ZEN IN JAPAN
SEON IN KOREA
ZEN IN THE USA
D. T. Suzuki
Zen and Sutras
* Doctrinal background of
Zen lineage charts
Zen ranks and hierarchy
Zen organisation and institutions
* Sudden Enlightenment
* Ten Ox-Herding Pictures
* Five ranks of Tozan
* Three mysterious Gates
* Four Ways of Knowing
East Mountain Teaching
Five Houses of Chán
White Plum Asanga
Pure Land Buddhism
Part of a series on
BUDDHISM IN JAPAN
* Pure Land
* Avataṃsaka Sūtra
* Lotus Sūtra
* Heart Sūtra
* Infinite Life Sūtra
* Mahāvairocana Sūtra
* Vajraśekhara Sūtra
Glossary of Japanese Buddhism
SōTō ZEN or the SōTō SCHOOL (曹洞宗, Sōtō-shū) is the
largest of the three traditional sects of
Zen in Japanese Buddhism
(the others being Rinzai and
Ōbaku ). It is the Japanese line of the
Chinese Cáodòng school , which was founded during the Tang Dynasty
by Dòngshān Liánjiè . It emphasizes
Shikantaza , meditation with
no objects, anchors, or content. The meditator strives to be aware of
the stream of thoughts, allowing them to arise and pass away without
The Japanese brand of the sect was imported in the 13th century by
Dōgen Zenji , who studied Cáodòng
Buddhism (Chinese : 曹洞宗;
pinyin : Cáodòng Zōng) abroad in China.
Dōgen is remembered today
as the co-patriarch of
Japan along with
Keizan Jōkin .
With about 14,000 temples,
Sōtō is one of the largest Japanese
Zen is now also popular in the West,
and in 1996 priests of the
Zen tradition formed the Soto Zen
Buddhist Association based in North America.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Chinese origins
* 1.2 Kamakura (1185-1333)
* 1.2.2 Ejo
* 1.2.3 Gikai
* 1.2.5 Soto-centers
* 1.3 Muromachi (or Ashikaga) (1336-1573)
* 1.3.1 Gasan and Sotetsu
* 1.4 Azuchi-Momoyama (1573-1600) and Edo (or Tokugawa) (1600-1868)
* 1.5 Meiji Restoration (1868-1912) and Imperial expansionism
* 1.6 Lay interests
* 1.7 Monastic training
* 2 Spread in the western world
* 2.4 Soto
Zen Buddhist Association
* 3 Practice
* 3.2 Soto versus Rinzai
* 4 Texts
* 4.1 Sutras
* 5 Organisation
* 5.1 Head and parliament
* 5.2 Temples
* 5.3 Legal status
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 8.1 Book references
* 8.2 Web-references
* 9 Sources
* 10 External links
The original Chinese version of Soto-shu, i.e. the Caodong-school
(曹洞宗) was established by the Tang dynasty monk Dongshan Liangjie
(洞山良价 Ja: Tōzan Ryōkai) in the 9th century.
One prevalent view is that the sect's name was originally formed by
taking one character each from the names of Dongshan and his disciple
Caoshan Benji (曹山本寂, Tōzan Ryōkai), and was originally
called Dongcao sect (with the characters in transposed order).
However, to paraphrase the Dongshan Yulu (《洞山語録》, "Record
of the Dialogues of Dongshan"), the sect's name denotes 'colleagues
(曹) of the teachings above the caves (洞)' who together follow the
"black wind (teachings of Taoism?)" and admire the masters of various
Perhaps more significantly for the Japanese brand of this sect,
Dōgen among others advocated the reinterpretation that the "Cao"
represents not Caoshan, but rather "
Huineng of Caoxi temple"
曹渓慧能 (Sōkei Enō); zh:曹溪慧能). The branch that was
founded by Caoshan died off, and
Dōgen was a student of the other
branch that survived in China.
A precursor to the sect is Shítóu Xīqiān (Ch. 石頭希遷,
ca.700 – ca.790), the attributed author of the poem
which formed the basis of
Song of the Precious Mirror Samadhi of
Dongshan Liangjie (Jp. Tōzan Ryōkai) and the teaching of the Five
Dōgen Zenji , credited as a founder of the
Sōtō sect in Japan
The Caodong-teachings were brought to
Japan in 1227, when Dōgen
Japan after studying Ch\'an in
China and settled at
Dōgen had received
Dharma transmission from
Tiantong Rujing at Qìngdé Temple, where
Hongzhi Zhengjue once was
abbot. Hongzhi's writings on "silent illumination" had greatly
influenced Dōgen's own conception of shikantaza .
Dogen did return from
China with various koan anthologies and other
texts, contributing to the transmission of the koan tradition to
Japan. In the first works he wrote he emphasised the practice of
zazen, which brought him into trouble at Kennin-ji:
This assertion of the primacy of
Zen aroused the anger of the
Enryaku-ji monks, who succeeded in driving
Dōgen from the Kennin-ji
where he had settled after his return to the capital.
Eihei-ji , one of the two head temples of
Sōtō-shū today, choosing...
... to create new monastic institutions based on the Chinese model
and risk incurring the open hostility and opposition of the
Daily routine was copied from Chinese practices, which went back to
the Indian tradition:
The elements of Soto practice that contributed most to the success of
the school in medieval
Japan were precisely the generic Buddhist
monastic practices inherited from Sung China, and ultimately from
India. The Soto
Zen style of group meditation on long platforms in a
sangha hall, where the monks also took meals and slept at night, was
the same as that prescribed in Indian
Vinaya texts. The etiquette
followed in Soto monasteries can also be traced back to the Indian
Dōgen was succeeded around 1236 by his disciple Koun Ejō
(1198–1280), who originally was a member of the Daruma school of
Nōnin, but joined
Dogen in 1229. Ejo started his Buddhist studies at
Mount Hiei, the center of
Tendai studies. following his stay there he
Pure Land Buddhism under
Shōkū , whereafter he joined the
Daruma school of
Nōnin by then led by Kakuan.
Ejo, like Dōgen, believed in the primacy of
Buddhism . He
resisted efforts from outside to water down the tradition with other
A large group from the Daruma-school under the leadership of Ekan
joined the Dogen-school in 1241, after severe conflicts with the
Tendai and Rinzai schools. Among this group were Gikai , Gien and
Giin , who were to become influential members of Dogen's school.
After the death of Ejō, a controversy called the sandai sōron
occurred. In 1267 Ejo retired as Abbot of Eihei-ji, giving way to
Gikai, who was already favored by Dogen. Gikai too originally was a
member of the Daruma school, but joined Dogen's school in 1241,
together with a group from the
Nōnin school led by Ekan. Gikai
introduced esoteric elements into the practice:
ith the premature death of
Dōgen the group lost its focus and
internal conflicts led to a split. Dōgen's followers soon introduced
such esoteric elements as prayers and incantations into the teaching.
Opposition arose, and in 1272 Ejo resumed the position of abbot.
After his death in 1280, Gikai became abbot again, strengthened by the
support of the military for magical practices. Opposition arose
again, and Gikai was forced to leave Eihei-ji, and exiled to Kaga
province , Dajō-ji (in
Ishikawa prefecture ). He was succeeded by
Gien, who was first trained in the Daruma-school of
Nōnin . His
supporters designated him as the third abbot, rejecting the legitimacy
The second most important figure in Sōtō,
Keizan , belonged to this
Keizan received ordination from Ejo when he was,
twelve years old, shortly before Ejo's death When he was seventeen he
went on a pilgrimage for three years throughout Japan. During this
period, he studied Rinzai ,
Tendai . After returning to
Keizan received dharma transmission from Gikai in 1294, and
established Joman-ji. In 1303 Gikai appointed
Keizan as abbot of
Daijō-ji, a position he maintained until 1311.
Keizan enlarged the Shingon-temple Yōkō-ji in Ishikawa prefecture,
turning it into a
Zen monastery in 1312. There-after he inherited the
Shingon temple Shogaku-ji in 1322, renaming it
Sōji-ji , which was
recognized as an official monastery. In 1324 he put
Gasan Jōseki in
charge of Sojo-ji, and returned to Yōkō-ji. Yōko-ji was Keizan's
main temple, but
Sōji-ji thrived better, thanks to
Dogen is referred as the founder of Sōtō, for a long
period Soto history recognized several important ancestors, next to
Dogen. In 1877 the heads of the
Sōtō community acknowledged Keizan
for a brief period as the overall founder of the
Dogen is known as the "koso", where
Keizan is known as the "taiso";
Both terms mean the original patriarch, that is, the founder of
At the end of the Kamakura period, Dogen's school centered around
four centers, namely Eihei-ji, Daijo-ji monastery, and the temples
Yoko-ji and Soji-ji. Soji-ji became the most influential center of the
MUROMACHI (OR ASHIKAGA) (1336-1573)
Muromachi period the
Rinzai school was the most successful
of the schools, since it was favoured by the
Shogun . But Soto too
spread out over Japan.
Gasan And Sotetsu
Gasan Jōseki (1275–1365) and Meiho Sotetsu were Keizan's most
Gasan too started his Buddhist studies at mount Hiei. He became head
of Soji-ji in 1324. Gasan adopted the
Five Ranks of Tung-shan as a
fit vehicle to explain the
Sotetsu became head of Yoko-ji in 1325. Initially his influence soon
grew. In 1337 Sotetsu was appointed as abbot of Daijo-ji.
AZUCHI-MOMOYAMA (1573-1600) AND EDO (OR TOKUGAWA) (1600-1868)
After a period of war
Japan was re-united in the Azuchi–Momoyama
period . Neo-Confucianism gained influence at the expense of Buddhism,
which came under strict state control. The power of
during the Tokugawa-period.
Buddhism had become a strong political and
military force in
Japan and was seen as a threat by the ruling clan.
Measures were taken to control the Buddhist organisations, and to
limit their power and influence. The temple hierarchy system was
centralized and unified.
Japan closed the gates to the rest of the world. New doctrines and
methods were not to be introduced, nor were new temples and schools.
The only exception was the
Ōbaku lineage , which was introduced in
the 17th century during the
Edo period by
Ingen , a Chinese monk. The
presence of these Chinese monks also influenced the existing
Zen-schools, spreading new ideas about monastic discipline and the
rules for dharma transmission.
The Soto-school started to place a growing emphasis on textual
authority. In 1615 the bakufu declared that "Eheiji's standards
(kakun) must be the rule for all Soto monks". In time this came to
mean all the writings of Dogen, which thereby became the normative
source for the doctrines and organisation of the Soto-school.
A key factor in this growing emphasis on
Dogen was Manzan's appeal to
change the rules for dharma transmission , based on arguments derived
from the Shōbōgenzō. From its beginnings, Sōtō-shu has laid a
strong emphasis on the right lineage and dharma transmission. In
time, dharma transmission became synonymous with the transmission of
temple ownership. When an abbot changed position, becoming abbot of
another temple, he also had to discard his lineage and adopt the
lineage of his new temple. This was changed by Manzan Dokahu
(1636–1714), a Soto reformer, who...
ropagated the view that
Dharma transmission was dependent on personal
initiation between a Master and disciple rather than on the disciple's
enlightenment. He maintained this view in the face of strong
opposition, citing as authority the towering figure of Japanese Zen,
Dogen This became and continues to this day to be the official Soto
Dogen scholarship came to a central position in the Soto sect with
the writings of
Menzan Zuihō (1683-1769), who wrote over a hundred
works, including many commentaries on Dogen's major texts and analysis
of his doctrines. Menzan promoted reforms of monastic regulations and
practice, based on his reading of Dogen.
Another reformation was implemented by
Gento Sokuchu (1729–1807),
the 11th abbot of
Eihei-ji , who tried to purify the Soto-school,
de-emphasizing the use of koans . In the Middle Ages koan study was
widely practiced in the Soto-school.
Gento Sokuchu started the
Dogen to the status he has nowadays, when he implemented
new regulations, based on Dogen's regulations.
This growing status of
Dogen as textual authority also posed a
problem for the Soto-school:
The Soto hierarchy, no doubt afraid of what other radical reformers
might find in Dogen's Shobo Genzo, a work open to a variety of
interpretations, immediately took steps to restrict access to this
traditional symbol of sectarian authority. Acting at the request of
the Soto prelates, in 1722 the government prohibited the copying or
publication of any part of Shobo Genzo.
MEIJI RESTORATION (1868-1912) AND IMPERIAL EXPANSIONISM
Sōji-ji Temple, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama
Meiji period (1868–1912)
Japan abandoned its feudal
system and opened up to Western modernism.
Shinto became the state
Buddhism was coerced to adapt to the new regime. Rinzai
Zen chose to adapt, with embarrassing consequences when
Japanese nationalism was endorsed by the
Zen institutions. War
endeavours against Russia,
China and finally during the Pacific War
were supported by the
Within the Buddhist establishment the Western world was seen as a
threat, but also as a challenge to stand up to. Parties within the
Zen establishment sought to modernize
Zen in accord with Western
insights, while simultaneously maintaining a Japanese identity.
During this period a reappraisal of
Dōgen started. The memory of
Dōgen was used to ensure Eihei-ji's central place in the
Soto-organisation, and "to cement closer ties with lay people". In
1899 the first lay ordination ceremony was organized in Eihei-ji.
Eihei-ji also promoted the study of Dōgen's works, especially the
Shōbōgenzō, which changed the view of
Dōgen in Soto's history. An
Dōgen was created that suited the specific interests of
Dōgen's memory has helped keep
Eihei-ji financially secure, in good
repair, and filled with monks and lay pilgrims who look to
religious inspiration the
Dōgen we remember is a constructed image,
an image constructed in large measure to serve the sectarian agendas
Eihei-ji in its rivalry with Sōji-ji. We should remember that the
Dōgen of the Shōbōgenzō, the
Dōgen who is held up as a profound
religious philosopher, is a fairly recent innovation in the history of
Funerals continue to play an important role as a point of contact
between the monks and the laity. Statistics published by the Sōtō
school state that 80 percent of
Sōtō laymen visit their temple only
for reasons having to do with funerals and death, while only 17
percent visit for spiritual reasons and a mere 3 percent visit a Zen
priest at a time of personal trouble or crisis.
Zen ranks and hierarchy
In an advice to western practitioners, Kojun Kishigami Osho, a dharma
Kodo Sawaki , writes:
Every year, about 150 novices arrive. About 90 percent of them are
sons of temple heads, which leaves only 10 percent who chose this path
for themselves. For the autumn session, about 250 monks come together.
Essentially what they are learning in these temples is the ability to
officiate all kinds of ceremonies and rites practiced by the Soto
School – the methods for fulfilling their role. Apart from this
aspect, practicing with the idea of developing one’s own
spirituality is not prevalent.
According to Kishigami, practice may as well be undertaken elsewhere:
If you want to study Buddhism, I recommend the Japanese universities.
If you want to learn the ceremonies practiced by the Soto School, you
need only head for
Eihei-ji or Soji-ji.
But if your goal is to seriously learn the practice of zazen,
unfortunately, I have no Japanese temple to recommend to you. Of
course, you can go to Antai-ji, if you want; but if you want to deepen
your practice of true Zen, you can do it in Europe. If you go to Japan
for this, you will be disappointed. Don’t expect to find anything
SPREAD IN THE WESTERN WORLD
In the 20th century Soto-
Zen spread out to the west.
Shunryu Suzuki played a central role in bringing
Sōtō to the west.
Suzuki studied at
Komazawa University , the
Zen university in
Tokyo. In 1959 Suzuki arrived in
California to attend to Soko-ji , at
that time the sole
Sōtō temple in
San Francisco . His book
Beginner\'s Mind has become a classic in western
Zen culture. Shunryu
Suzuki's teaching of
Zen practice led to the formation
Zen Center, one of the largest and most
Zen organizations in the West. The training monastery of
Zen center, at Tassajara Hot springs in central
California, was the first Buddhist Monastery to be established outside
Asia. Today SFZC includes Tassajara Monastery, Green Gulch Farm, and
City Center. Various
Zen Centers around the U.S. are part of the
dharma lineage of
Zen Center and maintain close
organizational ties with it.
Dainin Katagiri was invited to come to Minneapolis
Minnesota , where he moved in 1972 after Suzuki's death. Katagiri
and his students built four
Zen centers within
Minneapolis–Saint Paul .
Sanbo Kyodan , in which Soto and Rinzai are merged, is also of
central importance western Soto Zen. Their lineage, starting with
Hakuun Yasutani , includes
Taizan Maezumi , who gave dharma
transmission to various American students, among them Tetsugen Bernard
Dennis Genpo Merzel ,
Charlotte Joko Beck and John Daido
In Europe the
Sanbo Kyodan has been influential via Hugo
Enomiya-Lassalle , and via students of Dennis Genpo Merzel, especially
in the Netherlands.
Sanbo Kyodan was also connected to the
Soen Nakagawa -Eido Tai
Shimano lineage, due to a personal fondness of Soen for the teaching
practices of Harada roshi , who was the teacher of Hakuun Yasutani.
Antaiji -based lineage of
Kodo Sawaki is also widespread. Sawaki
is regarded as one of the greatest
Zen teachers of recent times.
Sawaki's student and successor as abbot
Kosho Uchiyama was the teacher
Shohaku Okumura who established the Sanshin
Zen Community in
Bloomington, Indiana , and his student
Gudo Wafu Nishijima is the
Brad Warner .
SOTO ZEN BUDDHIST ASSOCIATION
The larger majority of North American
Sōtō priests joined together
in 1996 to form the Soto
Zen Buddhist Association . While
institutionally independent of the Japanese Sōtōshū, the
Buddhist Association works closely with what most members see as their
parent organization. With about one hundred fully transmitted priests,
Zen Buddhist Association now represents about 80% of
Sōtō teachers. The Soto
Zen Buddhist Association approved a
document honoring the women ancestors in the
Zen tradition at its
biannual meeting on October 8, 2010. Female ancestors, dating back
2,500 years from India, China, and Japan, may now be included in the
curriculum, ritual, and training offered to Western
Daily services in Soto monasteries include chanting of sutras and
In the Soto school of Zen,
Shikantaza , meditation with no objects,
anchors, or content, is the primary form of practice. The meditator
strives to be aware of the stream of thoughts, allowing them to arise
and pass away without interference.
Considerable textual, philosophical, and phenomenological
justification of this practice can be found throughout
In the first works he wrote after his return to Japan, the Fukan
zazengi (Principles for the universal promotion of zazen) and Bendōwa
(Distinguishing the Way), he advocated zazen (seated meditation) as
the supreme Buddhist practice for both monks and laypersons.
Other important texts promoting zazen are the Shōbōgenzō, and the
"Principles of Zazen" and the "Universally Recommended Instructions
SOTO VERSUS RINZAI
Zen was often given the derogatory name "farmer Zen" because
of its mass appeal. Some teachers of
Zen would say that the reason why
it was called "farmer Zen" was because of its down-to-earth approach,
Rinzai school was often called "samurai Zen" because of the
larger samurai following. The latter term for the Rinzai can be
somewhat misleading, however, as the
Sōtō school also had samurai
among its rosters.
Zen and Sutras
Sōtō Zen, like all of Zen, relies on the
Prajnaparamita Sutras, as
well as general
Mahayana Buddhist sutras, such as the
Lotus Sutra ,
the Brahma Net
Sutra and the
Lankavatara Sutra .
Zen is influenced in
large part by the
Yogacara school of philosophy as well as the Huayan
Until the promotion of
Dogen studies in modern times, the study of
Chinese texts was prevalent in Soto:
After textual learning was revived during the early Tokugawa period,
Sōtō monks still studied only well-known Chinese
Buddhist scriptures or classic Chinese
Zen texts. Eventually a few
scholarly monks like
Menzan Zuihō began to study Dōgen's writings,
but they were the exceptions. Even when scholarly monks read Dōgen's
writings, they usually did not lecture on them to their disciples.
SōTō ZEN TEXTS
Shih-t'ou Hsi-ch'ien's (Shitou Xiqien, Sekito Kisen, 700–790) poem
"The Harmony of Difference and Sameness" is an important early
Buddhism and is chanted in
Sōtō temples to this
One of the poems of Tung-shan Liang-chieh, the founder of Sōtō,
"The Song of the Jewel Mirror Awareness " is also chanted in Sōtō
temples. Another set of his poems on the Five Positions (
Five Ranks )
of Absolute and Relative is important as a set of koans in the Rinzai
Other texts typically chanted in
Zen temples include the Heart
Sutra (Hannyashingyō), and Dōgen's Fukanzazengi (Universally
Recommended Instructions for Zazen).
Dōgen's teaching is characterized by the identification of practice
as enlightenment itself. This is to be found in the
The popularity of this huge body of texts is from a relatively recent
Today, when someone remembers
Dōgen or thinks of
Sōtō Zen, most
often that person automatically thinks of Dōgen's Shōbōgenzō. This
kind of automatic association of
Dōgen with this work is very much a
modern development. By the end of the fifteenth century most of
Dōgen's writings had been hidden from view in temple vaults where
they became secret treasures In earlier generations only one Zen
teacher, Nishiari Bokusan (1821–1910), is known to have ever
lectured on how the
Shōbōgenzō should be read and understood.
The study of Dogen, and especially his Shobogenzo, has become the
norm in the 20th century:
Beginning in 1905 Eiheiji organized its first Shōbōgenzō
conference (Genzō e) Since 1905 it has become an annual event at
Eiheiji, and over time it gradually changed the direction of Sōtō
Zen monastic education Sōtan's lectures provided a model that could
be emulated by each of the other
Zen monks who came to Eiheiji. This
model has become the norm, not the exception. Today every
teacher lectures on Dōgen's Shōbōgenzō.
Sōtō's head temples (honzan)
The Soto-shu organisation has an elaborate organisation. It consists
of circa 15.000 temples. There are circa 30 training centers, where
Soto-monks can train to become an oshō or priest and run their own
HEAD AND PARLIAMENT
Zen headquarters, Minato-ku, Tokyo,
Soto-shu has a centralised organisation, run by a head:
Soto-shu is a democratic organization with a head (called
宗務総長 Shûmusôchô) that is elected by a parliament. The
parliament in turn consist of 72 priests that are elected in 36
districts throughout Japan, 2 from each district. The Shûmusôchô
selects a cabinet that consists of him and seven other priests who
together govern the organization. It is commonly believed that the
Kanchô, who is either the head of Eiheiji or Sôjiji, the two head
temples, is the boss of Soto-shu. This is not the case. The Kanchô
has only representational functions; the real power lies with the
Shûmusôchô and his cabinet.
Contemporary Soto-shu has four classes of temples:
* Honzan (本山), head temples, namely
* Kakuchi, teaching monasteries, where at least once a year an ango
(ninety-day retreat) takes place;
* Hōchi, dharma temples;
* Jun hōchi, ordinary temples.
Eihei-ji owes its existence to Dōgen, throughout history this
head temple has had significantly fewer sub-temple affiliates than the
Sōji-ji. During the
Tokugawa period , Eiheiji had approximately 1,300
affiliate temples compared to Sōji-ji's 16,200. Furthermore, out of
the more than 14,000 temples of the
Sōtō sect today, 13,850 of those
identify themselves as affiliates of Sōji-ji. Additionally, most of
the some 148 temples that are affiliates of Eiheiji today are only
minor temples located in
Hokkaido — founded during a period of
colonization during the
Meiji period . Therefore, it is often said
that Eiheiji is a head temple only in the sense that it is "head of
Sōtō dharma lineages.
The Soto-shu is an "umbrella (hokatsu) organization for affiliated
temples and organizations". It has "three sets of governing
* Sotoshu Constitution (Sotoshu shuken);
* Regulations for the Religious Juridical Person Sotoshu (Shukyo
honin Sotoshu kisoku);
* Sotoshu Standard Procedures (Sotoshu kitei).
* ^ But it is not the largest network as a school. About 30,000
temples in Japanese
Pure Land Buddhism are split across over 10 legal
(Japanese tr. by Masunaga)
* ^ although including Japanese nationals, mainly those of American
and specifically European descent
* ^ See Soto-shu organisation for an organogram
* ^ A B Bodiford 1993 .
* ^ Slater 1997 , p. 218-219.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I Bodiford 2006 .
* ^ A B C Masunaga 1964 , p. 722.
* ^ Dumoulin 2005a , pp. 165–166.
* ^ Wegner 2001 .
* ^ Leighton 2000 .
* ^ Leighton, 17
* ^ Kōans in the
* ^ A B Hall 1998 , p. 625.
* ^ A B Yampolsky 1985 , p. 4-5.
* ^ A B Foulk & Year unknown .
* ^ Dumoulin 2005b , p. 128.
* ^ Dumoulin 2005b , p. 124.
* ^ A B C Dumoulin 2005b , p. 122.
* ^ A B Dumoulin 2005b , p. 125.
* ^ Dumoulin 2005b , p. 135.
* ^ Faure 1986 , p. 47.
* ^ A B Dumoulin 2005b , p. 139.
* ^ Dumoulin 2005b , p. 140.
* ^ A B C Dumoulin 2005b , p. 142.
* ^ A B Faure 1986 , p. 7.
* ^ Faure 1986 , p. 8.
* ^ Prebish & Heine 2003 .
* ^ Bodiford 1993 , p. 81.
* ^ Slater 1997 .
* ^ A B C Dumoulin 2005b , p. 207.
* ^ Dumoulin 2005b , p. 208.
* ^ Dumoulin 2005b , pp. 208–209.
* ^ A B Mohr 1994 , p. 353.
* ^ Snelling 1987 .
* ^ A B Dumoulin 2005b .
* ^ Mohr 1994 , p. 353-354.
* ^ A B C D Bodiford 1991 , p. 450.
* ^ Tetsuo 2003 .
* ^ Bodiford 1999 .
* ^ Lachs 1999 .
* ^ Heine ">
* ^ A B Kojun Kishigami Osho, Of roots and branches
* ^ Chadwick, David (c. 1997). "Crooked Cucumber: Interview With
Tomoe Katagiri". Crooked Cucumber Archives. and "Dainin Katagiri
Lineage". Sweeping Zen. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
* ^ "United States
Dharma Centers: Minnesota: Minneapolis".
* ^ "Directory of Religious Centers". President and Fellows of
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Zen International Official homepage of the
Sōtō school of
* Order of the Prairie Wind An independent order of ordained Sōtō
Zen Buddhist priests founded by
Rev. Nonin Chowaney .
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