About 160 genera, totaling over 1600 species.
Range of subfamily Cneoroideae
Range of subfamily Rutoideae
The RUTACEAE are a family , commonly known as the rue or citrus family, of flowering plants , usually placed in the order Sapindales .
Species of the family generally have flowers that divide into four or five parts, usually with strong scents. They range in form and size from herbs to shrubs and small trees .
The most economically important genus in the family is
* 1 Characteristics * 2 Classification * 3 Notable species * 4 References * 5 External links
Most species are trees or shrubs, a few are herbs (Boenninghausenia and Dictamnus ), frequently aromatic with glands on the leaves , sometimes with thorns . The leaves are usually opposed and compound , and without stipules . Pellucid glands, a type of oil gland, are found in the leaves responsible for the aromatic smell of the family's members; traditionally they have been the primary synapomorphic characteristic to identify the Rutaceae.
Flowers are bractless , solitary or in cyme , rarely in raceme , and
mainly pollinated by insects. They are radially or (rarely) laterally
symmetric, and generally hermaphroditic . They have four or five
petals and sepals , sometimes three, mostly separate, eight to ten
stamen (five in
Skimmia , many in
The fruit of the
The family is closely related to the
The family is of great economic importance in warm temperate and sub-tropical climates for its numerous edible fruits of the Citrus genus, such as the orange , lemon , calamansi , lime , kumquat , mandarin and grapefruit .
Non-citrus fruits include the
White sapote (
Orangeberry (Glycosmis pentaphylla), Clymenia (Clymenia polyandra),
Triphasia trifolia ), and the
Other plants are grown in horticulture :
The genus Pilocarpus has species (P. jaborandi, and P. microphyllus from Brazil, and P. pennatifolius from Paraguay) from which the medicine pilocarpine , used to treat glaucoma, is extracted.
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* Chase, Mark W.; Cynthia M. Morton; Jacquelyn A. Kallunki (August
1999). "Phylogenetic relationships of Rutaceae: a cladistic analysis
of the subfamilies using evidence from RBC and ATP sequence
variation". American Journal of Botany. Botanical Society of America.
86 (8): 1191–1199.