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The RUST BELT is the region of the United States
United States
from the Great Lakes to the upper Midwest States . _Rust_ refers to the deindustrialization , or economic decline, population loss , and urban decay due to the shrinking of its once-powerful industrial sector. The term gained popularity in the U.S. in the 1980s.

The Rust Belt
Rust Belt
begins in western New York and traverses west through Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, West Virginia
West Virginia
, Ohio
Ohio
, Indiana
Indiana
, and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan
Michigan
, ending in northern Illinois
Illinois
, eastern Iowa
Iowa
, and southeastern Wisconsin
Wisconsin
. Previously known as the industrial heartland of America, industry has been declining in the region since the mid-20th century due to a variety of economic factors, such as the transfer of manufacturing further West , increased automation , and the decline of the US steel and coal industries. While some cities and towns have managed to adapt by shifting focus towards services and high-tech industries, others have not fared as well, witnessing rising poverty and declining populations.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background * 2 Geography

* 3 History

* 3.1 Outcomes * 3.2 Transformation

* 4 See also

* 4.1 International comparison

* 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

BACKGROUND

In the 20th century, local economies in these states specialized in large-scale manufacturing of finished medium to heavy industrial and consumer products, as well as the transportation and processing of the raw materials required for heavy industry. The area was referred to as the MANUFACTURING BELT, FACTORY BELT, or STEEL BELT as distinct from the agricultural Midwestern states forming the so-called Corn Belt and Great Plains states that are often called the "bread-basket of America".

The flourishing of industrial manufacturing in the region was caused in part by the close proximity to the Great Lakes waterways, and abundance of paved roads, water canals and railroads. After the transportation infrastructure linked the iron ore found in northern Minnesota
Minnesota
, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Upper Michigan
Michigan
with the coal mined from Appalachian Mountains , the Steel
Steel
Belt was born. Soon it developed into the Factory Belt with its great American manufacturing cities: Chicago
Chicago
, Buffalo , Detroit
Detroit
, Milwaukee , Gary , Cincinnati , Toledo , Cleveland , Akron , Youngstown , St. Louis , Cedar Rapids and Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
among others. This region for decades served as a magnet for immigrants from Austria-Hungary, Poland and Russia who provided the industrial facilities with inexpensive labor.

Following several "boom" periods from the late-19th to the mid-20th century , cities in this area struggled to adapt to a variety of adverse economic and social conditions. They include the decline of the iron and steel industry , the movement of manufacturing to the southeastern states with their lower labor costs, the layoffs due to the rise of automation in industrial processes, the decreased need for labor in making steel products , the internationalization of American business, and the liberalization of foreign trade policies due to globalization . Cities struggling with these conditions shared several difficulties, including population loss , lack of education, declining tax revenues, high unemployment and crime, drugs, swelling welfare rolls, deficit spending, and poor municipal credit ratings.

GEOGRAPHY

See also: Regional economics and Shrinking cities in the United States

As people migrate, they often coin new names for their destinations. Since the term "Rust Belt" pertains to a set of economic and social conditions rather than to an overall geographical region of the United States _per se_, the Rust Belt
Rust Belt
has no precise boundaries. The extent to which a community may have been described as a " Rust Belt
Rust Belt
city" depends at least as much on how great a role industrial manufacturing played in its local economy in the past and how it does now, as on perceptions of the economic viability and living standards of the present day.

News media occasionally refer to a patchwork of defunct centres of heavy industry and manufacturing across the Great Lakes and mid-western United States
United States
as the _snow belt_, the _manufacturing belt_, or the _factory belt_ - because of their vibrant industrial economies in the past. This includes most of the cities of the Midwest as far west as the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
, including St. Louis, and many of those in the Great Lakes and Northern New York..At the centre of this expanse lies an area stretching from northern Indiana
Indiana
and southern Michigan
Michigan
in the west to Upstate New York in the east, where local tax revenues as of 2004 relied more heavily on manufacturing than on any other sector.

Before World War II , the cities in the Rust Belt
Rust Belt
region were among the largest in the United States. However, by the twentieth century's end their population had fallen the most in the country.

HISTORY

The linking of the former Northwest Territory with the once-rapidly industrializing East Coast was effected through several large-scale infrastructural projects , most notably the Erie Canal in 1825, the Baltimore and Ohio
Ohio
Railroad in 1830, the Allegheny Portage Railroad in 1834, and the consolidation of the New York Central after the American Civil War . A gate was thereby opened between a variety of burgeoning industries on the interior North American continent and the markets not only of the large Eastern cities, but of Western Europe as well.

Coal, iron ore and other raw materials were shipped in from surrounding regions which emerged as major ports on the Great Lakes and served as transportation hubs for the region with a proximity to railroad lines. Coming in the other direction were millions of European immigrants, who populated the cities along the Great Lakes shores with then-unprecedented speed. Chicago, famously, was a rural trading post in the 1840s but grew to be as big as Paris
Paris
by the time of the 1893 Columbian Exposition . Sectors of the US Economy as percent of GDP 1947–2009.

Early signs of the difficulty in the northern states were evident early in the 20th century, before the "boom years" were even over. Lowell, Massachusetts , once the centre of textile production in the United States, was described in the magazine _Harper's_ as a "depressed industrial desert" as early as 1931, as its textile concerns were being uprooted and sent southward, primarily to the Carolinas. After the Great Depression , American entry into the Second World War effected a rapid return to economic growth, during which much of the industrial North reached its peak in population and industrial output.

The northern cities experienced changes that followed the end of the war, with the onset of the outward migration of residents to newer suburban communities, and the declining role of manufacturing in the American economy . Deteriorating U.S. net international investment position (N.I.I.P.) has caused concern among economists over the effects of outsourcing and high U.S. trade deficits over the long-run.

Outsourcing of manufacturing jobs in tradeable goods has been an important issue in the region. One source has been globalization and the expansion of worldwide free trade agreements. Anti-globalization groups argue that trade with developing countries has resulted in stiff competition from countries such as China
China
which pegs its currency to the dollar and has much lower prevailing wages, forcing domestic wages to drift downward. Some economists are concerned that long-run effects of high trade deficits and outsourcing are a cause of economic problems in the U.S. with high external debt (amount owed to foreign lenders) and a serious deterioration in the United States
United States
net international investment position (N.I.I.P.) (−24% of G.D.P.).

Some economists contend that the U.S. is borrowing to fund consumption of imports while accumulating unsustainable amounts of debt. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States
United States
to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand.

Since the 1960s, the expansion of worldwide free trade agreements have been less favorable to U.S. workers. Imported goods such as steel cost much less to produce in Third World countries with cheap foreign labor (see steel crisis ). Beginning with the recession of 1970–71, a new pattern of deindustrializing economy emerged. Competitive devaluation combined with each successive downturn saw traditional U.S. manufacturing workers experiencing lay-offs. In general, in the Factory Belt employment in the manufacturing sector declined by 32.9% between 1969 and 1996.

Wealth-producing primary and secondary sector jobs such as those in manufacturing and computer software were often replaced by much-lower-paying wealth-consuming jobs such as those in retail and government in the service sector when the economy recovered.

A gradual expansion of the U.S. trade deficit with China
China
began in 1985. In the ensuing years the U.S. developed a massive trade deficit with the East Asian nations of China, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea. As a result, the traditional manufacturing workers in the region have experienced economic upheaval. This effect has devastated government budgets across the U.S and increased corporate borrowing to fund retiree benefits. Some economists believe that GDP and employment can be dragged down by large long-run trade deficits.

A March 3, 2008 _Wall Street Journal _ editorial claimed that, while Ohio
Ohio
lost 10,000 jobs in the past decade, Texas created 1.6 million new jobs. The editorial stated, "Ohio's most crippling handicap may be that its politicians—and thus its employers—are still in the grip of such industrial unions as the United Auto Workers." A September 13, 2008 opinion column by Phil Gramm and Mike Solon stated, "Yes, Michigan
Michigan
lost 83,000 auto manufacturing jobs during the past decade and a half, but more than 91,000 new auto manufacturing jobs sprung up in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia, South Carolina, Virginia and Texas."

OUTCOMES

Francis Fukuyama considers the social and cultural consequences of deindustrialization and manufacturing decline that turned a former thriving Factory Belt into a Rust Belt
Rust Belt
as a part of a bigger transitional trend that he called the _Great Disruption_: "People associate the information age with the advent of the Internet, in the 1990s but the shift from the industrial era started more than a generation earlier, with the deindustrialization of the Rust Belt
Rust Belt
in the United States
United States
and comparable movements away from manufacturing in other industrialized countries. … The decline is readily measurable in statistics on crime, fatherless children, broken trust, reduced opportunities for and outcomes from education, and the like".

Problems associated with the Rust Belt
Rust Belt
persist even today, particularly around the eastern Great Lakes states, and many once-booming manufacturing metropolises dramatically slowed down. From 1970 to 2006, Cleveland, Detroit, Buffalo, and Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
lost about 45% of their population and median household incomes fell: in Cleveland and Detroit
Detroit
by about 30 percent, in Buffalo by 20 percent, and Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
by 10 percent.

It seemed that during the mid-1990s in several Rust Belt
Rust Belt
metro areas the negative growth was suspended as indicated by major statistical indicators: unemployment, wages, population change. However, during the first decade of the 21st century, a negative trend persisted: Detroit
Detroit
lost 25.7% of its population; Gary, Indiana
Indiana
– 22%; Youngstown, Ohio
Ohio
– 18.9%; Flint, Michigan
Michigan
– 18.7%; and Cleveland, Ohio
Ohio
– 14.5%. An abandoned Fisher auto body plant in Detroit
Detroit
A steel plant in Bethlehem, PA . Though the blast furnaces themselves remain intact, part of the property was sold in 2007 and turned into the Sands Casino Resort Bethlehem . A disused grain elevator in Buffalo

2000–2016 population change in Rust Belt
Rust Belt
cities CITY POPULATION CHANGE 2016 POPULATION 2000 POPULATION

Detroit, Michigan
Michigan
−29.3% 672,795 951,270

Gary, Indiana
Indiana
−25.6% 76,424 102,746

Flint, Michigan
Michigan
−22.1% 97,386 124,943

Youngstown, Ohio
Ohio
−21.6% 64,312 82,026

Saginaw, Michigan
Michigan
−20.7% 48,984 61,799

Cleveland, Ohio
Ohio
−19.4% 385,809 478,403

Dayton, Ohio
Ohio
−15.5% 140,489 166,179

Niagara Falls, New York −12.5% 48,632 55,593

Buffalo, New York −12.2% 256,902 292,648

Canton, Ohio
Ohio
−11.8% 71,323 80,806

Lakewood, Ohio
Ohio
−11.2% 50,279 56,646

Toledo, Ohio
Ohio
−11.2% 278,508 313,619

Decatur, Illinois
Illinois
−11.2% 72,706 81,860

St. Louis, Missouri −10.6% 311,404 348,189

Pontiac, Michigan
Michigan
−10.0% 59,698 66,337

Cincinnati, Ohio
Ohio
−9.8% 298,800 331,285

Altoona, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
−9.8% 44,589 49,429

Springfield, Ohio
Ohio
−9.6% 59,087 65,358

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
−9.2% 303,625 334,563

Charleston, West Virginia
West Virginia
−9.2% 49,138 53,421

Akron, Ohio
Ohio
−9.0% 197,633 217,074

Parma, Ohio
Ohio
−7.3% 79,425 85,655

Lorain, Ohio
Ohio
−7.2% 63,730 68,652

Hammond, Indiana
Indiana
−7.1% 77,134 83,048

Chicago, Illinois
Illinois
−6.6% 2,704,958 2,896,016

Huntington, West Virginia
West Virginia
−6.5% 48,113 51,475

South Bend, Indiana
Indiana
−5.6% 101,735 107,789

In the late-2000s, American manufacturing recovered faster from the Great Recession of 2008 than the other sectors of the economy, and a number of initiatives, both public and private, are encouraging the development of alternative fuel, nano and other technologies. Together with the neighboring Golden Horseshoe of Southern Ontario, Canada , the so-called Rust Belt
Rust Belt
still composes one of the world's major manufacturing regions.

TRANSFORMATION

Since the 1980s, presidential candidates have devoted much of their time to the economic concerns of the Rust Belt
Rust Belt
region, which contains the populous swing states of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, Ohio
Ohio
, and Michigan
Michigan
. Those states were also critical and decisive to Donald Trump 's victory in the 2016 US Presidential Election .

Different strategies were proposed in order to reverse the fortunes of the former Factory Belt including building casinos and convention centre, retaining the so-called "creative class" through arts and downtown renewal, encouraging the “knowledge” economy type of entrepreneurship, etc. Lately, analysts suggested that industrial comeback might be the actual path for the future resurgence of the region. That includes growing new industrial base with a pool of skilled labor, rebuilding the infrastructure and infrasystems, creating R&D university-business partnerships, and close cooperation between central, state and local government and business.

New types of R&D-intensive nontraditional manufacturing have emerged recently in Rust Belt, such as biotechnology , the polymer industry, infotech , and nanotech . Infotech in particular creates a promising venue for the Rust Belt's revitalization. Among the successful recent examples is the Detroit
Detroit
Aircraft Corporation, which specializes in unmanned aerial systems integration, testing and aerial cinematography services.

In Pittsburgh, robotics research centres and companies such as National Robotics Engineering Center and Robotics Institute, Aethon Inc., American Robot Corporation, Automatika, Quantapoint, Blue Belt Technologies and Seegrid are creating state-of-the-art robotic technology applications. Akron , a former "Rubber Capital of the World" that lost 35,000 jobs after major tire and rubber manufacturers Goodrich , Firestone and General Tire closed their production lines, is now again well known around the world as a centre of polymer research with four hundred polymer-related manufacturing and distribution companies operating in the area. The turnaround was accomplished in part due to a partnership between Goodyear Tire border:solid #aaa 1px">

* United States
United States
portal * Economy portal * Geography portal

* Early 1980s recession in the United States
United States
* Decline of Detroit
Detroit
* Economy of Youngstown, Ohio
Ohio
* Shrinking cities in the United States
United States
* Economy of the United States
United States
* List of belt regions of the United States
United States

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON

* Deindustrialization * Northern England – another former industrial centre which began declining in the 1980s * Southern Ontario
Southern Ontario
- Canadian counterpart, the Canadian Rust belt does not include Toronto
Toronto
and Ottawa
Ottawa
* Ruhr Area * Bergslagen * Nord-Pas-de-Calais * Northeast China
China
– a former centre of heavy industry that declined for other reasons * Steel
Steel
crisis * Mindanao

REFERENCES

* ^ Crandall, Robert W. _The Continuing Decline of Manufacturing
Manufacturing
in the Rust Belt_. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1993. * ^ Technology and Steel
Steel
Industry Competitiveness: Chapter 4. The Domestic Steel
Steel
Industries Competitiveness Problems. Washington, D.C: Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment, 1980, pp. 115-151. Retrieved December 27, 2015. * ^ Leeman, Mark A. _From Good Works to a Good Job: An Exploration of Poverty and Work in Appalachian Ohio_. PhD dissertation, Ohio University, 2007. * ^ Teaford, Jon C. _Cities of the Heartland: The Rise and Fall of the Industrial Midwest_. Bloomington: Indiana
Indiana
University Press, 1993. * ^ Meyer, David R. 1989. "Midwestern Industrialization and the American Manufacturing
Manufacturing
Belt in the Nineteenth Century." _Journal of Economic History_ 49(4):921–937. * ^ Fifty States: The Heartland. * ^ McClelland, Ted. _Nothin' but Blue Skies: The Heyday, Hard Times, and Hopes of America's Industrial Heartland_. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2013. * ^ Alder, Simeon, David Lagakos, and Lee Ohanian. "The Decline of the US Rust Belt: A Macroeconomic Analysis." 2012. PDF * ^ High, Steven C. Industrial Sunset: The Making of North America's Rust Belt, 1969–1984. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003. * ^ Jargowsky, Paul A. _Poverty and Place: Ghettos, Barrios, and the American City_. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997. * ^ Hagedorn, John M., and Perry Macon. _People and Folks: Gangs, Crime and the Underclass in a Rustbelt City_. Lake View Press, Chicago, IL, (paperback: ISBN 0-941702-21-9 ; clothbound: ISBN 0-941702-20-0 ), 1988. * ^ " Rust Belt
Rust Belt
Woes: Steel
Steel
out, drugs in," _The Northwest Florida Daily News_, January 16, 2008. PDF * ^ Beeson, Patricia E. "Sources of the decline of manufacturing in large metropolitan areas." _Journal of Urban Economics_ 28, no. 1 (1990): 71–86. * ^ Higgins, James Jeffrey. _Images of the Rust Belt_. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1999. * ^ _The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century_ Chapter 25: The Conservative Tide. Inset:_Sunbelt, Rustbelt, Ecotopia_ * ^ "Sun On The Snow Belt (editorial)". _ Chicago
Chicago
Tribune_. August 25, 1985. Retrieved September 22, 2011. The Northern states, once the foundry of the nation, are known now as the Rust Belt
Rust Belt
or the Snow Belt, in invidious comparison to the supposedly booming Sun Belt. * ^ "Measuring Rurality: 2004 County Typology Codes". USDA Economic Research Service. Retrieved September 21, 2011. * ^ Garreau, Joel. _The Nine Nations of North America_. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981. * ^ Hansen, Jeff; et al. (March 10, 2007). "Which Way Forward?". _The Birmingham News_. Retrieved September 21, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kunstler, James Howard (1996). _Home From Nowhere: Remaking Our Everyday World for the 21st Century_. New York: Touchstone/Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-684-83737-4 . * ^ "Who Makes It?". Retrieved 28 November 2011. * ^ Marion, Paul (November 2009). "Timeline of Lowell History From 1600s to 2009". _Yankee Magazine_. * ^ "1990 Population and Maximum Decennial Census Population of Urban Places Ever Among the 100 Largest Urban Places, Listed Alphabetically by State: 1790–1990". United States
United States
Bureau of the Census. Retrieved September 22, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Bivens, L. Josh (December 14, 2004). Debt and the dollar _Economic Policy Institute_. Retrieved on June 28, 2009. * ^ Roberts, Paul Craig (August 7, 2003).Jobless in the USA _Newsmax_. Retrieved on June 23, 2009. * ^ Hira, Ron and Anil Hira with forward by Lou Dobbs, (May 2005). _Outsourcing America: What's Behind Our National Crisis and How We Can Reclaim American Jobs_. (AMACOM) American Management Association. Citing Paul Craig Roberts, Paul Samuelson, and Lou Dobbs, pp. 36–38. * ^ _A_ _B_ Cauchon, Dennis and John Waggoner (October 3, 2004).The Looming National Benefit Crisis. _USA Today_. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Phillips, Kevin (2007). _Bad Money: Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and the Global Crisis of American Capitalism_. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-314328-4 . * ^ Bailey, David and Soyoung Kim (June 26, 2009).GE\'s Immelt says U.S. economy needs industrial renewal._UK Guardian._. Retrieved on June 28, 2009. * ^ Kahn, Matthew E. "The silver lining of rust belt manufacturing decline." _Journal of Urban Economics_ 46, no. 3 (1999): 360–376. * ^ _A_ _B_ David Friedman (Senior Fellow at the New America Foundation). No Light at the End of the Tunnel, _Los Angeles Times_, June 16, 2002. * ^ Texas v. Ohio, _Wall Street Journal_, March 3, 2008 * ^ "If You Like Michigan\'s Economy, You\'ll Love Obama\'s", _Wall Street Journal_, September 13, 2008 * ^ Fukuyama, Francis. _The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order_. New York: Free Press, 1999. * ^ Francis Fukuyama. The Great Disruption, _The Atlantic Monthly_, May 1999, Volume 283, No. 5, pages 55–80. * ^ Feyrer, James, Bruce Sacerdote, and Ariel Dora Stern. Did the Rust Belt
Rust Belt
Become Shiny? A Study of Cities and Counties That Lost Steel and Auto Jobs in the 1980s. _Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs_ (2007): 41–102. * ^ Daniel Hartley. "Urban Decline in Rust-Belt Cities." Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Economic Commentary, Number 2013-06, May 20, 2013. PDF * ^ Glenn King. Census Brief: "Rust Belt" Rebounds, CENBR/98-7, Issued December 1998. PDF * ^ Mark Peters, Jack Nicas. " Rust Belt
Rust Belt
Reaches for Immigration Tide", _The Wall Street Journal_, May 13, 2013, A3. * ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016". Retrieved May 25, 2017. * ^ "Rustbelt recovery: Against all the odds, American factories are coming back to life. Thank the rest of the world for that". _The Economist_. March 10, 2011. Retrieved September 21, 2011. PDF * ^ "Greening the rustbelt: In the shadow of the climate bill, the industrial Midwest begins to get ready". _The Economist_. August 13, 2009. Retrieved September 21, 2011. * ^ Beyers, William. "Major Manufacturing
Manufacturing
Regions of the World". Department of Geography, the University of Washington. Retrieved September 21, 2011. * ^ Rust Belt
Rust Belt
is still the heart of U.S. manufacturing * ^ Joel Kotkin, March Schill, Ryan Streeter. _Clues From The Past: The Midwest As An Aspirational Region_. Sagamore Institute, February 2012. PDF * ^ Rethink The Rust Belt * ^ DetroitAircraft.com * ^ Sherry Karabin. Mayor says attitude is key to Akron’s revitalization. The Akron Legal News, May 16, 2013. * ^ "Conference in Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
shows growing allure of 3-D printing". _By Len Boselovic / Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Post-Gazette_. June 13, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-20. * ^ "Coming home: A growing number of American companies are moving their manufacturing back to the United States". _The Economist_. Jan 19, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-20. * ^ Faberman, R. Jason. "Job flows and labor dynamics in the US Rust Belt." _Monthly Labor Review_. 125 (2002): 3. * ^ John C. Austin, Jennifer Bradley and Jennifer S. Vey. _The Next Economy: Economic Recovery and Transformation in the Great Lakes Region._. Brookings Institution Paper, September 27, 2010.

FURTHER READING

* Broughton, Chad (2015). _Boom, Bust, Exodus: The Rust Belt, the Maquilas, and a Tale of Two Cities_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199765614 . * Cooke, Philip. _The Rise of the Rustbelt_. London: UCL Press, 1995. ISBN 0-203-13454-0 * Coppola, Alessandro. _Apocalypse town: cronache dalla fine della civiltà urbana_. Roma: Laterza, 2012. ISBN 9788842098409 * Denison, Daniel R., and Stuart L. Hart. _Revival in the rust belt_. Ann Arbor, Mich: University of Michigan
Michigan
Press, 1987. ISBN 0-87944-322-7 * Engerman, Stanley L., and Robert E. Gallman. _The Cambridge Economic History of the United States: The Twentieth Century_. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. * Hagedorn, John, and Perry Macon. _People and Folks: Gangs, Crime, and the Underclass in a Rust-Belt City_. Chicago: Lake View Press, 1988. ISBN 0-941702-21-9 * High, Steven C. _Industrial Sunset: The Making of North America's Rust Belt, 1969–1984_. Toronto: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8020-8528-8 * Higgins, James Jeffrey. _Images of the Rust Belt_. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-87338-626-4 * Lopez, Steven Henry. _Reorganizing the Rust Belt: An Inside Study of the American Labor Movement_. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. ISBN 0-520-23565-7 * Meyer, David R. (1989). "Midwestern Industrialization and the American Manufacturing
Manufacturing
Belt in the Nineteenth Century". _The Journal of Economic History_. 49 (4): 921–937. ISSN 0022-0507 . JSTOR 2122744 . doi :10.1017/S0022050700009505 . * Preston, Richard. _American Steel_. New York: Avon Books, 1992. ISBN 0-13-029604-X * Rotella, Carlo. _Good with Their Hands: Boxers, Bluesmen, and Other Characters from the Rust Belt_. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. ISBN 0-520-22562-7 * Teaford, Jon C. _Cities of the Heartland: The Rise and Fall of the Industrial Midwest_. Bloomington: Indiana
Indiana
University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-253-35786-1 * Warren, Kenneth. _The American Steel
Steel
Industry, 1850–1970: A Geographical Interpretation_. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973. ISBN 0-8229-3597-X

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Industrial Heartland map and photographs * Rust Belt
Rust Belt
map * Changing Gears

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