Rzeszów (/ˈʒɛʃuːf/, Polish: [ˈʐɛʂuf] ( listen);
Ukrainian: Ряшiв, Ŕašiv; German: Resche (antiquated), Latin:
Resovia; Yiddish: ריישע, rayshe) is the largest city in
southeastern Poland, with a population of 189,637 (01.03.2018). It
is located on both sides of the
Wisłok River in the heartland of the
Rzeszów has been the capital of the Subcarpathian
Voivodeship since 1 January 1999, and is also the seat of Rzeszów
The history of
Rzeszów begins in 1354, when it received city rights
and privileges by Casimir III the Great. Local trade routes connecting
the European Continent with the
Middle East and the Ottoman Empire
resulted in the city's early prosperity and development. In the 16th
Rzeszów had a connection with
Gdańsk and the Baltic Sea.
It also experienced growth in commerce and craftsmanship, especially
under local rulers and noblemen. Following the Partitions of Poland,
Rzeszów was annexed by the
Austrian Empire and did not regain its
position until it returned to
Poland after World War I. During World
War II Rzeszów's large Jewish community perished in the Holocaust.
Rzeszów has found its place in the group of the most elite cities in
Poland, with growing number of investments, rapid progress and a very
high standard of living. In 2011
the second place in the ranking of the most attractive semi-large
cities for business. Moreover, the city is home to a number of
higher education schools and foreign consulates.
Rzeszów is also
developing as a regional tourist destination; its Old Town, Main
Market Square, churches and synagogues belong to one of the best
preserved in the country.
In recent years, the population of
Rzeszów has grown from 159,000
(2005) to nearly 190,000 (2017). Further plans for extending the
city's borders include incorporating surrounding counties to
strengthen its function as a metropolitan centre in southeastern
Rzeszów is served by an international airport and is a member of
1.1 Since Poland's independence
1.3 The Pope's visit
2.2 Main sights
3.3 Art galleries
3.6 Notable people
4 Economy and infrastructure
6 International relations
6.1 Twin towns – Sister cities
10 External links
In the area of Rzeszów, the first humans appeared in the late
Paleolithic Age; archeologists have excavated a tool made in that
period at site
Rzeszów 25. In the mid-6th century BC, the first
farmers came to the area of the city, most likely through the Moravian
Gate. Later on,
Rzeszów was a settlement of the Lusatian culture,
which was followed by the Przeworsk culture.
City Hall in the Main Market Square. Initially built in the 16th
century, it was later remodelled in
Neogothic and Renaissance Revival
In the 5th century, the first
Slavs appeared in the area, which is
confirmed by numerous archeological findings. Most probably, Rzeszów
was then inhabited by the Vistulans. Some time between 11th and 13th
century the town was conquered and subsequently annexed by the East
Slavic Ruthenians. Polish princes of the
Piast dynasty annexed it in
1264 and in Tarnów, there was a meeting of Prince Bolesław V the
Chaste, and Prince Daniel of Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, during
which both sides agreed that the border would go between
Rzeszów belonged to Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, while
Strzyżów to Lesser Poland).
Mikołaj Spytek Ligęza
Mikołaj Spytek Ligęza greatly contributed to the city's
After unification of
Poland (see Testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth),
Rzeszów remained in Ruthenian hands until 1340, when Casimir III the
Great annexed Red Ruthenia, inviting his knights to govern the newly
acquired land. According to some sources, at that time
inhabited by the Walddeutsche, and was called Rishof (during World War
II, the Germans renamed it Reichshof). The town was granted Magdeburg
rights, it had a parish church, a market place and a cemetery, and its
total area was some 1,5 km2.
Magdeburg rights granted
Rzeszów’s local authorities the permission to punish criminals,
build fortifications and tax merchants.
Rzeszów was burned by the
Vlachs and the Turkic Tatars. In
Tatars destroyed it again. Earlier, in 1427,
burned to the ground in a big fire, but the town recovered after these
events, due to its favorable location on the main West – East
Kraków – Lwów) and North – South (
Lublin – Slovakia) routes.
In the 15th century first Jews settled in Rzeszów. 16th century was
the time of prosperity for the town, especially when
Mikołaj Spytek Ligęza
Mikołaj Spytek Ligęza (since the 1580s), who invested in
infrastructure, building a castle, a Bernardine church and a
Rzeszów then had some 2,500 inhabitants, with a rapidly
growing Jewish community. The town was granted several royal rights,
including the privilege to organize several markets a year. At that
Rzeszów finally grew beyond its medieval borders, marked by
Rzeszów Castle with surroundings, by K.H. Wiedemann, 1762
Rzeszów passed into the hands of the powerful and wealthy
Lubomirski family, becoming the centre of its vast properties. At
first, the town prospered and in 1658, first college was opened there,
which now operates as High School Nr 1. The period of prosperity
ended, and furthermore, there were several fires and wars, which
destroyed the town.
Rzeszów was first captured by the Swedes during
The Deluge, then by the troops of
George II Rákóczi
George II Rákóczi leading to the
Treaty of Radnot. During the Great Northern War, the Swedes again
captured Rzeszów, in 1702, then several different armies occupied the
town, ransacking it and destroying houses.
In the mid-eighteenth century, the town's population was composed of
Poles (Roman Catholics) and Yiddish Jews in almost equal numbers
(50,1% and 49,8%, respectively). In 1772, following first partition
Rzeszów became part of the Austrian Empire, to which it
belonged for 146 years. In the late 18th century,
Rzeszów had 3,000
inhabitants. By the mid-19th century, the population grew to around
7,500, with 40% of them Jewish. In 1858, Galician Railway of Archduke
Charles Louis reached Rzeszów, which resulted in further development
of the town. In 1888 first telephone lines were opened, in 1900 –
gas street lamps, and in 1911 – power plant and water system. The
population grew to 23,000, with half of inhabitants being Jews. A
number of modern building were constructed, most of them in Secession
During World War I, several battles took place in the area of the
Rzeszów was home to a large garrison of the Austro-Hungarian
Army, and in the city of Przemyśl, located nearby, there was a major
fortress. During the
Battle of Galicia
Battle of Galicia in the late summer of 1914,
Russian troops moved towards Rzeszów, and on 21 September, they
captured it. First Russian occupation lasted only 16 days, ending
after an attack of the Austrians, on 4 October. Under Russian
pressure, the Austrians were unable to keep the town, and on 7
November, the Russians again appeared in Rzeszów. In late fall of
1914, the frontline was established between
Tarnów and Gorlice, and
Rzeszów became an important center of the Imperial Russian Army, with
large magazines of food and ammunition located there. Russian
occupation lasted until May 1915.
Solidarity Park in Rzeszów
After the Russians were pushed out of Galicia,
outside of the area of military activities. Austrian administration
returned, but wartime reality and destruction of the town had a
negative effect on the population, and the quality of life
Since Poland's independence
On 12 October 1918, Rzeszów’s mayor, together with Town Council,
sent a message to Warsaw, announcing loyalty to the independent Polish
government. On 1 November, after clashes with German and Austrian
Rzeszów was a free town, and on 2 November, mayor Roman
Krogulski took a pledge of allegiance to the Polish state. During
World War I, some 200 residents of
Rzeszów died, rail infrastructure
was destroyed, as well as approximately 60 houses.
Rzeszów became capital of a county in the
The town grew, and creation of the Central Industrial Region had an
enormous impact on Rzeszów. It became a major center of defense
Rzeszów opened there in 1937, it also was a home
to a large garrison of the Polish Army, with the 10th Motorized
Cavalry Brigade stationed there. In 1939,
Rzeszów had 40,000
inhabitants, but its dynamic growth was stopped by the Invasion of
Market Square in Rzeszów
On 6 September 1939,
Rzeszów was bombed by the Luftwaffe. The town
was defended by the 10 Cavalry Brigade and 24th Uhlan Regiment from
Kraśnik. German attack began on 6 September in the afternoon, and the
Wehrmacht entered the city on the next day in the morning. Rzeszów,
renamed into Reichshof, became part of the General Government, in 1941
a ghetto was opened there, whose Jewish inhabitants were later
murdered in Bełżec extermination camp.
During the war,
Rzeszów was a main center of Polish resistance (Home
Army, AK), with
Rzeszów Inspectorate of the AK covering several
counties. On 25 May, during Action Kosba,
Home Army soldiers killed on
Gestapo henchmen, Friederich Pottenbaum and Hans
Flaschke. In the summer 1944, during Operation Tempest, units of the
Home Army attacked German positions in the town, and on 2 August,
Rzeszów was in the hands of the Home Army. Polish authorities loyal
to the London Government tried to negotiate with the Soviets, but
NKVD immediately opened a prison in the cellars of
Rzeszów Castle, sending there a number of
Home Army soldiers. In
the night of 7/9 October 1944,
Home Army unit under Łukasz
Ciepliński attacked the castle, trying to release 400 inmates kept
there. The attack failed, Ciepliński was captured and subsequently
executed in 1951.
Provincial council headquarters (Urząd Wojewódzki) in Rzeszów
On 7 July 1945,
Rzeszów became capital of the newly created Rzeszów
Voivodeship, which consisted of western counties of prewar Lwów
Voivodeship, and several counties of prewar
Kraków Voivodeship. This
decision had a major impact on the city, as it quickly grew. New
offices of the regional government were built, and in 1951, several
neighboring villages were annexed by Rzeszów, and the area of the
city grew to 39 km2. In 1971 and 1977, further villages were
annexed. In early 1981,
Rzeszów was a main center of peasant’s
protests, who for fifty days occupied local offices, which resulted in
signing of the
Rzeszów – Ustrzyki Agreement, and creation of Rural
On 1 January 1999, the city became the capital of Podkarpackie
Voivodeship. Its population grew to 170,000, and area to
91,43 km2. Since January 1, 2017 years
Rzeszów will be greater
on the village Bzianka (Government Decision of July 2016.). The area
Rzeszów will increase to over 120 square kilometers and more than
Ethnographic Museum, Old Town
Until the outbreak of
World War II
World War II the Jews of
14,000, more than one-third of the total ethnic Polish population.
The town was occupied by the German Army on 10 September 1939 and was
renamed as "Reichshof". German persecution of the Jews began
almost immediately; by the end of 1939, there were 10 forced labour
camps in the
Rzeszów region and many Jews became slave labourers.
Jews were forced to live in the Gestapo-controlled ghetto. Many
Jews managed to flee to Soviet-occupied Poland. By June 1940, the
number of Jews in
Rzeszów had decreased to 11,800, of whom 7,800 were
pre-war residents of the city; the rest were refugees from surrounding
villages. Life in the ghetto was impossible and hundreds died. During
the war some 20,000 Jews were murdered in the ghetto in Rzeszów. This
number includes thousands who were sent to
Rzeszów only to be
deported or murdered soon after arrival.
In the fall of 1943 most Jewish slave labor was transported in
Holocaust trains to the newly reopened Szebnie concentration camp. A
month later, on 5 November 1943, some 2,800 Jews were sent from there,
to meet their demise in Auschwitz. Of Rzeszów's 14,000 Jews,
only 100 survived the war in
Rzeszów itself, hiding all over Poland,
and in various camps. After the war an additional 600
returned from the Soviet Union. Almost all of them subsequently left
the city and the country.
The Pope's visit
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II visited Rzeszów. During the celebrations in
which nearly 1,000,000 people participated, the pope beatified Bishop
Józef Sebastian Pelczar, former bishop of Przemyśl. On 25 March 1992
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II established the new Diocese of Rzeszów. The
Rzeszów became the administrative centre of the new Diocese
and the Church of the Sacred Heart became the new city cathedral.
Rzeszów hosted the Central European Olympiad in Informatics
Rzeszów surrounding countryside
Rzeszów lies in the north temperate zone and has a continental
climate with four distinct seasons. It is characterised by a
significant variation between hot summers and cold, snowy winters.
Average temperatures in summer range from 18 to 19.6 °C (64 to
67 °F) and in winter from −2.1 to 0 °C (28 to
32 °F). The average annual temperature is 8.9 °C
(48 °F). In summer temperatures often exceed 25 °C
(77 °F), and sometimes even 30 °C (86 °F), while
winter drops to −5 °C (23 °F) at night and about
0 °C (32 °F) at day; during very cold nights the
temperature drops to −15 °C (5 °F). In view of
the fact that
Rzeszów lies near the Carpathian Mountains, there is
sometimes a halny – a föhn wind, when the temperature can rise
Climate data for Rzeszów
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Source: MSN Weather
The Main Square
Rzeszów Town Hall, built in 1591
Small (17th century) and Big (18th century, restored 1954–63)
Podziemia, underground tunnels
Wanda Siemaszkowa Theatre
Provincial and City Public Library
Wanda Siemaszkowa Theatre (est. 1944)
Rzeszów Dance Theatre
Museum of the City of Rzeszów
"Pod Ratuszem" gallery
"z Podwórza" gallery
OPe Photo Gallery
Provincial and City Public Library in Rzeszów
Rzeszów University Library
Rzeszów University of Technology
Rzeszów University of Technology Library
Artur Malawski Philharmonic Hall
As the largest city of the region
Rzeszów has a diverse set of
notable people associated with it. Hero of anti-Nazi and anti-Soviet
resistance, Lukasz Cieplinski, singer Justyna Steczkowska, general
Józef Zając, and leading theatre director Jerzy Grotowski, among
others, were born or lived in the city. Polish prime minister and
Władysław Sikorski studied there, while
pioneer of the oil industry, Ignacy Łukasiewicz, spent much of his
life in Rzeszów. Anja Rubik, Polish model, was born in 1983 in
Rzeszów. Natalie Portman's family come from Rzeszów. Tomasz
Stańko, internationally acclaimed jazz trumpeter, Rich Szaro,
American football player, and Dawid Kostecki, professional boxer, come
Volleyball match between Resovia and Skra Bełchatów
men's volleyball team playing in Polish Volleyball League, 6 times
Polish Champions, 3 times Polish Cup winners
one of the oldest men's football teams in
Poland (1905 or 1904)
basketball team, Polish Champions 1974/75
motorcycle speedway team
men's football team
Rzeszów Rockets – American football team
Economy and infrastructure
Rzeszów – the largest shopping center in the city
Valeant Pharmaceuticals International
Valeant Pharmaceuticals International (NYSE:VRX)
ICN Polfa Rzeszów)
United Technologies Corporation
United Technologies Corporation (NYSE:UTX) Pratt & Whitney
division (acquired WSK-
PZL Rzeszów) – Aerospace engineering
including one of the world's two F-16 engine manufacturers
Zelmer SA – household equipment
Poland SA (earlier Comp
Rzeszów S.A.) – the largest computer
software company in Poland
Novartis International AG (NYSE:NVS)
Rzeszów – Gerber Products
Company food production facilities
Goodrich Corporation opened a 5.3 hectare manufacturing facility near
Rzeszów in November 2010
Eastern IT Cluster grouping several IT companies is headquartered in
FIBRAIN – manufacturer in the field of ICT systems
Widełka substation, situated approximately 20 kilometres (12
miles) northnortheast of Rzeszów, the Rzeszów–Khmelnytskyi
powerline, the only 750 kV powerline in Poland, ends.
Burgaller Palace (Polish Radio Rzeszów)
Radio Eska Rzeszów
Akademickie Radio Centrum
Katolickie Radio Via
Gazeta Codzienna NOWINY
Gazeta Wyborcza Rzeszów
Polish Television (TVP) branch in Rzeszów
Rzeszów municipal television
City map of Rzeszów
Rzeszów is located on the main West-East European E40 Highway, which
Calais in France via Belgium, across Germany, Poland,
Ukraine and onto
Russia and Kazakhstan. (Within
Poland the E40 follows
the A4 Highway. Other Polish cities located by the E40 highway are
Kraków and Korczowa.
In recent years, communication has been improved by modernisation of
the roads within the city. SCATS traffic system has been implemented.
Highway A4 acts as a bypass of the city, running through the northern
districts of Rzeszów.
Rzeszów-Jasionka Airport (Port Lotniczy Rzeszów-Jasionka) is located
in the village of Jasionka 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) north of the
city. As of June 2015 scheduled passenger services are offered by
Ryanair, LOT Polish Airlines, and Lufthansa. This is supplemented
seasonally by tourist charter flights to typical summer leisure
destinations. For more details see
Rzeszów-Jasionka Airport or its
The city operates 49 bus lines including night and airport buses.
Rzeszów is also a gateway to the Bieszczady mountains, with many
buses heading for Sanok.
Rzeszów is an important rail hub is on the main West-East rail route;
Line 91. This runs from
Silesia and Kraków,
Kraków Main station
Kraków Główny) –
Medyka on the Polish eastern border. This line
then continues on to Ukraine. Its main railway station was established
in the 19th century and apart from it, there are five additional
stations in the city:
Rzeszów Załęże and
Rzeszów Zachodni (freight
only). There are also two non-electrified lines stemming from Rzeszów
Jasło and to Tarnobrzeg.
Rzeszów University of Technology
Rzeszów University (established in 2001 from a number of smaller
Rzeszów University of Technology
Rzeszów University of Technology (formed from The Higher Engineering
School in 1974)
University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszów
(established in 1996) website
Branches in Dębica,
Krosno and Nisko
Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania website
WSPiA Rzeszowska Szkoła Wyższa –
Rzeszów (established in 1995)
Notable high schools:
Konarski's Number 1 High School in Rzeszów
John Paul II High School
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
Twin towns – Sister cities
Rzeszów is twinned with:
Gainesville, Florida, United States
Buffalo, New York, United States
Slovakia (since 1991)
Satu Mare, Romania
The City Hall
The Diocesan Museum
The historic Market Square
Farny Square in Rzeszów
The PKO Bank Building
The Old Town Synagogue
The Music Institute
The Revolution Monument
Basilica of the Assumption
^ a b "Dane statystyczne urzędu miasta Rzeszowa" (in Polish).
^ Random House Dictionary
^ Cf. Pięć wieków miasta Rzeszowa XIV-XVIII, Collective of authors,
Franciszek Błoński (pl) (ed.) on behalf of the Polskie
Rzeszów department, Warsaw: Państwowe
Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1958, p. 18; and Władysław Makarski, Roczniki
humanistyczne, Towarzystwo Naukowe Katolickiego Uniwersytetu
Lubelskiego, 1983. T. 33, p. 70. During the German occupation
Rzeszów was given the artificial new name of Reichshof.
^ a b o.o., Stay
Poland Sp. z. "History of Rzeszow". Retrieved 28 April
^ a b c
Rzeszów excellent choice
Rzeszów (10 December 2015). "Raport o polskich metropoliach.
Jak wypadł w nim Rzeszów?". Retrieved 28 April 2017.
^ J. Motylkiewicz. "Ethnic Communities in the Towns of the
Polish-Ukrainian Borderland in the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, and
Eighteenth Centuries". C. M. Hann, P. R. Magocsi ed. Galicia: A
Multicultured Land. University of Toronto Press. 2005. p. 37.
^ a b c "Rzeszow". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 5 February
^ "Truppenübungsplatz Reichshof (Rzeszow) • Axis History Forum".
Retrieved 28 April 2017.
^ "Rzeszow Ghetto". Retrieved 28 April 2017.
^ Stefan Krakowski (2013). "Rzeszow.
Holocaust Period". Encyclopaedia
Judaica. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 8 July 2013. In September
1943 able-bodied Jews of
Rzeszów were transported to Szebnia, where
the majority met their death.
^ "Rzeszow www.HolocaustResearchProject.org". Retrieved 28 April
^ a b "Serwis informacyjny UM
Rzeszów – History of Rzeszów".
rzeszow.pl. Retrieved 5 February 2010. [dead link]
^ "EuroWEATHER – Maximum temperature, Rzeszow,
Poland – Climate
averages". eurometeo.com. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
^ "MSN Weather – Yearly, Monthly Temperature and Precipitation
Averages and Records for Rzeszów, POL". weather.uk.msn.com. Retrieved
5 February 2010.
^ A note attempting to provide the English comprehension of halny,
which lacks a one-word translation:
Halny is a singular masculine noun
in Polish (plural: halne) when denoting the wind. Wind is of masculine
gender in Polish: wiatr. The terms halny and wiatr halny are
Halny is also a general masculine adjective derived from
the feminine noun hala, a grassy meadow typical of the higher
elevations of the
Carpathian Mountains and the Alps. The feminine
singular adjective is halna, while the neuter singular and the plural
for all three genders of the adjective is halne.
^ "Polska? Tak!". the POLSKI blog. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 12
^ "Business briefs". Archived from the original on 12 November 2010.
Retrieved 10 November 2010.
Rzeszów S.A." web.pks.rzeszow.pl. Retrieved 8 January
^ "University of Rzeszów: News". www.univ.rzeszow.pl. Archived from
the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Serwis informacyjny UM
Informacja o współpracy Rzeszowa z miastami partnerskimi".
www.rzeszow.pl. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012.
Retrieved 2 February 2010.
^ "History". Buffalo-Rzeszow Sister Cities, Inc. Archived from the
original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2008.
^ Sister Cities from Buffalo's website Archived 25 April 2009 at the
^ "Twin cities of the City of Kosice". Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr.
Retrieved 27 July 2013.
^ "Semnarea acordului de înfrăţire: Satu Mare- Rzeszow" (in
Romanian). www.satu-mare.ro. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
^ Офіційний сайт міста
Івано-Франківська. mvk.if.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved
7 March 2010.
Fangchenggang – nowe miasto partnerskie Rzeszowa" (in Polish).
www.rzeszow.pl. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
Jerzy Jawczak (1991). Rzeszów. Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza.
ISBN 978-83-03-02788-7. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
Malczewski, Jan (1995). Rakuś, Anna; Staszewski, Krzysztof;
Malczewski, Jan, eds. 'Zamek w Rzeszowie, jego otoczenie i
właściciele (in Polish). Rzeszów: Libri Ressovienses.
Moshe Yaari-Wald (ed.), Sefer Zikkaron li-Kehillat Risha (Heb., some
Yid. and Eng., 1967).
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rzeszów.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Rzeszów.
Rzeszów City Department
Welcome to Rzeszów!
Gallery of Rzeszów
Principal cities of Poland
Counties of Podkarpackie Voivodeship
Seat (not part of the county): Rzeszów
Gmina Głogów Małopolski
Gmina Sokołów Małopolski
Coordinates: 50°2′N 22°0′E / 50.033°N 22.000°E /