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RZECZPOSPOLITA (Polish pronunciation: (_ listen )) is a traditional and official name of the Polish State – Polish : Rzeczpospolita Polska_ (Latin : _Respublica Poloniae_, English: Republic
Republic
of Poland).

It is a compound of _rzecz_ "thing" and _pospolita_ "common", a calque of Latin _res publica_ (_res_ "thing", _publica_ "public, common"), i.e. republic , in English also rendered _commonwealth_.

In Poland
Poland
the word _Rzeczpospolita_ is used exclusively in relation to the Republic
Republic
of Poland, and any other republic is referred to in Polish as a _republika_, e.g., Italian Republic
Republic
– Polish : _Republika Włoska_.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins * 2 Three Rzeczpospolitas * 3 Other usage * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

ORIGINS

The term "Rzeczpospolita" has been used in Poland
Poland
since the beginning of the 16th century. Originally it was a generic term to denote a state or a commonness. The famous quote by Jan Zamoyski
Jan Zamoyski
, the Lord Chancellor of the Crown, on the importance of education, is a great example of its use:

Polish : _Takie będą Rzeczypospolite, jakie ich młodzieży chowanie._ Such will be the Commonwealths as the upbringing of their youth. —  Jan Zamoyski
Jan Zamoyski
, Foundation Act of the Academy of Zamość ; 1600

The meaning of "Rzeczpospolita" is well described by the term "Commonwealth". As a result, the literal meaning of "Rzeczpospolita Polska" is "Polish Commonwealth", or " Republic
Republic
of Poland". However, the connotation with the term "republic" may be somewhat misleading in the context of the Polish State within the period of the 16th to the 18th century, because Poland
Poland
in that time was an elective monarchy and the "Rzeczpospolita" was reflected in the official name, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth .

THREE RZECZPOSPOLITAS

"Rzeczpospolita" is also used in a series of symbolic names referring to three periods in the History of Poland
Poland
:

* I RZECZPOSPOLITA (Polish : _Pierwsza Rzeczpospolita_), in reference to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795). During this period, commonwealth was ruled _de facto_ by a privileged class called the szlachta , which had (amongst numerous others) the right to elect both the king and parliament (the Sejm
Sejm
). It began with the Union of Lublin in 1569 and ended with the third and final Partition of Poland
Poland
in 1795; * II RZECZPOSPOLITA (Polish : _Druga Rzeczpospolita_), in reference to the Second Polish Republic
Republic
(1918–39). Used to refer to the interwar period, lasting from the gaining of independence in 1918 following the end of World War I
World War I
up to the World War II
World War II
-triggering Invasion of Poland
Poland
(1939) by both Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, who had secretly agreed on the partition in the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact . The renascent Polish State was initially called the Republic
Republic
of Poland
Poland
(Polish : _Republika Polska_). The title _Rzeczpospolita_ was introduced by the March Constitution of Poland
Poland
, the first article of which stated that Polish : _Państwo Polskie jest Rzecząpospolitą_, meaning "The Polish State is a Commonwealth"; * III RZECZPOSPOLITA (Polish : _Trzecia Rzeczpospolita_), in reference to the current Third Polish Republic
Republic
(1989–present). This is the title of the current Polish State, dating from the collapse of the Communist regime in 1989.

(Please note: The above list is by no means a complete list of the various official titles for the Polish State throughout its history; it is simply a list of those which are referred to as a _Rzeczpospolita_.)

OTHER USAGE

Expressions that make use the concept of "Rzeczpospolita" include:

* _ Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
szlachecka_ – Republic
Republic
of Nobles (szlachta ), another name for the "I Rzeczpospolita"; * _ Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Obojga Narodów_ – The Commonwealth of the Two Nations, another name for the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth ; * _ Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Babińska_ – Babin Republic
Republic
, a satirical, literary society, founded by a group of nobles during the second half of the 16th century; * _ Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Krakowska_ – Free City of Kraków or Republic
Republic
of Kraków (1815–1846); * _ Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Zakopiańska_ – Republic
Republic
of Zakopane , a short-lasting form of an independent state, established for about a month in October 1918; * _Polska Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Ludowa_ – People\'s Republic
Republic
of Poland
Poland
, a name used formally from 1952 to 1990. Was often abbreviated to simply " Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska" or "PRL". Sometimes referenced (wrongly) to the post-war period 1944–1952; * _Czwarta Rzeczpospolita_ – Fourth Polish Republic
Republic
, a slogan used by the political party Law and Justice .

Nowadays, the terms "Rzeczpospolita" and " Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska" are used interchangeably, so far as they relate to the Polish State by default.

Before 1939, "Rzeczpospolita" was sometimes abbreviated to "Rzplita" in written documents.

"RP" is a common abbreviation for " Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska".

While Lithuanian word _Žečpospolita_ is a direct borrowing from Polish "rzeczpospolita", Belarusian _Рэч Паспалітая_ (_Rech Paspalitaya_) and Ukrainian _Річ Посполита_ (_Rich Pospolyta_) are like in Polish literal translations from Latin. All of them refer to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth .

SEE ALSO

* Poland
Poland
portal

* History of Poland
Poland
* Name of Poland
Poland
* Outline of Poland
Poland

REFERENCES

* " Poland
Poland
- History - Third Rzeczpospolita". PWN online encyclopedia. Retrieved 19 November 2013. * _Central European Superpower_, Henryk Litwin, _BUM Magazine_, October 2016.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Look up RZECZPOSPOLITA _ in Wiktionary, the free

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