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SAR-LUPE is Germany
Germany
's first reconnaissance satellite system and is used for military purposes. SAR is an abbreviation for synthetic aperture radar and "Lupe" is German for magnifying glass . The SAR-Lupe
SAR-Lupe
program consists of five identical (770 kg) satellites , developed by the German aeronautics company OHB-System which are controlled by a ground station which is responsible for controlling the system and analysing the retrieved data. A large data archive of images will be kept in a former Cold War
Cold War
bunker belonging to the Kommando Strategische Aufklärung (Strategic Reconnaissance Command) of the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Specifications * 2 History * 3 Future * 4 Launches * 5 Contractors * 6 See also * 7 References

SPECIFICATIONS

SAR-Lupe's "high-resolution" images can be acquired day or night through all weather conditions. The first satellite was launched from Plesetsk in Russia
Russia
on 19 December 2006, about a year after the intended launch date; four more satellites were launched at roughly six-month intervals, and the entire system achieved full operational readiness on 22 July 2008.

The five satellites operate in three 500-kilometre orbits in planes roughly sixty degrees apart. They use an X-band radar with a three-metre dish, providing a resolution of about 50 centimetres over a frame size of 5.5 km on a side ('spotlight mode', in which the satellite rotates to keep the dish pointed at a single target) or about one metre over a frame size of 8 km x 60 km ('stripmap mode', in which the satellite maintains a fixed orientation over the earth and the radar image is formed simply by the satellite's motion along its orbit). Response time for imaging of a given area is ten hours or less. Thales Alenia Space provided the core of the Synthetic Aperture Radar sensors.

HISTORY

The testing of SAR-Lupe
SAR-Lupe
involved an inverse procedure, in which the satellite, mounted in a radome on Earth, was used to image the International Space Station
International Space Station
, whose orbit is reasonably close to the one the satellite will eventually be in. One-metre resolution at the ISS was apparently achieved.

On 30 July 2002 a cooperation treaty between Germany
Germany
and France
France
was signed, under which the SAR-Lupe
SAR-Lupe
satellites and the French Helios optical reconnaissance satellite will operate jointly. Other EU countries have been invited to join as well and Italy
Italy
has shown considerable interest.

FUTURE

A replacement of SAR-LUPE, called SARah, will be put into service from 2017-2019. It will consist of 3 radar satellites and one optical satellite. The satellites of SARah will be bigger and more capable than those of SAR-Lupe.

LAUNCHES

SATELLITE DATE CARRIER ROCKET LAUNCH SITE LAUNCH STATUS

SAR-Lupe-1 19 December 2006 Cosmos-3M Plesetsk Success

SAR-Lupe-2 2 July 2007 Cosmos-3M Plesetsk Success

SAR-Lupe-3 1 November 2007 Cosmos-3M Plesetsk Success

SAR-Lupe-4 27 March 2008 Cosmos-3M Plesetsk Success

SAR-Lupe-5 22 July 2008 Cosmos-3M Plesetsk Success

CONTRACTORS

* Prime contractor: OHB-System * LSE Space Engineering ">

* ^ SAR-Lupe
SAR-Lupe
ground station: Zentrum für Nachrichtenwesen der Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
(ZNBw), Max-Planck-Str. 17, 53501 Gelsdorf 50°34′06″N 7°02′11″E / 50.5683°N 7.0363°E / 50.5683; 7.0363 * ^ Stephen Clark (July 22, 2008). "Radar reconnaissance spacecraft launched". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved May 6, 2014. * ^ "Successful Launch Of Sar-lupe Satellite, With Thales Alenia Space\'s SAR Sensor Electronics Units" (Press release). July 3, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2014. * ^ http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/technik/sarah-bundeswehr-will-drei-neue-spionagesatelliten-kaufen-a-907583.html * ^ OHB-System AG (SAR-Lupe) * ^ LSE Space Engineering & Operations AG

* SAR-Lupe
SAR-Lupe
Constellation, eo Portal
Portal
Directory * Germany’s SAR-Lupe
SAR-Lupe
constellation puts Europe ahead, C4ISR Journal * "Russian carrier rocket takes into space German intelligence sat". Itar-Tass. 2007-11-01. * German Earth-observing radar satellite launched

* v * t * e

Earth reconnaissance satellites (excluding Russia
Russia
and the United States)

CHINA

IMINT

* JSSW * FSW-0 * FSW-1 * FSW-2 * FSW-3 * JianBing

SIGINT

* JSSW-3 * SJ-2 * DQ-1

FRANCE

IMINT

* Hélios IA & IB * Hélios 2A & 2B * Pléiades IA border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Cerise * Clémentine * Essaim * Elisa

GERMANY

IMINT RapidEye

RADAR IMINT

* SAR-Lupe * TerraSAR-X * TanDEM-X
TanDEM-X

INDIA

IMINT

* Cartosat-1 * Cartosat-2 * Cartosat-2A * Cartosat-2B * Cartosat-2C * Cartosat-2D * Cartosat-2E * Cartosat-3

RADAR IMINT

* RISAT-1 * RISAT-2

ISRAEL

IMINT

* Ofeq 5 * Ofeq 7 * Ofeq 9 * EROS A * EROS B * EROS C

RADAR IMINT

* Ofeq 8 (TecSAR) * Ofeq 10 ( TecSAR 2) * Ofek-11

ITALY

RADAR IMINT

* COSMO-SkyMed

JAPAN

IMINT

* IGS 1A/B * IGS 2A/B * IGS 3A * IGS 4A/B * IGS 5A * IGS 6A * IGS 7A * IGS 8A/B

SOUTH KOREA

IMINT

* Arirang-1 * Arirang-2 * Arirang-3

TURKEY

IMINT

* Göktürk-1 * Göktürk-2 * Göktürk-3

UNITED KINGDOM

IMINT

* TopSat

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SAR-Lupe
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