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Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska ([ʐɛt͡ʂpɔˈspɔlita] ( listen)) is a traditional and official name of the Polish State – Polish: Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska (Latin: Res Publica Poloniae, English: Republic of Poland). It is a compound of rzecz "thing" and pospolita "common", a calque of Latin res publica (res "thing", publica "public, common"), i.e. republic, in English also rendered commonwealth. In Poland
Poland
the word Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska is used exclusively in relation to the Republic
Republic
of Poland, and any other republic is referred to in Polish as a republika, e.g., Italian Republic
Republic
– Polish: Republika Włoska.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Three Rzeczpospolitas 3 Other usage 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Origins[edit] The term "Rzeczpospolita" [more precise: common matter] has been used in Poland
Poland
since the beginning of the 16th century. Originally it was a generic term to denote a state or a commonness. The famous quote by Jan Zamoyski, the Lord Chancellor of the Crown, on the importance of education, is a great example of its use:

Polish: Takie będą Rzeczypospolite, jakie ich młodzieży chowanie. Such will be the Commonwealths as the upbringing of their youth. — Jan Zamoyski, Foundation Act of the Academy of Zamość; 1600

The meaning of "Rzeczpospolita" is well described by the term "Commonwealth". As a result, the literal meaning of "Rzeczpospolita Polska" is "Polish Commonwealth", or " Republic
Republic
of Poland". However, the connotation with the term "republic" may be somewhat misleading in the context of the Polish State within the period of the 16th to the 18th century, because Poland
Poland
in that time was an elective monarchy and the "Rzeczpospolita" was reflected in the official name, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Three Rzeczpospolitas[edit] "Rzeczpospolita" is also used in a series of symbolic names referring to three periods in the History of Poland:

I Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
(Polish: Pierwsza Rzeczpospolita), in reference to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
(1569–1795). During this period, commonwealth was ruled de facto by a privileged class called the szlachta, which had (amongst numerous others) the right to elect both the king and parliament (the Sejm). It began with the Union of Lublin in 1569 and ended with the third and final Partition of Poland in 1795; II Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
(Polish: Druga Rzeczpospolita), in reference to the Second Polish Republic
Republic
(1918–39). Used to refer to the interwar period, lasting from the gaining of independence in 1918 following the end of World War I
World War I
up to the World War II-triggering Invasion of Poland
Poland
(1939) by both Nazi Germany. The renascent Polish State was initially called the Republic
Republic
of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Republika Polska). The title Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
was introduced by the March Constitution of Poland, the first article of which stated that Polish: Państwo Polskie jest Rzecząpospolitą, meaning "The Polish State is a Commonwealth"; III Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
(Polish: Trzecia Rzeczpospolita), in reference to the current Third Polish Republic
Republic
(1989–present). This is the title of the current Polish State, dating from the overthrow of the Communist government in 1989.

(Please note: The above list is by no means a complete list of the various official titles for the Polish State throughout its history; it is simply a list of those which are referred to as a Rzeczpospolita.) Other usage[edit] Expressions that make use the concept of "Rzeczpospolita" include:

Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
szlachecka – Republic
Republic
of Nobles (szlachta), another name for the "I Rzeczpospolita"; Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Obojga Narodów – The Commonwealth of the Two Nations, another name for the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth; Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Babińska – Babin Republic, a satirical, literary society, founded by a group of nobles during the second half of the 16th century; Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Krakowska – Free City of Kraków
Free City of Kraków
or Republic
Republic
of Kraków (1815–1846); Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Zakopiańska – Republic
Republic
of Zakopane, a short-lasting form of an independent state, established for about a month in October 1918; Polska Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Ludowa – People's Republic
Republic
of Poland, a name used formally from 1952 to 1990. Was often abbreviated to simply " Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska" or "PRL". Sometimes referenced (wrongly) to the post-war period 1944–1952; Czwarta Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
– Fourth Polish Republic, a slogan used by the political party Law and Justice.

Nowadays, the terms "Rzeczpospolita" and " Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska" are used interchangeably, so far as they relate to the Polish State by default. Before 1939, "Rzeczpospolita" was sometimes abbreviated to "Rzplita" in written documents. "RP" is a common abbreviation for " Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska". While Lithuanian word Žečpospolita is a direct borrowing from Polish "rzeczpospolita", Belarusian Рэч Паспалітая (Rech Paspalitaya) and Ukrainian Річ Посполита (Rich Pospolyta) are like in Polish literal translations from Latin. All of them refer to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. See also[edit]

Poland
Poland
portal

History of Poland Name of Poland Outline of Poland

References[edit]

" Poland
Poland
- History - Third Rzeczpospolita". PWN online encyclopedia. Retrieved 19 November 2013.  Central European Superpower, Henryk Litwin, BUM Magazine, October 2016.

External links[edit]

Look up rzeczpospolita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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