Coordinates : 52°39′N 0°38′W / 52.650°N 0.633°W /
Motto : "Multum in parvo" ("Much in little")
382 km2 (147 sq mi)
45th of 48
POPULATION (MID-2016 EST.)
47th of 48
101/km2 (260/sq mi)
Rutland County Council
381.8 km2 (147.4 sq mi)
105th of 326
323rd of 326
101/km2 (260/sq mi)
MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT
Alan Duncan (C)
Greenwich Mean Time (UTC )
• SUMMER (DST )
British Summer Time (UTC+1 )
RUTLAND /ˈrʌtlənd/ is a landlocked county in the
East Midlands of
England, bounded to the west and north by
Leicestershire , to the
Lincolnshire and the southeast by
Its greatest length north to south is only 18 miles (29 km) and its
greatest breadth east to west is 17 miles (27 km). It is the smallest
historic county in
England and the fourth smallest in the UK as a
whole. Because of this, the
Latin motto _Multum in Parvo_ or "much in
little" was adopted by the county council in 1950. It has the
smallest population of any normal unitary authority in England. Among
modern ceremonial counties , the
Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight ,
City of London
City of London and
Bristol are smaller in area. The former
County of London , in
existence 1889 to 1965, also had a smaller area. It is 323rd of the
326 districts in population.
The only towns in
Oakham , the county town , and
Uppingham . At the centre of the county is
Rutland Water , a large
artificial reservoir that is an important nature reserve serving as an
overwintering site for wildfowl and a breeding site for ospreys .
Rutland's older cottages are built from limestone or ironstone and
many have roofs of
Collyweston stone slate or thatch .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Politics
* 4 Demographics
* 5 Geography
* 5.1 Rivers
* 6 Economy
* 7 Transport
* 8 In popular culture
* 9 Traditions
* 10 Education
* 11 Places of interest
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 14 Bibliography
* 15 External links
The origin of the name of the county is unclear. In a 1909 edition of
Notes and Queries _ Harriot Tabor suggested "that the name should be
Ruthland, and that there is a part of
Essex called the Ruth, and that
the ancient holders of it were called Ruthlanders, since altered to
Rutland"; however, responses suggest "that Rutland, as a name, was
earlier than the Norman Conquest . Its first mention, as "Roteland",
occurs in the will of
Edward the Confessor ; in Domesday it is "the
King's soc of Roteland", not being then a shire; and in the reign of
John it was assigned as a dowry to Queen Isabella .
The northwestern part of the county was recorded as Rutland, a
detached part of
Nottinghamshire , in
Domesday Book ; the
south-eastern part as the wapentake of _Wicelsea_ in Northamptonshire
. It was first mentioned as a separate county in 1159, but as late as
the 14th century it was referred to as the 'Soke of Rutland'.
Historically it was also known as RUTLANDSHIRE, but in recent times
only the shorter name is common.
Rutland may be from
Old English _hryþr_ or _hrythr_ "cattle" and
_land_ "land", as a record from 1128 as _Ritelanede_ shows. However,
_A Dictionary of British Place-Names_ by A D Mills gives an
alternative etymology, "Rota's land", from the Old English
(Anglo-Saxon) personal name and _land_ land. It is from the
alternative interpretation of _red land_ that the traditional nickname
for a male person from Rutland, a "Raddle Man", derives.
History of Rutland Topiary at
Clipsham Yew Tree
Avenue to mark Rutland's independence in 1997
Duke of Rutland
Duke of Rutland are titles in the peerage of
England held in the Manners family, derived from the historic county
of Rutland. The Earl of
Rutland was elevated to the status of
1703 and the titles were merged. The family seat is
Belvoir Castle ,
The office of
High Sheriff of Rutland was instituted in 1129, and
there has been a
Lord Lieutenant of Rutland since at least 1559.
By the time of the 19th century it had been divided into the hundreds
Alstoe , East , Martinsley ,
Oakham and Wrandike .
Rutland covered parts of three poor law unions and rural sanitary
districts (RSDs): those of Oakham,
Uppingham and Stamford. The
registration county of
Rutland contained the entirety of
Uppingham RSDs, which included several parishes in
Northamptonshire – the eastern part in Stamford RSD was included in
Lincolnshire registration county.
In 1894 under the
Local Government Act 1894 the rural sanitary
districts were partitioned along county boundaries to form three rural
districts . The part of
Uppingham RSDs in
Oakham Rural District and
Uppingham Rural District , with the two
Oakham RSD in
Leicestershire becoming part of the Melton
Mowbray Rural District , the nine parishes of
Uppingham RSD in
Leicestershire becoming the
Hallaton Rural District , and the six
Uppingham RSD in
Northamptonshire becoming Gretton Rural
District . Meanwhile, that part of Stamford RSD in
Rutland became the
Ketton Rural District .
Oakham Urban District was created from
Oakham Rural District in 1911.
It was subsequently abolished in 1974.
Rutland was included in the "
East Midlands General Review Area" of
the 1958–67 Local Government Commission for
England . Draft
recommendations would have seen
Rutland split, with
District going along with Stamford to a new administrative county of
Cambridgeshire , and the western part added to
Leicestershire . The
final proposals were less radical and instead proposed that Rutland
become a single rural district within the administrative county of
This action was to prove only temporary, with
Rutland being included
in the new non-metropolitan county of
Leicestershire under the Local
Government Act 1972 , from 1 April 1974. Under proposals for
Rutland would have been paired with what
now constitutes the Melton district – the revised and implemented
Rutland a standalone non-metropolitan district
(breaking the 40,000 minimum population barrier).
In 1994, the Local Government Commission for
England , which was
conducting a structural review of English local government,
Rutland become a unitary authority. This was
implemented on 1 April 1997, with
Rutland regaining a separate
Lieutenancy and shrievalty as well as its council regaining control of
county functions such as education and social services.
Royal Mail included
Rutland in the
Leicestershire postal county in
1974. After a lengthy and well-organised campaign, and despite a code
of practice which excludes amendments to former postal counties, the
Royal Mail agreed to create a postal county of
Rutland in 2007. This
was achieved in January 2008 by amending the former postal county for
all of the
Oakham (LE15 ) post town and a small part of the Market
Harborough (LE16) post town.
The council remained formally a non-metropolitan district council,
with wards rather than electoral divisions, but has renamed the
district to '
Rutland County Council ' to allow it to use that name.
This means the full legal name of the council is
Council District Council.
Under the Poor Laws,
Oakham Union workhouse was built in 1836–37 at
a site to the north-east of the town, with room for 100 paupers. The
building later operated as the Catmose Vale Hospital, and now forms
part of the
Oakham School .
There are 26 councillors representing 16 wards on
Rutland formed a Parliamentary constituency on its own until 1918,
when it became part of the
Rutland and Stamford constituency, along
with Stamford in Lincolnshire. Since 1983 it has formed part of the
Rutland and Melton constituency along with Melton borough and part of
Harborough district from Leicestershire.
Alan Duncan has been the Conservative Member of Parliament for
Rutland and Melton since 1992.
List of settlements in Rutland by population
The population in the 2011 Census was 37,369, a rise of 8% on the
2001 total of 34,563. This is a population density of 98 people per
square kilometre. 2.7% of the population are from ethnic minority
backgrounds compared to 9.1% nationally.
In 2006 it was reported that
Rutland has the highest fertility rate
of any English county – the average woman having 2.81 children,
compared with only 1.67 in
Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear .
In December 2006, Sport
England published a survey which revealed
that residents of
Rutland were the 6th most active in
sports and other fitness activities. 27.4% of the population
participate at least 3 times a week for 30 minutes.
In 2012, the well-being report by the
Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
Rutland to be the "happiest county" in the mainland UK.
List of places in Rutland and List of civil parishes in
The particular geology of the area has given its name to the Rutland
Formation which was formed from muds and sand carried down by rivers
and occurring as bands of different colours, each with many fossil
shells at the bottom. At the bottom of the
Rutland Formation is a bed
of dirty white sandy silt. Under the
Rutland Formation is a formation
Lincolnshire limestone . The best exposure of this
limestone (and also the
Rutland Formation) is at the
Works quarry just outside
Rutland is dominated by
Rutland Water , a large artificial lake
formerly known as "Empingham Reservoir", in the middle of the county,
which is almost bisected by a large spit of land. The west part is in
Vale of Catmose .
Rutland Water, when construction started in
1971, became Europe's largest man-made lake; construction was
completed in 1975, and filling the lake took a further four years.
This has now been voted Rutland's favourite tourist attraction.
The highest point of the county is at Flitteris:
Flitteriss Park (a
farm east of
Cold Overton Park ) at 197 m (646 ft) above sea level .
Grid Reference: SK8271708539 The lowest point is a section of secluded
farmland near Belmesthorpe, 17 m (56 feet) above sea level . Grid
There are 17,000 people of working age in Rutland, of which the
highest percentage (30.8%) work in Public Administration, Education
and Health, closely followed by 29.7% in Distribution, Hotels and
Restaurants and 16.7% in Manufacturing industries. Significant
employers include Lands\' End in
Oakham and the
Ketton Cement Works .
Other employers in
Rutland include two Ministry of Defence bases –
Kendrew Barracks (formerly
RAF Cottesmore ) and St George\'s Barracks
RAF North Luffenham ), two public schools –
Uppingham – and one prison, Stocken . The former Ashwell prison
closed at the end of March 2011 after a serious riot and government
review but, having been purchased by
Rutland County Council , has now
been turned into
Oakham Enterprise Park . The county used to supply
iron ore to
Corby steel works but these quarries closed in the 1960s
and early 1970s resulting in the famous walk of "Sundew " (the Exton
quarries' large walking dragline) from Exton to Corby, which even
featured on the children's TV series _
Blue Peter _. Agriculture
thrives with much wheat farming on the rich soil. Tourism continues to
Ruddles Brewery was Langham\'s biggest industry until it was
closed in 1997.
Rutland bitter is one of only three UK beers to have
achieved Protected Geographical Indication status; this followed an
application by Ruddles. Greene King, the owners of Ruddles, closed the
Langham brewery and were unable to take advantage of the registration.
However, in 2010 a
Rutland Bitter was launched by Oakham's Grainstore
It is 348th out of 354 on the Indices of Deprivation for England,
showing it to be one of the least economically deprived areas in the
In March 2007,
Rutland became only the fourth
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the
non-metropolitan county of
Rutland at current basic
prices with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
REGIONAL GROSS VALUE ADDED
^ includes hunting and forestry
^ includes energy and construction
^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
A small part of the
East Coast Main Line passes through Rutland's
north-east corner, near
Essendine . It was on this stretch that LNER
Class A4 4468 Mallard achieved the world speed record for steam
locomotives on 3 July 1938, with a speed of 125.55 mph (202.05 km/h).
Rutland was the last county in
England without a direct rail service
to London (apart from the
Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight and several administrative
counties which are unitary authorities).
East Midlands Trains started
running a single service from
Oakham railway station to London St
Corby on 27 April 2009.
Rutland Electric Car Project, run by regional partnership
Uppingham First, is installing four charging points in the county in
2012, with Larkfleet Homes installing one at its showhome in Oakham,
and three more located at the Falcon Hotel in Uppingham, Greetham
Valley Hotel and Golf Club and Barnsdale Lodge Hotel.
Rutland is the
first county to offer region-wide coverage.
IN POPULAR CULTURE
* Rutland's small size has led to a number of humorous references
such as _
Rutland Weekend Television
Rutland Weekend Television _, a television comedy sketch
series hosted by
Eric Idle .
* The county is the supposed home of the parody rock band The Rutles
, who first appeared on _
Rutland Weekend Television_.
* The events in several
Peter F. Hamilton books (like _Misspent
Youth _ and _
Mindstar Rising _) are situated in Rutland, where the
Rutland has many varied traditions. Among them:
* Letting of the Banks (
Whissendine ): Banks are pasture land, this
traditionally occurs on the third week of March
* Rush Bearing "> Catmose College, Oakham, main building See
List of schools in Rutland
Harington School and
Rutland County College provide post-16 education
in the county.
PLACES OF INTEREST
Lyddington Bede House
Rutland County Museum , Oakham
Rutland Railway Museum , Ashwell
Stapleford Miniature Railway , Nr
Flag of Rutland
Flag of Rutland
High Sheriff of Rutland
* List of birds of
Lord Lieutenant of Rutland
* ^ Scott-Giles, C Wilfrid (1953). _Civic Heraldry of
Wales, 2nd edition_. London: J M Dent & Sons . p. 318.
* ^ Tabor, Harriot (February 1909). "Rutland: Origin of the Name".
Notes and Queries _: 170.
* ^ W.B.H. (April 1909). "Rutland: Origin of the Name". _Notes and
* ^ A D Mills (2003). "Rutland". _A Dictionary of British
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press . Retrieved 24 April 2010.
* ^ Joad, C.E.M., ed. (1948). _The English Counties Illustrated_.
Odhams Press. p. 307.
* ^ Archived 23 September 2006 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Little
Rutland To Go It Alone – No Merger with
Leicestershire. _The Times_, 2 August 1963.
* ^ _Stamford Mercury_, _MP wins seven-year postal address battle_,
5 November 2007.
* ^ Royal Mail, _Postcode Address
File Code of Practice _, (2004)
* ^ AFD Software – Latest PAF Data News
* ^ Workhouses website
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Geographical Statistical Information". _Government
Office for the East Midlands_. Retrieved 3 October 2006.
Rutland County Council: Census and Population Information
* ^ Sports
England Archived 25 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine
* ^ First ONS Annual Experimental Subjective Well-being Results
* ^ BBC News: ONS well-being report reveals UK\'s happiness ratings
* ^ "The Geology of the
Peterborough Area". _
Archived from the original on 24 February 2006. Retrieved 3 October
* ^ "Commission Regulation (EC) No 1107/96 of 12 June 1996 on the
registration of geographical indications and designations of origin
under the procedure laid down in Article 17 of Council Regulation
(EEC) No 2081/92". _EUR-LEX Access to European Law_. European
Commission . 12 June 1996. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
* ^ "
Rutland Bitter resurrected" _
Leicester Mercury_ 1 Oct 2010
* ^ National Accounts Co-ordination Division (21 December 2005).
"Regional Gross Value Added" (PDF).
Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics .
pp. 240–253. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
* ^ "