAQ, command syntax; macros; scripts; Python) Archives of SPSSX-L Discussion – SPSS
SPSS
Listserv active since 1996. Discusses programming, statistics and analysis UCLA ATS Resources to help you learn SPSS – Resources for learning SPSS UCLA ATS Technical Reports – Report 1 compares Stata, SAS, and SPSS
SPSS
against R (R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics). SPSS
SPSS
Community?ref=wikipedia – Support for developers of applications using SPSS
SPSS
products, including materials and examples of the Python and R programmability features Biomedical Statistics
Statistics
- An educational website dedicated to statistical evaluation of biomedical data using SPSS
SPSS
software IBM
IBM
SPSS
SPSS
online from cloud How to use SPSS
SPSS
in Vietnam

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