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SAR-Lupe
SAR-Lupe
is Germany's first reconnaissance satellite system and is used for military purposes. SAR is an abbreviation for synthetic aperture radar and "Lupe" is German for magnifying glass. The SAR-Lupe program consists of five identical (770 kg) satellites, developed by the German aeronautics company OHB-System
OHB-System
which are controlled by a ground station[1] which is responsible for controlling the system and analysing the retrieved data. A large data archive of images will be kept in a former Cold War
Cold War
bunker belonging to the Kommando Strategische Aufklärung (Strategic Reconnaissance Command) of the Bundeswehr.

Contents

1 Specifications 2 History 3 Future 4 Launches 5 Contractors 6 See also 7 References

Specifications[edit] SAR-Lupe's "high-resolution" images can be acquired day or night through all weather conditions. The first satellite was launched from Plesetsk in Russia
Russia
on 19 December 2006, about a year after the intended launch date; four more satellites were launched at roughly six-month intervals, and the entire system achieved full operational readiness on 22 July 2008.[2] The five satellites operate in three 500-kilometre orbits in planes roughly sixty degrees apart. They use an X-band radar with a three-metre dish, providing a resolution of about 50 centimetres over a frame size of 5.5 km on a side ('spotlight mode', in which the satellite rotates to keep the dish pointed at a single target) or about one metre over a frame size of 8 km x 60 km ('stripmap mode', in which the satellite maintains a fixed orientation over the earth and the radar image is formed simply by the satellite's motion along its orbit). Response time for imaging of a given area is ten hours or less. Thales Alenia Space
Thales Alenia Space
provided the core of the Synthetic Aperture Radar sensors.[3] History[edit] The testing of SAR-Lupe
SAR-Lupe
involved an inverse procedure, in which the satellite, mounted in a radome on Earth, was used to image the International Space Station, whose orbit is reasonably close to the one the satellite will eventually be in. One-metre resolution at the ISS was apparently achieved. On 30 July 2002 a cooperation treaty between Germany
Germany
and France
France
was signed, under which the SAR-Lupe
SAR-Lupe
satellites and the French Helios optical reconnaissance satellite will operate jointly. Other EU countries have been invited to join as well and Italy
Italy
has shown considerable interest. Future[edit] A replacement of SAR-LUPE, called SARah, will be put into service from 2017-2019. It will consist of 3 radar satellites and one optical satellite. The satellites of SARah will be bigger and more capable than those of SAR-Lupe.[4] SARah-1, a phased-array-antenna satellite, and SARah-2 and 3, passive-antenna synthetic aperture radars, are planned to be launched on Falcon 9
Falcon 9
sometimes in 2019 and 2020.[5] Launches[edit]

Satellite Date Carrier rocket Launch site Launch status

SAR-Lupe-1 19 December 2006 Cosmos-3M[1] Plesetsk Success

SAR-Lupe-2 2 July 2007 Cosmos-3M [2] Plesetsk Success

SAR-Lupe-3 1 November 2007 Cosmos-3M [3] Plesetsk Success

SAR-Lupe-4 27 March 2008 Cosmos-3M [4][5] Plesetsk Success

SAR-Lupe-5 22 July 2008 Cosmos-3M [6] Plesetsk Success

Contractors[edit]

Prime contractor: OHB-System[6] LSE Space Engineering & Operations AG[7]

See also[edit]

COSMO-SkyMed, a system of four military and civil SAR-satellites of Italy TerraSAR-X, a civilian German radar satellite European Union Satellite
Satellite
Centre

References[edit]

^ SAR-Lupe
SAR-Lupe
ground station: Zentrum für Nachrichtenwesen der Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
(ZNBw), Max-Planck-Str. 17, 53501 Gelsdorf 50°34′06″N 7°02′11″E / 50.5683°N 7.0363°E / 50.5683; 7.0363 ^ Stephen Clark (July 22, 2008). "Radar reconnaissance spacecraft launched". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved May 6, 2014.  ^ "Successful Launch Of Sar-lupe Satellite, With Thales Alenia Space's SAR Sensor Electronics Units" (Press release). July 3, 2007. Archived from the original on May 6, 2014. Retrieved May 6, 2014.  ^ http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/technik/sarah-bundeswehr-will-drei-neue-spionagesatelliten-kaufen-a-907583.html ^ http://www.spacex.com/press/2013/08/08/spacex-awarded-launch-german-radar-reconnaissance-satellite-system ^ OHB-System
OHB-System
AG (SAR-Lupe) ^ LSE Space Engineering & Operations AG Archived 2006-10-24 at the Wayback Machine.

SAR-Lupe
SAR-Lupe
Constellation, eo Portal
Portal
Directory Germany’s SAR-Lupe
SAR-Lupe
constellation puts Europe ahead, C4ISR Journal "Russian carrier rocket takes into space German intelligence sat". Itar-Tass. 2007-11-01. Archived from the original on 2007-12-18.  German Earth-observing radar satellite launched

v t e

Earth reconnaissance satellites (excluding Russia
Russia
and the United States)

Canada
Canada

Radar IMINT

RADARSAT-2

China
China

IMINT

JSSW FSW-0 FSW-1 FSW-2 FSW-3 JianBing

SIGINT

JSSW-3 SJ-2 DQ-1

France
France

IMINT

Hélios IA & IB Hélios 2A & 2B Pléiades IA & IB

SIGINT

Cerise Clémentine Essaim Elisa

Germany
Germany

IMINT

RapidEye

Radar IMINT

SAR-Lupe TerraSAR-X TanDEM-X

India
India

IMINT

Cartosat-1 Cartosat-2 Cartosat-2A Cartosat-2B Cartosat-2C Cartosat-2D Cartosat-2E Cartosat-2F Cartosat-3

Radar IMINT

RISAT-1 RISAT-2

Israel
Israel

IMINT

Ofeq 5 Ofeq 7 Ofeq 9 EROS A EROS B EROS C

Radar IMINT

Ofeq 8 (TecSAR) Ofeq 10 ( TecSAR 2) Ofek-11

Italy
Italy

Radar IMINT

COSMO-SkyMed

Japan
Japan

IMINT

IGS 1A/B IGS 2A/B IGS 3A IGS 4A/B IGS 5A IGS 6A IGS 7A IGS 8A/B

South Korea
South Korea

IMINT

Arirang-1 Arirang-2 Arirang-3

Turkey
Turkey

IMINT

Göktürk-1 Göktürk-2 Göktürk-3

United Kingdom
United Kingdom

.