About 160 genera, totaling over 1600 species.
Range of subfamily Cneoroideae
Range of subfamily Rutoideae
Rutaceae are a family, commonly known as the rue or citrus
family, of flowering plants, usually placed in the order
Species of the family generally have flowers that divide into four or
five parts, usually with strong scents. They range in form and size
from herbs to shrubs and large trees.
The most economically important genus in the family is Citrus, which
includes the orange (C. × sinensis), lemon (C. × limon), grapefruit
(C. × paradisi), and lime (various, mostly C. aurantifolia, the key
Boronia is a large Australian genus, some members of which are
plants with highly fragrant flowers and are used in commercial oil
production. Other large genera include Zanthoxylum, Melicope, and
Agathosma. About 160 genera are in the family Rutaceae: List of
3 Notable species
5 External links
Most species are trees or shrubs, a few are herbs (Boenninghausenia
and Dictamnus), frequently aromatic with glands on the leaves,
sometimes with thorns. The leaves are usually opposed and compound,
and without stipules. Pellucid glands, a type of oil gland, are found
in the leaves responsible for the aromatic smell of the family's
members; traditionally they have been the primary synapomorphic
characteristic to identify the Rutaceae.
Flowers are bractless, solitary or in cyme, rarely in raceme, and
mainly pollinated by insects. They are radially or (rarely) laterally
symmetric, and generally hermaphroditic. They have four or five petals
and sepals, sometimes three, mostly separate, eight to ten stamen
(five in Skimmia, many in Citrus), usually separate or in several
groups. Usually a single stigma with 2 to 5 united carpels, sometimes
ovaries separate but styles combined.
The fruit of the
Rutaceae are very variable: berries, drupes,
hesperidia, samaras, capsules, and follicles all occur. Seed number
also varies widely.
The family is closely related to the Sapindaceae, Simaroubaceae, and
Meliaceae, and all are usually placed into the same order, although
some systems separate that order into
Rutales and Sapindales. The
Ptaeroxylaceae are sometimes kept
separate, but nowadays generally are placed in the Rutaceae, as are
the former Cneoraceae. The subfamilial organization has not been fully
resolved, but the subfamily
Aurantioideae (=Citroideae) is well
supported; the placement of several genera remains unclear.
List of Rutaceae genera
List of Rutaceae genera and
The family is of great economic importance in warm temperate and
sub-tropical climates for its numerous edible fruits of the Citrus
genus, such as the orange, lemon, calamansi, lime, kumquat, mandarin
Non-citrus fruits include the
White sapote (
Orangeberry (Glycosmis pentaphylla), Clymenia (Clymenia polyandra),
Limeberry (Triphasia trifolia), and the
Bael (Aegle marmelos).
Other plants are grown in horticulture:
for example. Ruta,
Casimiroa species are medicinals.
Several plants are also used by the perfume industry, such as the
Pilocarpus has species (P. jaborandi, and P. microphyllus
from Brazil, and P. pennatifolius from Paraguay) from which the
medicine pilocarpine, used to treat glaucoma, is extracted.
Spices are made from a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum,
notably Sichuan pepper.
Rutaceae Juss., nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information
Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-01-17.
^ Takhtajan, Armen (2009). Flowering Plants (2 ed.). Springer.
pp. 375–376. ISBN 978-1-4020-9608-2.
^ RUTACEAE in BoDD – Botanical Dermatology Database
Citrus family) – 245 images at PlantSystematics.org
images, phylogeny, nomenclature for (Rutaceae)".
^ M. F. Porteners. "Flindersia schottiana, PlantNET - NSW Flora
Online, Retrieved September 3rd, 2017,".
Chase, Mark W.; Cynthia M. Morton; Jacquelyn A. Kallunki (August
1999). "Phylogenetic relationships of Rutaceae: a cladistic analysis
of the subfamilies using evidence from RBC and ATP sequence
variation". American Journal of Botany. Botanical Society of America.
86 (8): 1191–1199. doi:10.2307/2656983. JSTOR 2656983.
PMID 10449399. Retrieved 2007-08-30.
Singh, Gurjaran (2004).
Plant Systematics: An Integrated Approach.
Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers. pp. 438–440.
Media related to
Rutaceae at Wikimedia Commons
Data related to
Rutaceae at Wikispecies
Watson & Dallwitz: ruta