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SEAT, S.A. (English: /ˈseɪɑːt/, Spanish: [ˈseat]; Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo) is a Spanish automobile manufacturer with its head office in Martorell, Catalonia, Spain.[5] It was founded on May 9, 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI), a state-owned industrial holding company. Since 1986 it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of the German Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group. The headquarters of SEAT, S.A. are located at SEAT's industrial complex in Martorell
Martorell
near Barcelona. By 2000 annual production peaked at over 500,000 units; in total up to 2006, over 16 million cars have been produced[6] including more than 6 million from the Martorell plant,[7] with three-quarters of the annual production being exported to over seventy countries worldwide.[8]

Contents

1 Facilities

1.1 Martorell 1.2 Zona Franca 1.3 Others

2 Presence in different markets 3 History

3.1 Establishment of SEAT 3.2 Partnership with Fiat 3.3 Dispute with Fiat 3.4 Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
subsidiary

4 Motorsport

4.1 Rallying 4.2 Touring cars 4.3 Grand tourer
Grand tourer
cars 4.4 Formula

5 Current model range

5.1 FR models 5.2 Cupra models

6 Nomenclature 7 Sub-ranges 8 Sales and production figures

8.1 Rebadges 8.2 Tuning companies 8.3 Earlier and current models 8.4 Concept models 8.5 Future models

9 Company profile

9.1 Logo history 9.2 Leadership 9.3 Economic figures 9.4 Environmental policy 9.5 Sponsorship

10 Awards 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links

Facilities[edit]

SEAT's industrial complex in Martorell

SEAT
SEAT
today is the only major Spanish car manufacturer with the ability and the infrastructure to develop its own cars in-house.[9][better source needed] Martorell[edit] Its headquarters and main manufacturing facilities are located in Martorell, an industrial town located some 30 kilometres northwest of Barcelona,[10] with a production capacity of around 500,000 units per annum.[11] The plant was opened by King Juan Carlos of Spain
Spain
on February 22, 1993, and replaced SEAT's former assembly plant by the coast in Barcelona's freeport zone (Zona Franca). A rail connection between SEAT's Martorell
Martorell
and Zona Franca complexes facilitates vehicle and parts transportation between the two sites.[12][13] The industrial complex in Martorell
Martorell
also hosts the facilities of SEAT Sport,[14] SEAT's Technical Center, Research and Development Center (R&D),[15] Design Center,[16] Prototypes Centre of Development,[17] SEAT
SEAT
Service Center (also incorporating the After-Sales Service division, the Customer Services division and the Catalunya Motor dealership),[18] as well as the Genuine Parts Centre for SEAT, Volkswagen, Audi
Audi
and Škoda brands.[19] Zona Franca[edit]

SEAT's Training Centre in Barcelona's Zona Franca.

The development and assembly facilities are some of the newest within the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group, with the ability to produce cars[20] not only for its own brand but also for other Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
brands, such as Volkswagen
Volkswagen
and Audi.[21] For example, the development and design of several Audi
Audi
models (e.g. the Audi
Audi
A1,[22] the Audi
Audi
A3 Sportback,[23] the Audi
Audi
Q5 etc.) and also several Audi
Audi
development projects took place there,[24] and from 2011 onwards the Martorell
Martorell
plant manufactures the Audi
Audi
Q3 small SUV.[25] The Barcelona
Barcelona
Zona Franca site includes the SEAT
SEAT
Training Centre,[26] the Zona Franca Press Shop factory, producing stamped body parts, and the Barcelona
Barcelona
Gearbox del Prat plant, producing gearboxes not only for SEAT
SEAT
but also for other Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
marques (VW, Audi
Audi
and Škoda);[27] the latter plant was awarded the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Excellence Award in 2009 by the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
for high-quality production process and product.[27] Others[edit] Another plant owned directly by SEAT
SEAT
from 1975[28] was the Landaben plant in Pamplona, but in December 1993 its ownership was transferred to the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
subsidiary "Volkswagen-Audi-Espana, S.A.",[29] and the site today is producing Volkswagen
Volkswagen
cars in Spain.[30] However, SEAT's Martorell
Martorell
site still provides support to Volkswagen's operations in the Pamplona
Pamplona
plant when necessary, as it did after a serious fire in the paint shop in the Landaben VW plant in April 2007.[31]

SEAT's Pavilion at Autostadt, Wolfsburg.

Factories of the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
currently producing SEAT
SEAT
models also include the Bratislava
Bratislava
site in Slovakia
Slovakia
and the Palmela
Palmela
AutoEuropa factory in Portugal,[7] while in the past other plants were involved too in producing SEAT
SEAT
models, such as the factories in Germany (Wolfsburg) and Belgium.[32] Future plans include a new Research and development (R&D) centre in the city of Barcelona
Barcelona
in the field of environmental and energy efficiency for the entire Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group and also the launch of a project on the city's urban mobility,[33] as well as a SEAT
SEAT
museum in the Zona Franca's 'Nave A122' site hosting all production and prototype models ever presented by SEAT
SEAT
together with some special or limited edition vehicles with historical value for the brand and the automotive history of Spain.[34][35] Among SEAT's subsidiaries, the SEAT
SEAT
Deutschland GmbH subsidiary company is based in Mörfelden-Walldorf, Germany, and apart from its commercial activities has the further responsibility of operating SEAT's electronic platform, the SEAT
SEAT
IT Services Network.[36] In Wolfsburg, Germany, in the middle of a lake inside the Autostadt, the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group's corporate theme park,[37] is SEAT's thematic pavilion, one of the largest pavilions in the park.[38] Presence in different markets[edit]

SEAT
SEAT
600, the first model exported by SEAT
SEAT
in 1965 to Colombia, became the best-selling car in Finland
Finland
from 1970 to 1973.

In its 60 years, there was only a short period from 1953 to 1965 when the firm produced its cars exclusively for the domestic Spanish market. In 1965 and in a rather symbolic move, the company exported some 150 units of its SEAT 600
SEAT 600
model destined for Colombia
Colombia
by air freight for the first time, until two years later in 1967 SEAT
SEAT
reached a deal over the renegotiation of its licence contract with Fiat
Fiat
which allowed the Spanish firm to form an international distribution network for its cars and thereafter start its export operations massively to more than twelve different countries, entering the export market in 1969. Until the early 1980s, however, most SEAT
SEAT
exports were sold with Fiat
Fiat
badging.[39] As a response to SEAT's bid for independence, Fiat committed themselves to selling 200,000 SEAT-built cars a year from 1981, compared to 120,000 the year before. At the end of 1983, just after SEAT
SEAT
had won its legal battle with Fiat, a quarter of the production went to Egypt and Latin America.[40] In Europe, they were represented in West Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Austria, and Greece. The UK, Ireland, and various Scandinavian markets were planned to be added in 1984. This was in spite of the company only being able to export the Ronda, with the Fura to follow.[39] The exponential growth in exports in the 70´s happened under the leadership of Juan Sánchez Cortés and the export director José María García-Courel. To date, the company has launched its own models in more than 70 countries worldwide in accordance with the development policies of the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group, with almost three-quarters of its annual production representing exports for the markets out of Spain. Its core market remains Europe, while the most successful market outside of Europe
Europe
in terms of sales for SEAT
SEAT
is currently Mexico, where the company has dealer presence in 27 Mexican states.[41] In Europe
Europe
the brand has been launched in almost 40 countries across Northern, Western, Southern, Eastern Europe
Europe
and Russia. SEAT
SEAT
today also sells its cars in 11 countries in Asia, mostly in the Middle East and the Arabian peninsula, in 16 countries in Americas
Americas
including North America, the Caribbean Sea, Central America
Central America
and South America, and finally Africa, mainly in North Africa. Some of its cars have been sold outside Europe, branded as Volkswagens, such as the SEAT
SEAT
Ibiza hatchback, known in South Africa
Africa
as the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Polo Playa, the SEAT Inca
SEAT Inca
panel van as the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Caddy, or the SEAT
SEAT
Córdoba, also known as the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Polo Classic. In the years to come SEAT
SEAT
plans expanding in even more markets, the most crucial of them all being China.[42] While in the past SEAT
SEAT
held talks with the Chinese car maker FAW in order to form an alliance for the local production of SEAT
SEAT
models in China-located plants, the present project to enter the Chinese market comprises in 2012 first to start selling its range with cars produced in SEAT's Spain-located Martorell
Martorell
plant, followed later in a second phase by the local assembly of SEAT
SEAT
models in China.[43] SEAT's further expansion plans in more markets outside of Europe
Europe
have yet to be realised. In the past the company was considering a possible launch in the United States
United States
although this move has never been carried out.[44] Rumours also of a SEAT
SEAT
model being sold as a Volkswagen
Volkswagen
in Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
to supplement the Volkswagen's brand lineup there have occasionally circulated, but have always been unsubstantiated, and ultimately proven to be false. In the past other market areas where the brand was also present for a short time were Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
(from 1995 to 1999) as well as South Africa
Africa
(from June 2006 to the end of 2008), however the brand was withdrawn from those markets due to Volkswagen's decision citing that current and expected circumstances made the ongoing importation of a niche brand non-viable.[45][46] SEAT
SEAT
has been present in the Russian Federation since 2007, In India all Volkswagen
Volkswagen
group brands are assembled or imported except SEAT. History[edit] Establishment of SEAT[edit] Spain
Spain
is the world's eighth largest producer of automobiles and its car market stands among the largest in Europe.[47][48] However, this has not always been the case; in the first half of the 20th century, Spain's economy was relatively underdeveloped compared to other western European countries and had a limited automobile market. In this period there was only limited car production and only a few low volume local manufacturers catering mainly to the luxury end of the market, of which Hispano-Suiza
Hispano-Suiza
was the most successful. Spain's limited market for mass-produced vehicles was taken over by foreign companies operating through subsidiaries that either imported cars or assembled cars from imported parts, depriving the country of the technological know-how and large investments needed for mass production. The situation greatly deteriorated with the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939. Car demand collapsed, not only due to the greatly reduced purchasing power of Spaniards caused by war devastation but also because the multinational subsidiaries either ceased operations or were severely stricken by the war and its aftermath.[49]

SEAT's first emblem.

The lack of interest shown by the foreign firms in the weakened post civil war Spanish market opened an opportunity for local interests.[50] SEAT
SEAT
dates its origins back to June 22, 1940 when the Spanish bank 'Banco Urquijo', with the support of a group of industrial companies, (Hispano-Suiza, Basconia, Duro-Felguera, S.E. de Construcción Naval, Euskalduna, S.E. de Construcciones Metálicas, Fundiciones Bolueta, Echevarría etc.) founded the 'Sociedad Ibérica de Automóviles de Turismo' (S.I.A.T.) with the goal of establishing Spain's own mass production car maker. The initial Banco Urquijo's project aimed at running the S.I.A.T. motor company as a fully private enterprise but soon after 1941 the interventionist state holding company Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI) following a decision taken by the Franco government on January 3, 1942.[51] The goal for the new national car brand was not to be only another licensee car maker assembling foreign designs and parts in Spain, but of developing the whole manufacturing process from design to assembly within Spain. Because of the country's lack of expertise in automotive mass-production development, it was decided to find a foreign partner who would contribute technically and with its own models in the early years in exchange for cash, shares, bonds and royalties. With the rest of Europe
Europe
having entered World War II, and Spain
Spain
itself in ruins from its civil war, the project was delayed but not abandoned due to its strategic importance.

José Ortiz-Echagüe
José Ortiz-Echagüe
Puertas, SEAT's first ever president, was in 1976 made honorary president for life.

SEAT
SEAT
under its current name was founded on May 9, 1950 under the denomination 'Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo, S.A.' (S.E.A.T.) by the Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI) with a starting capital of 600 million pesetas — equivalent today of almost 3.6 million Euros — in the form of 600 thousand shares of one thousand Pesetas each, and in a time when the country was in need of remodelling the fundamental structures in its national economy, just after the end of World War II. The birth of SEAT
SEAT
came almost a year and a half after the Spanish government and six Spanish banks ('Banco Urquijo', 'Banco Español de Crédito (Banesto)', 'Banco de Bilbao', 'Banco de Vizcaya', 'Banco Hispano-Americano' and 'Banco Central') had signed on October 26, 1948 an alliance contract with the Italian car manufacturer Fiat
Fiat
so as to form a partnership with a foreign ally in order to bring to life Spain's major car manufacturer.[52] The favoured bidders were Germany's Volkswagen
Volkswagen
and Italy's Fiat. Fiat's bid won for several reasons including Fiat's prominence in Spain
Spain
and the fact that the company established the short-lived ' Fiat
Fiat
Hispania' plant in Guadalajara, which was destroyed in the Spanish Civil War. Fiat's collaboration with the French company Simca
Simca
proved Fiat's ability to manage complex international projects. Fiat's experience in the semi-protected car market in Italy was seen as the most easily transferable to the one in Spain, both of which had, at the time, customers of low incomes and limited markets for cars, as well as similar road conditions. In Italy, Fiat
Fiat
dominated the market for vehicles under 12 horsepower, which would initially be the main market segment in Spain. The relative economic isolation of World War II damaged Italy and made Fiat
Fiat
interested in opportunities outside Italy, meaning that the negotiations with the Italian manufacturer could prosper more easily in favour of Spanish interests than with those from other countries. In 1947, the Banco Urquijo group had revived the S.I.A.T. project and in the next year the talks ended successfully with the signing of a three-part contract, with the understanding that the INI would hold a 51% controlling interest as well as a ruling act in the new company preserving a focused approach of the enterprise in the 'national interest'. The Banco Urquijo group, although a minority share holder, looked forward to assuming a leading role in the future as soon as the company was privatesed. Partner car maker Fiat
Fiat
was offered a 7% share in exchange of its technical assistance. This way SEAT
SEAT
not only would be able to reinitiate the country's economic recovery and as the largest employer in the 1960s and 1970s but would also contribute to the industrialisation of what was still a largely rural economy.

SEAT's Barcelona
Barcelona
Zona Franca site and laboratories.

Even though there were initial thoughts of locating in less developed inland cities like Valladolid
Valladolid
and Burgos, it was decided that the company's plant would be constructed in the duty-free zone area of the Port of Barcelona
Barcelona
( Barcelona
Barcelona
Zona Franca), which would offer better access to the Mediterranean shipping and the rest of Europe
Europe
through rail and road connections across the nearby French border. Barcelona was after all a city with an industrial history that had built up expertise in complex industrial enterprises since the latter part of the 19th century; it was also the host location of many early historical Spanish car makers, like Hispano-Suiza
Hispano-Suiza
and Elizalde, and subsidiaries of foreign car makers, like 'Ford Motor Ibérica' and ' General Motors
General Motors
Peninsular'. Being an enterprise of vital interest for the national economy as well as an investment opportunity for Fiat's expansion plans through the Iberian peninsula, SEAT
SEAT
benefitted from state tariff and tax exemptions and technical assistance from its foreign partner Fiat. The company’s first President was the industrial and aeronautical engineer, pilot and photographer José Ortiz-Echagüe Puertas, who came from the Spanish aircraft manufacturer Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA
Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA
where he had held the position of CEO, and who in 1976 was meant to be named the Honorary lifetime president of SEAT.[53][54][55] Partnership with Fiat[edit]

SEAT
SEAT
1400, the first model produced by SEAT
SEAT
in 1953.

The construction works for SEAT's Zona Franca plant began on 1950 and the opening day came three years later on June 5, 1953, while in the meantime since 1951 the Spanish marque was starting preparations for setting up almost from scratch an entire supplier industry background. The first car in the marque's history to be produced was a SEAT
SEAT
1400 model that came off the production line on November 13, 1953 with licence plate 'B-87.223'. In the following few months the plant's production output and workforce would significally increase together with the implementation of locally made components in the production process, in order to limit imports from one part and from another part to push to the development of the almost non-existent Spanish supplier industry and meet SEAT's assigned key role as the national car maker in restoring the Spanish economy of post– World War II
World War II
Spain. By 1954 the use of Spanish-made parts had risen to 93% of the total and next year on May 5, 1955 the factory was officially opened. Nevertheless, the impact to the Spanish society could not be seen clear immediately, since the first model launched by SEAT
SEAT
was considered a luxury car therefore it was highly priced and still not affordable to the average Spanish consumer. Consequently, SEAT
SEAT
needed a second more economical model to compete against simpler inexpensive designs that appeared in the local market, like the Biscúter, which seemed to suit better to the unwealthy customers looking for a personal mean of transport in a suffering economic environment.[56] Until the time SEAT
SEAT
had the technical maturity and expertise to present its first self-developed model the SEAT 1200 Sport
SEAT 1200 Sport
in 1975, in its beginnings the company had to manufacture either rebadged or restyled models borrowed from the range of its Italian partner Fiat Automobiles, or even redeveloped them according to the needs of its own range. However the first example of a SEAT
SEAT
exclusive derivative would arrive already on September 1963 with the launch of the SEAT 800, a car which was developed in-house by SEAT
SEAT
with no equivalent model in Fiat's range on the basis of the SEAT 600
SEAT 600
as a stretched version with 4-doors.

A monument in Spain
Spain
for the SEAT
SEAT
600, a symbol of the Spanish miracle.[57][58]

In 1957 SEAT
SEAT
founded the SEAT
SEAT
Training Centre in the greater Zona Franca plant area, an institution covering the training of qualified personnel and serving the needs of the automobile industry in specialized technical human resources.[59] In that same year was launched the historical SEAT
SEAT
600, which proved to be the crucial car that literally motorized Spain, being the first car for many Spanish families and becoming a symbol of the Spanish Miracle. As the growth of the annual production was hitting one record after another due to the heavy demand, the economies of scale achieved would permit cutting costs and prices, subsequently renew demand and boost sales together with profits for SEAT. On June 29, 1964, the brand opened its new headquarters in Madrid, which hosted the firm's sole — up to 1972 — general administration offices. In Barcelona
Barcelona
was found only SEAT's plant manager until 1973, a year when SEAT
SEAT
settled in Catalonia
Catalonia
another general direction.

SEAT 850
SEAT 850
Sport, launched in 1967, it was the first coupé model from SEAT.

In 1967, fourteen years after producing cars for the domestic market, SEAT's success was signaled by its dominant position in Spain, ahead of its major competitors, i.e. 'FASA-Renault', 'Citroën-Hispania', Authi
Authi
and Barreiros, making SEAT
SEAT
the Spain's largest auto-maker in sales numbers and a wholly localized production. In that year an agreement between Fiat
Fiat
and the Spanish Ministry of Industry was reached so as to put an end in the restrictions over exporting SEAT cars out of Spain, a term of the original licensee contract agreed with Fiat
Fiat
in 1948. In exchange for that, Fiat
Fiat
would increase its holding in the company from 7% to 36%, and at the same time the share held by the government holding agency would be reduced from a controlling 51% to 32%. The remaining 32% was taken by the six major Spanish banks, decreased from their previous 42% share split equally in 7% parts owned by every single one of them. Although not a majority owner, Fiat
Fiat
now was seen to control the business: the deal also included various undertakings by Fiat
Fiat
to help in the growth of SEAT, and with the development of a new model (possibly the SEAT
SEAT
133).[60] On December 6, 1967, SEAT
SEAT
also founded its own customer financing company 'Financiera SEAT, S.A.' (Fiseat). To be able to produce independently its own research projects, SEAT
SEAT
on November 16, 1970 came in accordance with Fiat
Fiat
so as to start building separate infrastructures aiming at developing new technologies. As the brand arranged in 1972 some provisional facilities in the site of the future Technical Center in Martorell
Martorell
and in 1973 began construction works, this goal would only take five years till 1975 to be reached with the completion of the first phase in the construction of SEAT's Technical Center, a facility designed by the Catalan architect Josep Antoni Coderch.[61] During the same period, the manufacturer continued to dominate the Spanish auto market, producing 282,698 cars — more than 58% of the Spanish production total — in 1971 despite disruption that year caused by strikes and a serious flood at the coastally sited Barcelona plant.[62] However, with just 81 cars per thousand people, Spanish car sales were seen as ripe for further growth, and SEAT
SEAT
faced the prospect of increased competition with other major manufacturers contemplating establishment or expansion of 'local' production facilities in the still heavily protected Spanish car market.[62] In 1973, SEAT
SEAT
and 'Citroën-Hispania' jointly contributed equal shares in founding the Vigo-located factory of 'Industrias Mecánicas de Galicia, SA' (Indugasa) producing constant-velocity joints, essential components used in front-wheel drive cars i.e. in a transmission layout the use of which was becoming more and more common at the time. This plant — which in the next years would supply parts not only to SEAT
SEAT
and 'Citroën-Hispania' but also to 'Ford España' — was meant to be transferred later in 1986 to the multinational company GKN.[63] On May 1975, after a request from the Spanish state authorities to ensure the rescue of the jobs for the workers in the Authi
Authi
owned factories, SEAT
SEAT
moved on talks with the parent company British Leyland Motor Corporation (BLMC) of the bankrupt Authi
Authi
in order to take over the brand's operations in Spain
Spain
leaving aside GM's interest in it, something which would otherwise open the path for the American automaker to enter the Spanish market thus jeopardizing the relationship with Fiat. The talks ended soon on July 1975, when an agreement was announced between the two parts under which SEAT
SEAT
would acquire from BLMC the Authi
Authi
brand along with its assets for 1,250 million pesetas. The imposed acquisition of the Landaben plant would also result in giving up SEAT's plans to build a new facility in Saragossa. Although the Authi
Authi
supplier factory in Manresa was transferred to a company called Cometsa for 150 million pesetas, the Landaben plant in Pamplona
Pamplona
remained under SEAT's ownership to continue production on February 1976 only of SEAT
SEAT
cars this time.[64][65] The 1970s were a decade of rising prosperity in Spain, which is reflected in the announcement in August 1976 that SEAT
SEAT
would commence local production of the Lancia Beta.[66] Three years later Beta production by SEAT
SEAT
indeed commenced at the company's recently acquired Pamplona
Pamplona
plant, though only the Coupe and HPE lift-back versions were included. The Spanish cars were fitted with a simplified suspension system and smaller engines than their Italian counterparts in order to qualify for a lower car tax rate. In 1977 SEAT's leasing company Liseat was founded and in 1979 the Gearbox del Prat facility was set up as a specialised plant in the production of gearboxes, gear mechanisms and differentials in El Prat del Llobregat near Barcelona. Dispute with Fiat[edit] In the early 1980s, extensive discussions concerning funding and control took place between SEAT's major shareholder, the Spanish government, and Fiat
Fiat
Automobiles; SEAT
SEAT
needed major capital investment, which Fiat
Fiat
was not prepared to contribute, partially due to the oil crisis of the 1970s and in also due to the uncertainty for Fiat's interests following the end of a protectionist policy against GM in Spain. The outcome, in 1982, was an end to the relationship with Fiat
Fiat
after nearly 30 years, a rather surprising decision in spite of the favourable perspectives for the Spanish economy with Spain
Spain
being in the anteroom of the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
since 1977.

SEAT
SEAT
Ronda

The end of the co-operation with the Italian firm was marked by a change in SEAT's logo in 1982, and the first car under the new SEAT logo without Fiat
Fiat
involvement appeared in the same year, the SEAT Ronda, styled by Rayton Fissore in collaboration with the Technical Centre in Martorell. The launch of this model though sparked a lawsuit from Fiat
Fiat
against SEAT, as the former claimed the car was too similar to a car in Fiat's range, the Ritmo. In defence of SEAT, the then president of SEAT, Juan Miguel Antoñanzas, showed a Ronda to the press with all the parts different from the Fiat
Fiat
Ritmo painted in bright yellow, to highlight the differences. The case was eventually taken to the Arbitration Chamber of Paris which in 1983 declared that differences between both cars were important enough so as not to consider the Ronda as a rebadged Ritmo, ending the dispute in favour of SEAT. Rumour at the time had it that Fiat
Fiat
was angry because the Ronda restyling was in fact too close to their own planned restyling for the Fiat
Fiat
Ritmo, which they had to scrap. Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
subsidiary[edit]

SEAT Ibiza
SEAT Ibiza
Mk1. Launched in 1984, it was the first model developed by SEAT
SEAT
as an independent company, together with Porsche
Porsche
and Karmann.

In 1982, Dr. Carl Horst Hahn — who had just assumed responsibility as the chairman of the Volkswagenwerk AG ( Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group) — examined the opportunity of approaching SEAT
SEAT
after Fiat's withdrawal, in his plan to expand the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group's operations out of Germany and turning the German group into a global force. It would also follow the precedent set by other global manufacturers (such as Ford in Valencia
Valencia
and General Motors
General Motors
in Zaragoza) in setting up manufacturing operations in Spain. However, the Spanish authorities had already started talks with other foreign firms such as Toyota,[67] Nissan
Nissan
and Mitsubishi[68] in order to choose a strong partner for SEAT. But it was Hahn's interest that would soon result in an industrial and commercial cooperation as well as a license agreement with SEAT
SEAT
on September 30, 1982 for the production in Spain
Spain
of the Volkswagen Passat-Santana and Polo-Derby models in SEAT's Zona Franca and Landaben factories respectively[69] — having thus as an effect on April 29, 1983 the ending of the SEAT
SEAT
Panda's production at the Landaben assembly lines due to need of adapting this plant to the production of the VW Polo
VW Polo
— and eventually a partnership agreement was signed on June 16, 1983 between the two parts being represented by the president of SEAT
SEAT
Juan Miguel Antoñanzas and Carl Hahn
Carl Hahn
on behalf of the Volkswagenwerk AG.[70] SEAT
SEAT
also gained the rights to distribute Volkswagens in Spain.[39] SEAT
SEAT
launched its new Ibiza, a Giugiaro styled hatchback which made use of System Porsche
Porsche
engines and also featured underpinnings from the Fiat
Fiat
Ritmo/Strada, in 1984. It also formed the basis of the Malaga, a four-door family saloon. SEAT
SEAT
then began to expand into markets beyond Spain's borders, including the United Kingdom, where it began selling cars in the autumn of 1985. On June 18, 1986, after a purchase of the 51% majority stake of SEAT followed by the increase of its share up to 75% on December 23, the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
became the major shareholder of SEAT. On December 18, 1990 the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
acquired 99.99% ownership of the company, thus making SEAT
SEAT
the first non-German wholly owned subsidiary of the Group. Fulfilling Hahn's expectations, SEAT
SEAT
not only made a profit two years after Volkswagen
Volkswagen
bought a majority of its stock, but also provided a low-cost manufacturing outlet for other VW group models, contributing up to 15.2% of the VW group's total output in 1989 — as well as an opportunity to enter the relatively unexploited (at that time) Spanish market under the SEAT, VW and Audi
Audi
names. The gathering of the brand's main infrastructures in the greater Martorell
Martorell
plant area has taken place in a long process beginning back in 1975 with the opening of the SEAT
SEAT
Technical centre[71] but it was only in 1989 when a decision was taken to start building a new main assembly facility next to the Technical Centre in Martorell
Martorell
replacing the old one in Zona Franca. In that same year began the translocation of SEAT's Madrid
Madrid
administration offices to Barcelona
Barcelona
with the sale of two of the brand's assets in La Castellana to be completed in 1991 with the definitive installation of SEAT's headquarters in the Catalonia
Catalonia
region.

SEAT Toledo
SEAT Toledo
Mk1, launched in 1991, was the first model fully developed under Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group's ownership.

The centralisation of the management, design, research and production facilities localized around the plant site was meant to serve the aim of optimising the development in the process of making new models. On February 22, 1993 King Juan Carlos of Spain
Spain
and the newly elected since January 1, 1993 Chairman
Chairman
of the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
Dr. Ferdinand Piëch inaugurated the Martorell
Martorell
plant, one of the most modern and efficient car plants in Europe
Europe
using the 'Just in time' process with its suppliers’ site located only 2.5 km away. The first cars that rolled out of the Martorell
Martorell
plant production lines were the SEAT Ibiza Mk2 and its saloon version, the SEAT Córdoba
SEAT Córdoba
Mk1. The new Ibiza was a huge success for SEAT, greatly expanding its market share particularly on export markets. The original planning in October 1993 to close the emblematic Zona Franca assembly plant as soon as the production of vehicles would be transferred to the more efficient Martorell
Martorell
plant was overturned after an arrangement between the Spanish authorities and the Volkswagen Group, according to which the Zona Franca site would continue its operations but would be gradually turned into a site with an auxiliary role in the production process (foundry, press-shop etc.). Meanwhile, on December 23, 1993, the 'Fábrica Navarra de Automóviles, S.A.' was founded as a new company to hold the management of the Landaben factory separating any ties to SEAT
SEAT
in production matters, with its shares being transferred to Volkswagen
Volkswagen
on June 1994 over which however SEAT
SEAT
would regain ownership four years later in 1998. In 1994 the Design Center in Sitges[72] — the Spanish coastal town south of Barcelona
Barcelona
— and the suppliers' park in Zona Franca were also inaugurated, and in winter of the same year SEAT's financing and leasing companies — Fiseat and Liseat — were sold to 'Volkswagen Financial Services AG'. During 1994, SEAT
SEAT
in collaboration with Suzuki manufactured a 5-door prototype model of a city car, internally named as Rosé, aiming to replace with it the Marbella in its range, nevertheless this model never made it through to production.[73][74]

SEAT Córdoba
SEAT Córdoba
SX, the coupé version of the Córdoba Mk1 saloon.

The first time a SEAT
SEAT
model was manufactured out of Spain
Spain
was in 1996, with the production of the SEAT Alhambra
SEAT Alhambra
Mk1 in the Palmela
Palmela
AutoEuropa plant in Portugal. Also on January 1997 it was the first time when a non-Spanish descendant, the Belgian Pierre-Alain de Smedt, was ever appointed SEAT's chairman. The SEAT
SEAT
Arosa, a three-door city hatchback, was launched in 1997, effectively replacing the Marbella, SEAT's version of the Fiat
Fiat
Panda which had been in production since the early 1980s. On April 7, 1998 the Zona Franca plant marked the end in the production life cycle of the Marbella model, signalising an historical moment for SEAT
SEAT
with the end of vehicle production in SEAT's oldest factory opened in 1953; ever since the Zona Franca plant produces components and parts to be assembled in other locations. It also signaled the demise of SEAT's last Fiat-based model. In March 1999 at the Geneva Motor Show, SEAT
SEAT
presented a modern stylised logo, more rounded compared to the last one and with the use of the silver colour on a red background — instead of the previous blue — symbolising respectively the rational and the emotional. This came shortly after the launch of the second generation Toledo, and shortly before the launch of the Toledo-based Leon hatchback. The 'auto emoción' slogan was presented next year in September 2000 reflecting the brand's new youthful and sporty corporate identity, while SEAT Sport
SEAT Sport
apart from its motorsport activities would undertake the responsibility of developing SEAT's high-performance vehicles. Next year on July 1, 2000 Dr. Bernd Peter Pischetsrieder, the former Chief Executive Officer
Chief Executive Officer
of BMW, was appointed to head SEAT. In the spring of 2002 as Pischetsrieder was commissioned to chair the entire Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group, he gave way to his German compatriot Andreas Schleef on March 7, 2002.

SEAT León
SEAT León
Mk1 Cupra R

From 2002 up to 2007 SEAT
SEAT
formed part of the Audi
Audi
Brand
Brand
Group, the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group's automotive sub-division, consisted of Audi, SEAT and Lamborghini, that was focused on more sporty values, with the marque's product vehicles and performance being under the higher responsibility of the Audi
Audi
brand.[75][76] In 2006 the new SEAT
SEAT
corporate head office was opened in Martorell
Martorell
and the Martorell
Martorell
SEAT
SEAT
Design Centre superseded the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group Design Centre Europe
Europe
at Sitges[77] — which previously hosted the design facility jointly owned by SEAT, Volkswagen
Volkswagen
and Audi[78] — as on February 23 of the same year an agreement over the transfer of the installations of the latter to the City of Sitges
Sitges
was closed, with the Martorell's Design Centre official opening on the other hand eventually taking place on December 30, 2007. On January 12, 2007, there was the inauguration of the building of the SEAT
SEAT
Service Centre next to the southern entrance of the Martorell factory, the department focusing on technical support, after-sales and marketing purposes and also covering the feedback and the relationship of the brand with the customers and its worldwide network. On January 2007 began also operation the SEAT
SEAT
Prototypes Centre of Development located in the heart of the Martorell
Martorell
industrial complex, a facility inaugurated on July 16 of the same year, bringing together activities related to the virtual and physical preproduction process of new models (like prototyping, modeling, pilot product development and series analysis) thus shortening development times for prototypes and pre-production vehicles as well as saving costs with the use of modern technologies like virtual simulation.[79] Motorsport[edit] Main article: SEAT
SEAT
Sport

The SEAT 1430
SEAT 1430
in competition.

SEAT's involvement in motorsport begins back in the 1970s with the brand's contribution to the national formula races in Spain
Spain
and by the end of the same decade the start of its implication to rallies.[80] In 1971, the ' Special
Special
Vehicles department' was formed with the mission to enforce the brand's participation in rally championships, followed by 11 titles between 1979 and 1983.[80] The year 1985 was the moment when SEAT Sport
SEAT Sport
was founded as a separate motorsport division and especially since the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
takeover in 1986, SEAT
SEAT
has been increasing even more its presence in the motorsport world, mainly down to VW's plan on focusing the SEAT
SEAT
brand as 'sporty' in order to appeal particularly to the younger generation of drivers.[81] The result of this effort has been rewarded through SEAT's most prestigious titles in FIA
FIA
championships, three conquests with the SEAT Ibiza
SEAT Ibiza
Kit-Car in the FIA
FIA
2L World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
(WRC) (1996, 1997, 1998) and two times with the SEAT León
SEAT León
in the FIA
FIA
World Touring Car Championship (WTCC) (2008, 2009).[81] Rallying[edit] SEAT's first serious attempt at a World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
(WRC) was back in the 1977 season when SEAT
SEAT
took part with its ' SEAT
SEAT
1430/124D Especial 1800' race car, and already in its debut rallying event at the Montecarlo Rally the SEAT
SEAT
team finished in the third and fourth place with the official 1430-1800 cars being driven by Antonio Zanini and Salvador Cañellas. In the recent years the consignment was burdened on the small SEAT
SEAT
Ibiza, a 1.6L normally aspirated front-wheel drive car with its roots in the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Polo. The Ibiza allowed the company to further evolve its rallying experience, and was officially engaged in some European national championships. The years went by until a 2L version of the Ibiza was homologated as a kit-car, and extra wide tracks, larger wheels, brakes, etc., were fitted to it as the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile
Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile
(FIA) kit-car regulations allow. With these attributes, the car succeeded three times the 2L World Champion ('96, '97, '98), proving its maker had accumulated enough experience, and budgets, to take a chance at the reign category, the World Rally Car
World Rally Car
class of rallying cars.

Daniel Solà
Daniel Solà
with the SEAT Córdoba
SEAT Córdoba
WRC at the Rallye de tierra de Cangas del Narcea.

SEATs three conquests of the FIA
FIA
2L WRC title, and the sport's popularity in Spain, probably convinced Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
management to go further and allow the SEAT Sport
SEAT Sport
department a chance to reach its goal in the top class WRC category. This situation came to an end in September 2000, when the company's German upper management revoked its decision forcing SEAT Sport
SEAT Sport
to retire from the World Rally Championship. SEATs project to build a WRC-spec car was officially announced during the 1997 San Remo rally. It was in 1998 that the first evolution of the ' SEAT Córdoba
SEAT Córdoba
WRC' car was presented at the Porto Motor Show and then first enrolled by the company to compete at the highest level of WRC racing. The Córdoba was based on the family saloon of the same name but was, naturally, a WRC class car equipped with an inline-four turbocharged petrol engine, permanent four-wheel drive, and active differentials involved in its transmission. The 'Córdoba WRC' made its debut at the 1998 Rally of Finland, while a further development on the race car was incarnated on the ' SEAT Córdoba
SEAT Córdoba
WRC E2' car which was presented at the Barcelona
Barcelona
Motor Show in 1999. However, the short wheelbase and high-mounted engine (compared to its rivals) worked against the Córdoba, and results weren't top competing. Despite hiring ex-WRC champion Didier Auriol, and a new evolution of the car i.e. the ' SEAT Córdoba
SEAT Córdoba
WRC E3', SEAT
SEAT
pulled out of international rallying at the end of 2000. Touring cars[edit]

Yvan Muller
Yvan Muller
with the SEAT León
SEAT León
TDI in Japan.

In 2002, SEAT
SEAT
announced a one-make championship for the new SEAT
SEAT
León Cupra R, the SEAT León
SEAT León
Supercopa. In 2004, SEAT
SEAT
with Ray Mallock Ltd.
Ray Mallock Ltd.
(RML) entered the British Touring Car Championship, running two SEAT Toledo
SEAT Toledo
Cupra for former-BTCC Champion Jason Plato, and 2003 León UK Champion, Rob Huff. In 2005, Huff left to join Chevrolet
Chevrolet
(run by RML in the World Touring Car Championship (WTCC)), and he was replaced by 2004 Leon Champion James Pickford, and Luke Hines as SEAT
SEAT
expanded to three cars, now run by Northern South. 2006 saw the Toledo replaced by the new León, and Darren Turner
Darren Turner
joined the team with James Thompson when his WTCC commitments allowed. 2007 was SEAT's best year in BTCC, as Plato was locked in a season-long battle with Fabrizio Giovanardi, which came down to the final race of the season, but just missed out on the title. Since 2005, SEAT
SEAT
has also competed in the World Touring Car Championship, with its first best season being 2007, where a failed water pump robbed Yvan Muller
Yvan Muller
of certain victory at the final meeting in Macau. SEAT
SEAT
became the first team to run a TDI in the WTCC and this gave them a dominant 2008 World Touring Car Championship
World Touring Car Championship
season, with Yvan Muller
Yvan Muller
winning the drivers championship. French racing team Oreca cooperates with the WTCC team. SEAT's UK team followed suit in the 2008 BTCC. The BTCC team was sponsored by Holiday Inn. In 2007, SEAT
SEAT
– with the León Mk2 TDI at the Motorsport Arena Oschersleben in Germany – became the first manufacturer to win a round of the World Touring Car Championship
World Touring Car Championship
(WTCC) series in a diesel car, only a month after announcing it will enter the FIA
FIA
World Touring Car Championship with the León TDI. SEAT's success with the León TDI was continued, and resulted in winning consecutively 2008 World Touring Car Championship and 2009 World Touring Car Championship
World Touring Car Championship
both titles (for drivers' as well as for manufacturers'). In September 2008, SEAT
SEAT
UK announced that it was to withdraw from all motor sport activity in the UK at the end of the season. The SEAT Cupra Championship and the SEAT
SEAT
BTCC campaign are to end at Brands Hatch on 21 September. BTCC drivers Jason Plato
Jason Plato
and Darren Turner
Darren Turner
have been left without drives for 2009. But Plato will drive for Silverline Chevrolet. At the opening of the 2009 WTCC, SEAT
SEAT
placed 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th in both races in Brazil.[82] At the second meeting of the WTCC (in Mexico), the SEAT
SEAT
team placed 1st, 4th, 6th, 7th and 11th in the first race. The second race they placed 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 8th.[83] While SEAT
SEAT
may have withdrawn from the BTCC, they are showing impressive results in the WTCC.

The SEAT Cupra GT
SEAT Cupra GT
in the Spanish GT championship for the SunRED racing team.

Grand tourer
Grand tourer
cars[edit] In 2003 the SEAT Sport
SEAT Sport
division presented at the Barcelona
Barcelona
Motor Show first as a concept car and later the final version of the SEAT
SEAT
Cupra GT race car, which was produced in limited series on customer demand addressed to expertised individuals and racing teams willing to take part in race events. The Cupra GT was chosen as a GT race car from racing teams, like the Sunred Engineering
Sunred Engineering
(SunRED) team, making its debut in 2004 in the Spanish GT Championship,[84] and took part in several Grand tourer circuits not only in Spain
Spain
but also run in tracks abroad like those of Monza and Magny-Cours.[85] Formula[edit] In 1970 SEAT
SEAT
set up the 'Fórmula Nacional' series in Spain,[86][87] a year later to be known as Formula 1430. The single seater formula cars, which took part driven by young Spanish drivers, were equipped under support from SEAT
SEAT
with engines of the 1430 model and 6700 gearboxes. The first race of the 'Fórmula Nacional' series took place at the Jarama circuit in Madrid.[88][89] Current model range[edit]

Mii Ibiza Toledo León Arona Ateca Tarraco Alhambra

City car Supermini Small family car Small family car B-Segment Crossover C-Segment Crossover D-Segment Crossover Large MPV

3DR (Hatchback) 5DR (Hatchback)

5DR (Hatchback)

5DR (Liftback)

SC (Sports Coupé) (Hatchback) 5DR (Hatchback) ST (Sports Tourer) (Estate/Wagon)

Crossover

Crossover

Crossover

MPV

FR models[edit]

Ibiza FR León FR

Supermini Small family car

SC (Sports Coupé) (Hatchback) 5DR (Hatchback)

SC (Sports Coupé) (Hatchback) 5DR (Hatchback) ST (Sports Tourer) (Estate/Wagon)

Cupra models[edit]

Ibiza Cupra León Cupra

Supermini Small family car

SC (Sports Coupé) (Hatchback)

SC (Sports Coupé) (Hatchback) 5DR (Hatchback) ST (Sports Tourer) (Estate/Wagon)

Nomenclature[edit] SEAT's corporate tradition, as a Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
subsidiary, dictates that the nomenclature of its model range be inspired by Spanish culture. Thus, a large number of SEAT's production models have been named after places in Spain
Spain
(e.g. Arosa, Ibiza, Córdoba, León, Toledo, Altea, Alhambra, Málaga, Marbella, Ronda etc.).[90] However, there have been several exceptions: for example, the name for the SEAT Exeo — added to the brand's range in 2008 — was influenced from the Latin word ‘exire’ which means 'to go beyond'.[91] Following the marque's naming trend with production models, many of SEAT's concept cars adopted names inspired by either Hispanic dances (e.g. Tango, Bolero, Salsa), abbreviations related to existing production models (e.g. IBZ for Ibiza, IBE for 'Ibiza Eléctrico',[92] TL for Toledo etc.), or even names reminiscent of SEAT's historic sporting roots (e.g. Fórmula, Cupra GT). Moreover, in recent years, special versions of the production models' specific ranges have been added, such as the SC or SportCoupé edition,[93]) or ST (for SportTourer[94]) differentiating the 3-door and the estate versions from the standard 4/5-door ones, while the Cupra, or Cup Racing edition[95]) and FR (for Fórmula Racing[96]) has been used for the high-performance models in the range, signalising SEAT's positioning as a sport-oriented brand[88] involved in racing. Historic references can be found with the iconic 'Bocanegra' name, meaning 'black mouth' in Spanish, which accompanies the Ibiza model and has its origins in the SEAT
SEAT
1200 Sport, the original 'SEAT Bocanegra' due to its black painted fascia in the front.[97] Sub-ranges[edit]

'Ecomotive' range

Almost every model in SEAT's range has an 'Ecomotive' derivative version, which in comparison to the standard version has a more eco-friendly tuning.[98] Reduction of weight, low-resistance tyres, new aerodynamics, tweaks in the suspension,[99] as well as changes made to the engine's electronic management software with an additional implementation of a maintenance-free[100] Diesel Particle Filter (DPF) for the diesel engines, also updates in the gearbox and the gear ratios with a gearshift indicator in the dash panel reminding when it is the proper time to change gears, combined with an engine 'Start/Stop system' and an 'Energy Recuperation system' are some of the modifications adopted in the Ecomotive
Ecomotive
range in order to cut down both fuel consumption and emissions.[101] The result is a range with some of the cleanest models[102] featuring an improvement not only in gas and particles emissions but also in fuel economy, without big compromise in the vehicle's dynamic performance or practicality; for example the SEAT Ibiza
SEAT Ibiza
Ecomotive
Ecomotive
1.4 TDI has CO2 emissions coming up at 98 g/km[103] and still it comes even faster from 0 to 100 km/h than the standard version[104] featuring a 5-door body and air-conditioning, while the SEAT León
SEAT León
Ecomotive's CO2 emissions are among the lowest in its segment too and raise up to 99 g/km.[105] Up to the present, the Ecomotive
Ecomotive
range has been renowned in many occasions. In 2008, the Ibiza Ecomotive
Ecomotive
has been declared on top of the Verkehrs-Club Deutschland’s 2008/2009 list in the “environmentally beneficial vehicle” category[106] and in the 10th Eco Tour not only it has won in the small diesel class but also proved to be the overall winner of all categories.[107] In that specific year the SEAT Ibiza
SEAT Ibiza
Ecomotive
Ecomotive
was also awarded with the 'Ecobest 2008' award[108] by the Autobest organisation and the German newspaper Bild am Sonntag named it the 'most economic car of its class in the world'.[109] The year 2009 has been the one when once more the Ibiza Ecomotive
Ecomotive
was nominated for the 'Green Steering wheel' award in Switzerland,[110] and has set two consecutive times a new world record on fuel saving with a single tank, certified by the IPMC (International Police Motor Corporation) : the first when the Austrian Gerhard Plattner drove from Martorell
Martorell
(Spain) to Göttingen (Germany) with an average fuel consumption of 2.9 l/100 km[111] and the second time in his route from Cieszyn (Poland) to Frankfurt (Germany) having achieved the world record in fuel consumption of 2.34 l/100 km (or 100 mpg U.S.[112]) covering a distance of 1,910 km on a single tank.[113]

'MultiFuel' range

The MultiFuel range consists in the introduction of the flexible-fuel vehicle bio-ethanol technology in selected SEAT
SEAT
models — i.e., the SEAT León
SEAT León
MultiFuel,[114] the SEAT Altea
SEAT Altea
MultiFuel[115] and the SEAT Altea XL MultiFuel[116] — with the implementation of the 1.6 MPI MultiFuel E85 motor, capable of producing exactly the same horsepower (102 bhp) just like the relevant pure petrol version of the engine. Sales and production figures[edit] Since its beginnings in 1953, more than 16 million SEAT
SEAT
cars have been produced with the most successful product in the range being the SEAT Ibiza, a model which has sold over 4 million units in its four generations up to the present.[117] In the year 2009, the total annual retail sales number of SEAT
SEAT
cars was 336,683 vehicles,[118] while the annual production of vehicles under the SEAT
SEAT
brand came up to 307,502 units (301,287 made in SEAT's Martorell
Martorell
plant and 6,215 in other Volkswagen
Volkswagen
group's factories). The total production per year of SEAT
SEAT
cars, manufactured in SEAT
SEAT
and other Volkswagen
Volkswagen
group's plants, is shown in the following table (not comprising cars of other Volkswagen
Volkswagen
group's brands, produced in SEAT-owned facilities) :

Model 1998 1999[119] 2000[119] 2001[120] 2002[121] 2003[122] 2004[123] 2005[124] 2006[125] 2007[126] 2008[127] 2009[128] 2010[129] 2011[130]

SEAT
SEAT
Marbella 2,337 — — — — — — — — — — — — —

SEAT
SEAT
Arosa 38,338 46,410 28,403 22,980 19,627 13,814 9,368 — — — — — — —

SEAT
SEAT
Mii — — — — — — — — — — — — — 990

SEAT
SEAT
Ibiza[nb 1] 180,775 194,245 199,279 188,427 197,311 220,497 183,754 168,645 183,848 172,206 192,470 173,715 189,083 191,183

SEAT
SEAT
Inca 17,226 19,221 16,328 15,207 11,802 7,982 — — — — — — — —

SEAT Inca
SEAT Inca
Kombi 7,708 8,573 5,534 5,316 3,879 2,150 — — — — — — — —

SEAT
SEAT
Córdoba[nb 2] 108,749 111,894 97,685 78,770 58,646 59,348 46,821 37,568 31,058 29,747 20,439 4,861 — —

SEAT
SEAT
León — 6,080 93,123 91,939 93,606 96,536 90,850 98,130 126,511 120,630 96,761 66,368 79,462 80,736

SEAT
SEAT
Altea[nb 3] — — — — — — 67,125 65,174 58,288 71,377 54,770 32,791 43,351 42,329

SEAT
SEAT
Toledo 42,325 105,818 59,480 47,645 39,503 36,026 38,962 20,600 8,613 4,744 5,484 571 — —

SEAT
SEAT
Exeo[nb 4] — — — — — — — — — — 369 22,981 23,108 19,559

SEAT
SEAT
Alhambra 21,300 27,440 23,924 26,524 26,308 23,693 21,580 14,902 14,352 14,242 10,282 6,215 10,023 18,139

Total 418,758 519,681 523,756 476,808 450,682 460,046 458,460 405,019 422,670 412,946 380,575 307,502 349,000 353,936

Rebadges[edit] Under Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group's ownership, numerous SEAT
SEAT
models have been rebadged under other brands, either inside the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group's portfolio or out of it. In particular some examples, concerning the rebadges deriving from SEAT
SEAT
models and being carried out under other Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group's brands, are the SEAT Ibiza
SEAT Ibiza
Mk2 which has been rebadged under the VW brand as the VW Polo
VW Polo
Playa, the SEAT Córdoba
SEAT Córdoba
Mk1 rebadged as the VW Polo Classic — FAW-VW City-Golf — VW Derby, the SEAT Arosa
SEAT Arosa
as the VW Lupo, and the SEAT Inca
SEAT Inca
as the VW Caddy. Further rebadges have come under non Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
brand ranges and some notable examples are the SEAT Ibiza
SEAT Ibiza
Mk1 which has been rebadged as the Nanjing Yuejin Eagle NJ6400-Unique NJ6400-Soyat NJ7150-Soyat Unique NJ1020, and the SEAT Toledo
SEAT Toledo
Mk1 as the Chery A11-Fulwin-Fengyun-Windcloud — Chery A15-A168-Amulet-Cowin-Qiyun-Flagcloud — Vortex Corda . On the other hand, several SEAT
SEAT
models have derived as rebadges coming from other Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group's brands such as the SEAT Alhambra
SEAT Alhambra
Mk1 and Mk2 respectively from the VW Sharan
VW Sharan
Mk1 and Mk2 (the first generation resulting after a joint venture of the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
together with Ford) and the SEAT Exeo
SEAT Exeo
from the Audi
Audi
A4 B7. Tuning companies[edit] Several tuning companies have produced modified or high-performance versions of various SEAT
SEAT
models, some significant examples among those being Abt Sportsline, Je Design, MTM (Motoren Technik Mayer), Abarth, Emelba, Annibal etc. Earlier and current models[edit]

SEAT
SEAT
1200 Sport, 'Bocanegra', the first car to be wholly developed in SEAT's Martorell
Martorell
Technical centre.

SEAT 850
SEAT 850
Spyder, a cabriolet in SEAT's range.

SEAT
SEAT
132, the last SEAT
SEAT
rear wheel drive mid-size car, powered with Fiat
Fiat
and Mercedes Benz
Mercedes Benz
diesel engines.

1400 A / 1400 B / 1400 C (1953–1963) 600 N / 600 D / 600 E / 600 L (1957–1973) 1500 / 1500 Familiar (1963–1972) 800 (1963–1968) 850 (2/4-doors) (1966–1974) 850 Coupé
Coupé
(1967–1972) 850 Spyder (1970–1972) 850 Sport Coupé
Coupé
(1967) 124 / 124 Familiar (1968–1980) 1430 (1969–1975) 124 Sport (1970–1975) 127 (1972–1982) 132 (1973–1982) 133 (1974–1981) 131 / 131 Familiar (1975–1983) 1200 Sport (1975–1981) 128 (1976–1980) Ritmo (1979–1983) Panda (1980–1986) Ronda (1982–1986) Trans (1982–1986) Fura (3/5-doors) (1982–1986) Ibiza Mk1 (3/5-doors) (1984–1993) Málaga (1985–1992) Terra / Terra box (1987–1996) Marbella / Marbella box (1986–1998) Toledo Mk1 (1991–1998) Ibiza Mk2 (3/5-doors) (1993–2002) Córdoba / Córdoba SX / Córdoba Vario Mk1 (1993–2002) Inca Kombi / Inca Van
Van
(1995–2003) Alhambra Mk1 (1996–2010) Arosa (1997–2004) Toledo Mk2 (1998–2004) León Mk1 (1999–2005) Ibiza Mk3 (3/5-doors) (2002–2008) Córdoba Mk2 (2002–2009) Toledo Mk3 (2004–2009) Altea (2004–present) León Mk2 (2005–2012) Ibiza Mk4 (SC/5-doors/ST) (2008–present) Exeo (2008–2013) Alhambra Mk3 (2010–present) Mii (2011–present) Toledo Mk4 (2012–present) León Mk3 (2013–present)

Concept models[edit]

SEAT
SEAT
Tribu, SEAT's crossover SUV
SUV
concept car.

SEAT IBE
SEAT IBE
concept, SEAT's first all-electric concept car.

SEAT
SEAT
Tango, SEAT's roadster concept car.

SEAT
SEAT
IBL at the 2011 Frankfurt International Motor Show

1400 A Descapotable 600 prototype (Geneva, 1955) 750 Sport (Barcelona, 1957) 600 Multiple (Barcelona, 1959) Ibiza Mk1 cabrio Proto TLD (Turin, 1988) Proto T (Frankfurt, 1989) Proto C (Paris, 1990) Proto TL (Geneva, 1990) Marbella Playa (Frankfurt, 1991) Toledo Mk1 exclusive (Geneva,1992) Toledo Mk1 electric (1992) Concepto T Coupé
Coupé
(Paris, 1992) Concepto T Cabrio (Barcelona, 1993) Ibiza Mk2 electric (1993) Córdoba Mk2 cabrio Rosé (1994) Inca electric (Hanover, 1995) Alhambra prototype (Geneva, 1995) Bolero (Geneva, 1998) Toledo Cupra concept (1999) Fórmula (Geneva, 1999) Salsa (Geneva, 2000) Salsa Emoción (Paris, 2000) León Cupra R concept (Barcelona, 2001) Tango roadster/Tango spyder/Tango coupé/Tango Racer (Frankfurt, 2001) Arosa City cruiser (Frankfurt, 2001) Arosa Racer (Frankfurt, 2001) Altea Prototipo (Frankfurt, 2003) Cupra GT (Barcelona, 2003) Toledo Prototipo (Madrid, 2004) León Prototipo (Geneva, 2005) Altea FR Prototipo (Frankfurt, 2005) Altea 2 litre 170 hp TDI prototype (2005) Ibiza Vaillante concept (Geneva, 2006) León Pies Descalzos (Berlin, 2007) Altea Freetrack Prototipo (Geneva, 2007) Tribu concept (Frankfurt, 2007) Bocanegra (Geneva, 2008) León Ecomotive
Ecomotive
concept (Geneva, 2009) León Twin drive (Martorell, 2009) IBZ concept (Frankfurt, 2009) IBE concept I (Geneva, 2010) IBE concept II (Paris, 2010) IBX concept (Geneva, 2011) IBL concept (Frankfurt, 2011) Altea Electric XL Ecomotive
Ecomotive
(2011) Toledo concept (Geneva, 2012) SEAT Mii
SEAT Mii
FR Line (Wörthersee, 2012) and (París, 2012) SEAT Ibiza
SEAT Ibiza
FR Dashboard (Wörthersee, 2012) SEAT
SEAT
e-Mii (Barcelona, 2013) SEAT León
SEAT León
verde plug-in (Martorell, 2013) SEAT Ibiza
SEAT Ibiza
Cupster (Wörthersee, 2014) SEAT
SEAT
20v20 concept (Geneva, 2015)

Future models[edit] According to the president of SEAT, James Muir, in an interview with the Spanish daily newspaper El Mundo in October 2010,[131][132] SEAT
SEAT
scheduling comprises the following future models in the near future:[133]

SEAT Exeo
SEAT Exeo
Mk2 or its replacement based on IBL could be named BoLero

There is still thinking of a compact MPV car successor to the Altea, and a SUV
SUV
model on the basis of the SEAT
SEAT
IBX concept car.[134] There will be a new SUV
SUV
model, in addition to the Ateca, released during 2018, with SEAT
SEAT
giving the public the opportunity to come up with a suitable name for it on social media by using the hashtag #SEATSeekingName.[135] Company profile[edit] Logo history[edit]

SEAT
SEAT
logos

From To Logo

1953 1962

1962 1968

1968 1970

1970 1982

1982 1990

1990 1999

1999 2012

2012 2017

2017 Present

Leadership[edit] Today as a Volkswagen
Volkswagen
group's subsidiary, SEAT's leading people are appointed after approval from the group's supervisory board.

Volkswagen
Volkswagen
group's distribution centre in Germany.

SEAT, S.A. leaders

From To Person(s)

1950 May 1967 José Ortiz-Echagüe
José Ortiz-Echagüe
Puertas

May 1967 February 1977 Juan Sánchez Cortés

February 1977 December 1983 Juan Miguel Antoñanzas Pérez-Egea

January 1984 September 1993 Juan Antonio Díaz Álvarez

October 1993 October 1993 Peter Walzer

November 1993 December 1996 Juan Llorens Carrió

January 1997 June 1999 Pierre-Alain de Smedt

June 18, 1999 June 30, 2000 Bruno Adelt

July 1, 2000 March 6, 2002 Bernd Pischetsrieder

March 7, 2002 September 30, 2006 Andreas Schleef

October 1, 2006 31 August 2009 Erich Schmitt

1 September 2009 1 May 2013 James Muir

1 May 2013 29 September 2015 Juergen Stackmann

Economic figures[edit]

SEAT, S.A. financial results[118]

Year After-tax result (in millions of euros)

1996 +32.088

1997 +66.418

1998 +147.020

1999 +85.403

2000 +87.348

2001 +233.121

2002 +202.965

2003 +134.494

2004 +144.957

2005 -62.513

2006 -49.088

2007[136] +169.703

2008[137] +44.400

2009[138] -186.500

2010[139] -103.900

2011[140] -61.000

Environmental policy[edit]

Electric and hybrid technology development

Since the early 1990s, SEAT
SEAT
has developed and presented several prototypes with either full electric or hybrid powertrain, including the SEAT Toledo
SEAT Toledo
Mk1 electric model (1992), the SEAT Ibiza
SEAT Ibiza
Mk2 electric car (1993), the SEAT Inca
SEAT Inca
electric van (1995), the SEAT León
SEAT León
Mk2 Twin drive (2009), the SEAT IBE
SEAT IBE
concept (2010) and the SEAT
SEAT
IBX concept SUV (2011) hybrid cars.[141]

SEAT
SEAT
al Sol’ project

The ‘ SEAT
SEAT
al Sol’ project consists in the integration of use of solar power through a system of photovoltaic panels generating electricity in SEAT's factory in Martorell. The project is going to be carried through in collaboration with GA-Solar from the beginnings of 2010, covering a factory area of 320,000 m2 with a system of more than 10 MW of photovoltaic panels. This installation is expected to produce more than 13 million kwh of electricity annually, aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions by over 6,200 tonnes of CO2 per year.[142][143]

‘Cenit verde’ project

The Cenit VERDE initiative is a research project backed by the CENIT (the National Strategic Consortia for Technical Research) programme and supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, in which SEAT
SEAT
plays a key role. Aiming at developing technologies, components and infrastructure for hybrid and electrically powered cars in Spain, this programme brings together 16 technology companies (including Siemens, Endesa, Iberdrola, REE, Cegasa, Ficosa, Circuitor, Cobra or Lear) and 16 universities and research establishments under the CTM coordination (Centre Tecnològic in Manresa)[144] and the support of the CDTI (Centre for Industrial Technological Development, an organization pertaining to the Ministry of Science and Innovation). In January 2010, the Cenit Verde association made its opening meeting at SEAT's Technical Centre in Martorell.[145] As part of its contribution SEAT
SEAT
comes in with its own 'Verde' pre-project, including the technology implemented in the plug-in hybrid SEAT León
SEAT León
Twin drive[146] as well as in the SEAT IBE
SEAT IBE
concept zero emissions electric vehicle presented in the 2010 Geneva motor show.[147]

SEAT
SEAT
Autometro’ project

A TMD (Teco Media Distancia) cargo train on its way from SEAT's Martorell
Martorell
plant.[148]

The ‘ SEAT
SEAT
Autometro’ project comprises the construction and management of a rail link service between SEAT's Martorell
Martorell
complex and the Port of Barcelona, in the aim of transport of vehicles and components. Autometro is the joint-venture company which operates the rail, having Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya
Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya
(FGC) local rail company, COMSA
COMSA
Rail Transport and Pecovasa as its shareholders. The company was founded in November 2005 almost five months after an initial agreement was signed between the Catalan government (Generalitat), the Barcelona
Barcelona
Port Authority and SEAT.[149] Due to this project, a branch connecting the Martorell
Martorell
plant with the FGC 'Llobregat-Anoia' main rail line had to be constructed, as well as further adaptations to the transport network and the host infrastructures in the Port of Barcelona
Barcelona
had to be made. The budget for the project comes up to 6.8 million euro, while SEAT
SEAT
on its part also assumes the operational transport costs.[150] The use of this rail link since January 18, 2008, instead of road transport, has helped not only in terms of cost effectiveness and road safety but also in the reduction of both road congestion and greenhouse gas emissions. Over the whole 'Autometro' project awards have been given for the best logistics idea at the 2007 International Logistics Fair (SIL) and specifically to SEAT
SEAT
as the 2008 Distinguished loader by the Loaders’ Association of the Port of Barcelona.[151] Sponsorship[edit] SEAT
SEAT
has been a sponsor in major sports events, such as:

UEFA Europa League[152] (2009–2012) Red Bull
Red Bull
Air Race World Championship[153] Davis Cup World Group Final[154] Barcelona
Barcelona
1992 Olympic Games[155][156] Copa del Rey Eintracht Braunschweig

The company was one of the prime sponsors of Tunisia's national basketball team at the 2015 FIBA Africa
Africa
Championship where the company's logo was regularly displayed (e.g. on the team's shorts).[157] Further, SEAT
SEAT
is a strong supporter of artists, like Shakira,[158] Armin van Buuren,[159] David Guetta[160][161] etc. Awards[edit] Over the years the SEAT
SEAT
marque has been honoured with several awards, such as

The Landaben plant, 100% owned by SEAT, S.A. by that time, received in 1986 the World quality award (Q-86).[162] The Martorell
Martorell
plant, 100% owned by SEAT, S.A., received in 1998 the Best factory of the VW Group in the first quarter award. The Barcelona
Barcelona
'Gearbox del Prat' plant, 100% owned by SEAT, S.A., received in 2009 the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Excellence award for its high-quality manufacturing process and product.[27] The SEAT
SEAT
brand itself in 2009 has been named 'Most Improved Used Car Brand
Brand
of the decade' in the CAP Used Car of the Decade Awards.[163][164] 'AvD Innovationspreis 2006' award for technological innovations developed at the SEAT
SEAT
Technical Centre in Martorell, from the German automobile club 'Automobilclub von Deutschland' (AvD)[165] In the 2007 Barcelona
Barcelona
International motor show SEAT
SEAT
received two awards for the best technological innovations in the automotive sector, for the LED modules implementation in headlights and the project of virtual fabrication and applied ergonomics.[166][167] 'Best project in the use of an electronic signature in the private sector in 2008' for SEAT’s electronic invoicing system, by the Catalan Certification Agency (CATCert)[168] 'Best logistics initiative 2007' award for the SEAT-Autometro project, by the International Logistics Salon[169] 'Port of Barcelona’s Distinguished Loader prize in 2008' , by the Port of Barcelona’s Loaders’ Association[170]

Notes[edit]

^ Including the SEAT Ibiza
SEAT Ibiza
SC and the SEAT Ibiza
SEAT Ibiza
ST. ^ Including the SEAT Córdoba
SEAT Córdoba
Vario. ^ Including the SEAT Altea
SEAT Altea
XL and the SEAT Altea
SEAT Altea
Freetrack. ^ Including the SEAT Exeo
SEAT Exeo
ST.

References[edit]

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gets green light". Media.seat.com. 2010-01-14. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ "SEAT, a major presence at meeting of Europe's Industry Ministers". Media.seat.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ [4] Archived September 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Cargometro: nuevo servicio de mercancías para Seat entre Barcelona y Martorell
Martorell
- Revista VÍA LIBRE - Fundación de los Ferrocarriles Españoles". Vialibre-ffe.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ "The first FGC SEAT
SEAT
train reaches the Port of Barcelona". Media.seat.com. 2008-01-18. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ "More than 63,300 vehicles transported between SEAT
SEAT
and Port of Barcelona". Media.seat.com. 2009-01-16. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ " SEAT
SEAT
awarded Port of Barcelona's Distinguished Loader 2008 prize". Media.seat.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ " SEAT
SEAT
sponsors the UEFA Europa League". Media.seat.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.  ^ " SEAT
SEAT
sponsors the Red Bull
Red Bull
Air Race World Championship". Media.seat.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.  ^ " SEAT
SEAT
sponsors the Davis Cup World Group Final". Media.seat.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ " SEAT Ibiza
SEAT Ibiza
is the official car of the Olympic games". Media.seat.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ "SEAT, S.A. Key Figures (2005 / 2010)". Media.seat.com. 2010-03-23. Archived from the original on 2009-07-18. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ 2015 FIBA Africa
Africa
Championship - Tunisia, FIBA.com, Retrieved 27 January 2016. ^ " SEAT
SEAT
and Shakira
Shakira
start their collaboration with a digital animated TV spot". Media.seat.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ " SEAT
SEAT
& Armin van Buuren
Armin van Buuren
successful with marathon radio show". Media.seat.com. 2009-04-30. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ Anonymous said... »November 28, 2008 (2008-10-01). "Matte Black Seat Ibiza SportCoupe by David Guetta
David Guetta
- Carscoop". Carscoop.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "LIFE". LIFE. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ ":::: VOLKSWAGEN Navarra ::::". Vw-navarra.es. Archived from the original on 2012-06-29. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ "Seat Named Most Improved Used Car Brand
Brand
Of The Decade". European Motor News. 2009-12-16. Retrieved 2010-03-08.  ^ "SEAT". VAG Division. Retrieved 2010-03-08.  ^ "Premio a las innovaciones tecnológicas de SEAT". Media.seat.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ " SEAT
SEAT
recibe dos premios a las mejores innovaciones tecnológicas del sector". Media.seat.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05.  ^ Seat: record di brevetti per la Casa spagnola - News - Automoto.it ^ " SEAT
SEAT
is awarded for its electronic invoicing system". Media.seat.com. 2008-11-26. Retrieved 2012-02-06.  ^ " SEAT
SEAT
receives the best logistics initiative 2007 award". Media.seat.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.  ^ " SEAT
SEAT
awarded Port of Barcelona's Distinguished Loader 2008 prize". Media.seat.com. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 

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