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Coordinates : 52°39′N 0°38′W / 52.650°N 0.633°W / 52.650; -0.633

RUTLAND

County

Flag

Motto
Motto
: "Multum in parvo" ("Much in little")

Rutland
Rutland
in England
England

SOVEREIGN STATE United Kingdom
United Kingdom

COUNTRY England
England

REGION East Midlands
East Midlands

ESTABLISHED Historic

CEREMONIAL COUNTY

AREA 382 km2 (147 sq mi)

• RANKED 45th of 48

POPULATION (MID-2016 EST.) 38,600

• RANKED 47th of 48

DENSITY 101/km2 (260/sq mi)

ETHNICITY 98.1% White

UNITARY AUTHORITY

COUNCIL Rutland County Council

EXECUTIVE Conservative

ADMIN HQ Oakham

AREA 381.8 km2 (147.4 sq mi)

• RANKED 105th of 326

POPULATION 38,600

• RANKED 323rd of 326

DENSITY 101/km2 (260/sq mi)

ISO 3166-2 GB-RUT

ONS CODE 00FP

GSS CODE E06000017

NUTS UKF22

WEBSITE https://www.rutland.gov.uk/

DISTRICTS N/A

MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT Alan Duncan (C)

TIME ZONE Greenwich Mean Time (UTC )

• SUMMER (DST ) British Summer Time (UTC+1 )

Oakham Castle Rutland Water
Rutland Water

RUTLAND /ˈrʌtlənd/ is a landlocked county in the East Midlands
East Midlands
of England, bounded to the west and north by Leicestershire
Leicestershire
, to the northeast by Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
and the southeast by Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
.

Its greatest length north to south is only 18 miles (29 km) and its greatest breadth east to west is 17 miles (27 km). It is the smallest historic county in England
England
and the fourth smallest in the UK as a whole. Because of this, the Latin
Latin
motto _Multum in Parvo_ or "much in little" was adopted by the county council in 1950. It has the smallest population of any normal unitary authority in England. Among modern ceremonial counties , the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
, City of London
City of London
and City of Bristol
Bristol
are smaller in area. The former County of London , in existence 1889 to 1965, also had a smaller area. It is 323rd of the 326 districts in population.

The only towns in Rutland
Rutland
are Oakham , the county town , and Uppingham . At the centre of the county is Rutland Water
Rutland Water
, a large artificial reservoir that is an important nature reserve serving as an overwintering site for wildfowl and a breeding site for ospreys .

Rutland's older cottages are built from limestone or ironstone and many have roofs of Collyweston stone slate or thatch .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Politics * 4 Demographics

* 5 Geography

* 5.1 Rivers

* 6 Economy * 7 Transport * 8 In popular culture * 9 Traditions * 10 Education * 11 Places of interest * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Bibliography * 15 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The origin of the name of the county is unclear. In a 1909 edition of _ Notes and Queries _ Harriot Tabor suggested "that the name should be Ruthland, and that there is a part of Essex
Essex
called the Ruth, and that the ancient holders of it were called Ruthlanders, since altered to Rutland"; however, responses suggest "that Rutland, as a name, was earlier than the Norman Conquest . Its first mention, as "Roteland", occurs in the will of Edward the Confessor ; in Domesday it is "the King's soc of Roteland", not being then a shire; and in the reign of John it was assigned as a dowry to Queen Isabella .

The northwestern part of the county was recorded as Rutland, a detached part of Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
, in Domesday Book
Domesday Book
; the south-eastern part as the wapentake of _Wicelsea_ in Northamptonshire . It was first mentioned as a separate county in 1159, but as late as the 14th century it was referred to as the 'Soke of Rutland'. Historically it was also known as RUTLANDSHIRE, but in recent times only the shorter name is common.

Rutland
Rutland
may be from Old English
Old English
_hryþr_ or _hrythr_ "cattle" and _land_ "land", as a record from 1128 as _Ritelanede_ shows. However, _A Dictionary of British Place-Names_ by A D Mills gives an alternative etymology, "Rota's land", from the Old English (Anglo-Saxon) personal name and _land_ land. It is from the alternative interpretation of _red land_ that the traditional nickname for a male person from Rutland, a "Raddle Man", derives.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Rutland Topiary at Clipsham Yew Tree Avenue to mark Rutland's independence in 1997

Earl of Rutland
Rutland
and Duke of Rutland
Duke of Rutland
are titles in the peerage of England
England
held in the Manners family, derived from the historic county of Rutland. The Earl of Rutland
Rutland
was elevated to the status of Duke
Duke
in 1703 and the titles were merged. The family seat is Belvoir Castle
Belvoir Castle
, Leicestershire.

The office of High Sheriff of Rutland was instituted in 1129, and there has been a Lord Lieutenant of Rutland since at least 1559.

By the time of the 19th century it had been divided into the hundreds of Alstoe , East , Martinsley , Oakham and Wrandike .

Rutland
Rutland
covered parts of three poor law unions and rural sanitary districts (RSDs): those of Oakham, Uppingham and Stamford. The registration county of Rutland
Rutland
contained the entirety of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs, which included several parishes in Leicestershire
Leicestershire
and Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
– the eastern part in Stamford RSD was included in the Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
registration county.

In 1894 under the Local Government Act 1894 the rural sanitary districts were partitioned along county boundaries to form three rural districts . The part of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs in Rutland
Rutland
formed the Oakham Rural District and Uppingham Rural District , with the two parishes from Oakham RSD in Leicestershire
Leicestershire
becoming part of the Melton Mowbray Rural District , the nine parishes of Uppingham RSD in Leicestershire
Leicestershire
becoming the Hallaton Rural District , and the six parishes of Uppingham RSD in Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
becoming Gretton Rural District . Meanwhile, that part of Stamford RSD in Rutland
Rutland
became the Ketton Rural District .

Oakham Urban District was created from Oakham Rural District in 1911. It was subsequently abolished in 1974.

Rutland
Rutland
was included in the " East Midlands
East Midlands
General Review Area" of the 1958–67 Local Government Commission for England
England
. Draft recommendations would have seen Rutland
Rutland
split, with Ketton Rural District going along with Stamford to a new administrative county of Cambridgeshire , and the western part added to Leicestershire
Leicestershire
. The final proposals were less radical and instead proposed that Rutland become a single rural district within the administrative county of Leicestershire.

This action was to prove only temporary, with Rutland
Rutland
being included in the new non-metropolitan county of Leicestershire
Leicestershire
under the Local Government Act 1972 , from 1 April 1974. Under proposals for non-metropolitan districts Rutland
Rutland
would have been paired with what now constitutes the Melton district – the revised and implemented proposals made Rutland
Rutland
a standalone non-metropolitan district (breaking the 40,000 minimum population barrier).

In 1994, the Local Government Commission for England
England
, which was conducting a structural review of English local government, recommended that Rutland
Rutland
become a unitary authority. This was implemented on 1 April 1997, with Rutland
Rutland
regaining a separate Lieutenancy and shrievalty as well as its council regaining control of county functions such as education and social services.

Royal Mail
Royal Mail
included Rutland
Rutland
in the Leicestershire
Leicestershire
postal county in 1974. After a lengthy and well-organised campaign, and despite a code of practice which excludes amendments to former postal counties, the Royal Mail
Royal Mail
agreed to create a postal county of Rutland
Rutland
in 2007. This was achieved in January 2008 by amending the former postal county for all of the Oakham (LE15 ) post town and a small part of the Market Harborough
Harborough
(LE16) post town.

The council remained formally a non-metropolitan district council, with wards rather than electoral divisions, but has renamed the district to ' Rutland County Council ' to allow it to use that name. This means the full legal name of the council is Rutland
Rutland
County Council District Council.

Under the Poor Laws, Oakham Union workhouse was built in 1836–37 at a site to the north-east of the town, with room for 100 paupers. The building later operated as the Catmose Vale Hospital, and now forms part of the Oakham School .

POLITICS

There are 26 councillors representing 16 wards on Rutland
Rutland
County Council .

Rutland
Rutland
formed a Parliamentary constituency on its own until 1918, when it became part of the Rutland
Rutland
and Stamford constituency, along with Stamford in Lincolnshire. Since 1983 it has formed part of the Rutland
Rutland
and Melton constituency along with Melton borough and part of Harborough
Harborough
district from Leicestershire.

Alan Duncan has been the Conservative Member of Parliament for Rutland
Rutland
and Melton since 1992.

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: List of settlements in Rutland by population

The population in the 2011 Census was 37,369, a rise of 8% on the 2001 total of 34,563. This is a population density of 98 people per square kilometre. 2.7% of the population are from ethnic minority backgrounds compared to 9.1% nationally.

YEAR POPULATION

1831 19,380

1861 21,861

1871 22,073

1881 21,434

1891 20,659

1901 19,709

1991 33,228

2001 34,560

2011 37,400

In 2006 it was reported that Rutland
Rutland
has the highest fertility rate of any English county – the average woman having 2.81 children, compared with only 1.67 in Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
.

In December 2006, Sport England
England
published a survey which revealed that residents of Rutland
Rutland
were the 6th most active in England
England
in sports and other fitness activities. 27.4% of the population participate at least 3 times a week for 30 minutes.

In 2012, the well-being report by the Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
found Rutland
Rutland
to be the "happiest county" in the mainland UK.

GEOGRAPHY

See also: List of places in Rutland and List of civil parishes in Rutland
Rutland

The particular geology of the area has given its name to the Rutland Formation which was formed from muds and sand carried down by rivers and occurring as bands of different colours, each with many fossil shells at the bottom. At the bottom of the Rutland
Rutland
Formation is a bed of dirty white sandy silt. Under the Rutland
Rutland
Formation is a formation called the Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
limestone . The best exposure of this limestone (and also the Rutland
Rutland
Formation) is at the Ketton Cement Works quarry just outside Ketton .

Rutland
Rutland
is dominated by Rutland Water
Rutland Water
, a large artificial lake formerly known as "Empingham Reservoir", in the middle of the county, which is almost bisected by a large spit of land. The west part is in the Vale of Catmose . Rutland
Rutland
Water, when construction started in 1971, became Europe's largest man-made lake; construction was completed in 1975, and filling the lake took a further four years. This has now been voted Rutland's favourite tourist attraction.

The highest point of the county is at Flitteris: Flitteriss Park (a farm east of Cold Overton Park ) at 197 m (646 ft) above sea level . Grid Reference: SK8271708539 The lowest point is a section of secluded farmland near Belmesthorpe, 17 m (56 feet) above sea level . Grid Reference: TF056611122

RIVERS

* River Chater * Eye Brook * River Gwash * River Welland
River Welland

ECONOMY

There are 17,000 people of working age in Rutland, of which the highest percentage (30.8%) work in Public Administration, Education and Health, closely followed by 29.7% in Distribution, Hotels and Restaurants and 16.7% in Manufacturing industries. Significant employers include Lands\' End in Oakham and the Ketton Cement Works . Other employers in Rutland
Rutland
include two Ministry of Defence bases – Kendrew Barracks (formerly RAF Cottesmore ) and St George\'s Barracks (previously RAF North Luffenham ), two public schools – Oakham and Uppingham – and one prison, Stocken . The former Ashwell prison closed at the end of March 2011 after a serious riot and government review but, having been purchased by Rutland County Council , has now been turned into Oakham Enterprise Park . The county used to supply iron ore to Corby
Corby
steel works but these quarries closed in the 1960s and early 1970s resulting in the famous walk of "Sundew " (the Exton quarries' large walking dragline) from Exton to Corby, which even featured on the children's TV series _ Blue Peter _. Agriculture thrives with much wheat farming on the rich soil. Tourism continues to grow.

The Ruddles Brewery was Langham\'s biggest industry until it was closed in 1997. Rutland
Rutland
bitter is one of only three UK beers to have achieved Protected Geographical Indication status; this followed an application by Ruddles. Greene King, the owners of Ruddles, closed the Langham brewery and were unable to take advantage of the registration. However, in 2010 a Rutland
Rutland
Bitter was launched by Oakham's Grainstore Brewery .

It is 348th out of 354 on the Indices of Deprivation for England, showing it to be one of the least economically deprived areas in the country.

In March 2007, Rutland
Rutland
became only the fourth Fairtrade
Fairtrade
County.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Leicestershire
Leicestershire
and Rutland
Rutland
at current basic prices with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YEAR REGIONAL GROSS VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SERVICES

1995 6,666 145 2,763 3,758

2000 7,813 112 2,861 4,840

2003 9,509 142 3,045 6,321

^ includes hunting and forestry

^ includes energy and construction

^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding

TRANSPORT

A small part of the East Coast Main Line passes through Rutland's north-east corner, near Essendine . It was on this stretch that LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard achieved the world speed record for steam locomotives on 3 July 1938, with a speed of 125.55 mph (202.05 km/h).

Rutland
Rutland
was the last county in England
England
without a direct rail service to London (apart from the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
and several administrative counties which are unitary authorities). East Midlands
East Midlands
Trains started running a single service from Oakham railway station to London St Pancras via Corby
Corby
on 27 April 2009.

The Rutland
Rutland
Electric Car Project, run by regional partnership Uppingham First, is installing four charging points in the county in 2012, with Larkfleet Homes installing one at its showhome in Oakham, and three more located at the Falcon Hotel in Uppingham, Greetham Valley Hotel and Golf Club and Barnsdale Lodge Hotel. Rutland
Rutland
is the first county to offer region-wide coverage.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

* Rutland's small size has led to a number of humorous references such as _ Rutland Weekend Television
Rutland Weekend Television
_, a television comedy sketch series hosted by Eric Idle
Eric Idle
. * The county is the supposed home of the parody rock band The Rutles , who first appeared on _ Rutland
Rutland
Weekend Television_. * The events in several Peter F. Hamilton books (like _Misspent Youth _ and _ Mindstar Rising _) are situated in Rutland, where the author lives.

TRADITIONS

Rutland
Rutland
has many varied traditions. Among them:

* Letting of the Banks ( Whissendine ): Banks are pasture land, this traditionally occurs on the third week of March * Rush Bearing "> Catmose College, Oakham, main building See also: List of schools in Rutland

Harington School and Rutland County College provide post-16 education in the county.

PLACES OF INTEREST

* Barnsdale Gardens * Lyddington Bede House * Normanton Hall * Oakham Buttercross * Oakham Castle * Rutland County Museum , Oakham * Rutland Railway Museum , Ashwell * Rutland Water
Rutland Water
* Stapleford Miniature Railway , Nr Whissendine * Tolethorpe Hall
Tolethorpe Hall

SEE ALSO

* Flag of Rutland
Flag of Rutland
* High Sheriff of Rutland * List of birds of Leicestershire
Leicestershire
and Rutland
Rutland
* Lord Lieutenant of Rutland

REFERENCES

* ^ Scott-Giles, C Wilfrid (1953). _Civic Heraldry of England
England
and Wales, 2nd edition_. London: J M Dent & Sons . p. 318. * ^ Tabor, Harriot (February 1909). "Rutland: Origin of the Name". _ Notes and Queries _: 170. * ^ W.B.H. (April 1909). "Rutland: Origin of the Name". _Notes and Queries_: 294. * ^ A D Mills (2003). "Rutland". _A Dictionary of British Place-Names_. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. Retrieved 24 April 2010. * ^ Joad, C.E.M., ed. (1948). _The English Counties Illustrated_. Odhams Press. p. 307. * ^ Archived 23 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Little Rutland
Rutland
To Go It Alone – No Merger with Leicestershire. _The Times_, 2 August 1963. * ^ _Stamford Mercury_, _MP wins seven-year postal address battle_, 5 November 2007. * ^ Royal Mail, _Postcode Address File
File
Code of Practice _, (2004) * ^ AFD Software – Latest PAF Data News * ^ Workhouses website * ^ _A_ _B_ "Geographical Statistical Information". _Government Office for the East Midlands_. Retrieved 3 October 2006. * ^ Rutland
Rutland
County Council: Census and Population Information * ^ * ^ Sports England
England
Archived 25 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ First ONS Annual Experimental Subjective Well-being Results * ^ BBC News: ONS well-being report reveals UK\'s happiness ratings * ^ "The Geology of the Peterborough
Peterborough
Area". _ Peterborough
Peterborough
RIGS_. Archived from the original on 24 February 2006. Retrieved 3 October 2006. * ^ "Commission Regulation (EC) No 1107/96 of 12 June 1996 on the registration of geographical indications and designations of origin under the procedure laid down in Article 17 of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2081/92". _EUR-LEX Access to European Law_. European Commission . 12 June 1996. Retrieved 24 April 2010. * ^ " Rutland
Rutland
Bitter resurrected" _ Leicester
Leicester
Mercury_ 1 Oct 2010 * ^ National Accounts Co-ordination Division (21 December 2005). "Regional Gross Value Added" (PDF). Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
. pp. 240–253. Retrieved 24 April 2010. * ^ " Corby
Corby
train delays labelled \'shambolic\'". Northants Evening Telegraph. 25 November 2008. * ^ "Electric car charging points". Retrieved 9 March 2012.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Phillips, George (1912). _Cambridge County Geography of Rutland_. University Press. ASIN B00085ZZ5M. * Rycroft, Simon; Roscoe, Barbara; Rycroft, Simon (1996). "Landscape and Identity at Ladybower Reservoir
Reservoir
and Rutland
Rutland
Water". _Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers_. Blackwell Publishing. 21 (3): 534–551. JSTOR 622595 . doi :10.2307/622595 . * Prince Yuri Galitzine (1986). _Domesday book in Rutland: The Dramatis personae_ (PDF). Rutland
Rutland
Record Society.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media

.