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The RUSSIAN RUBLE (Russian : рубль _rublʹ_; plural: рубли́ _rubli_; sign : , руб; code : RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and South Ossetia
South Ossetia
, and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk . The ruble is subdivided into 100 _kopeks_ (sometimes written as _kopecks_ or _copecks_; Russian : копе́йка _kopeyka_; plural: копе́йки _kopeyki_).

The ruble was the currency of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and of the Soviet Union (as the Soviet ruble ). Today, apart from Russia, Belarus
Belarus
and Transnistria
Transnistria
use currencies with the same name . The ruble was the world's first decimal currency: it was decimalised in 1704 when the ruble became legally equal to 100 kopeks.

In 1992 the Soviet ruble (code: SUR) was replaced with the Russian ruble (code: RUR) at the rate 1 SUR = 1 RUR. In 1998 following the financial crisis , the Russian ruble
Russian ruble
was redenominated with the new code "RUB", and was exchanged at the rate of 1 RUB = 1,000 RUR.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 First ruble - RUR (1992–1998)

* 2.1 Coins * 2.2 Banknotes

* 3 Second ruble - RUB (1998–present)

* 3.1 Ruble
Ruble
symbol * 3.2 Coins

* 3.3 Banknotes

* 3.3.1 Printing * 3.3.2 Controversy

* 3.4 Commemorative banknotes

* 4 Economics

* 4.1 International trade * 4.2 Inflation * 4.3 Exchange rates

* 5 Interesting Facts * 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY

Main article: Ruble
Ruble

The ruble is the oldest national currency after the Pound sterling
Pound sterling
. The ruble has been used in the Russian territories since the 13th century. The modern Russian ruble
Russian ruble
actually appeared in December 1991 in parallel with the Soviet ruble , which remained in circulation until September 1993. All Soviet coins issued in 1961-1991, respectively, as well as 1, 2 and 3 kopek coins, issued before 1961, formally remained legal tender until 31 December 1998, and in 1999-2001 were exchanged for Russian ruble
Russian ruble
in the ratio of 1000:1.

FIRST RUBLE - RUR (1992–1998)

Further information: Soviet ruble and Monetary reform in Russia, 1993

Following the breakup of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, the Soviet ruble remained the currency of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
until 1992. A new set of coins was issued in 1992 and a new set of banknotes was issued in the name of Bank of Russia
Russia
in 1993. The "Russian ruble" with the ISO 4217 code RUR and number 810 replaced the Soviet ruble at the rate 1 SUR = 1 RUR.

COINS

After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
introduced new coins in 1992 in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 rubles. The coins depict the double-headed eagle without a crown, sceptre and globus cruciger above the legend "Банк России". It is exactly the same eagle that the artist Ivan Bilibin
Ivan Bilibin
painted after the February Revolution as the coat of arms for the Russian Republic . The 1 and 5 ruble coins were minted in brass-clad steel, the 10 and 20 ruble coins in cupro-nickel, and the 50 and 100 ruble coins were bimetallic (aluminium-bronze and cupro-nickel-zinc). In 1993, aluminium-bronze 50 ruble coins and cupro-nickel-zinc 100 ruble coins were issued, and the material of 10 and 20 ruble coins was changed to nickel-plated steel. In 1995 the material of 50 ruble coins was changed to brass-plated steel, but the coins were minted with the old date 1993. As high inflation persisted, the lowest denominations disappeared from circulation and the other denominations became rarely used.

During this period the commemorative one ruble coin was regularly issued. It is practically identical in size and weight to a 5 Swiss franc coin (worth approx. €3 / US$4). For this reason, there have been several instances of (now worthless) ruble coins being used on a large scale to defraud automated vending machines in Switzerland.

BANKNOTES

In 1961, new State Treasury notes were introduced for 1, 3 and 5 rubles, along with new State Bank notes worth 10, 25, 50 and 100 rubles. In 1991, the State Bank took over production of 1, 3 and 5 ruble notes and also introduced 200, 500 and 1,000 ruble notes, although the 25 ruble note was no longer issued. In 1992, a final issue of notes was made bearing the name of the USSR before the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
introduced 5,000 and 10,000 ruble notes. These were followed by 50,000 ruble notes in 1993, 100,000 rubles in 1995 and finally 500,000 rubles in 1997 (dated 1995).

Since the breakup of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, Russian ruble banknotes and coins have been notable for their lack of portraits, which traditionally were included under both the Tsarist and Communist regimes. With the issue of the 500 ruble note depicting a statue of Peter I and then the 1,000 ruble note depicting a statue of Yaroslav , the lack of recognizable faces on the currency has been partially alleviated.

SUR and RUR series banknotes SERIES VALUE OBVERSE REVERSE ISSUER LANGUAGES

1961 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 rubles Vladimir Lenin or views of the Moscow Kremlin Value, and views of the Moscow Kremlin for 50 rubles or higher USSR 15

1991 1, 3, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1,000 rubles Russian

1992 50, 200, 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000 rubles USSR for 1,000 rubles and lower Bank of Russia
Russia
for 5,000 and 10,000 rubles Russian

1993 100, 200, 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000 rubles Moscow Kremlin with the tri-color Russian flag Bank of Russia
Russia

1995 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 500,000 rubles Same design as today's banknotes, where 1 new ruble = 1,000 old rubles. The 1,000 ruble note did not continue as a 1 new ruble note.

SECOND RUBLE - RUB (1998–PRESENT)

See also: Monetary reform in Russia, 1998 Worldwide official use of foreign currency or pegs . The ruble is used in Russia
Russia
and the partially recognized states of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
, South Ossetia
South Ossetia
, Donetsk People\'s Republic , and Lugansk People\'s Republic . Russian ruble users, including the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
US dollar
US dollar
users, including the United States Currencies pegged to the US dollar
US dollar
Euro
Euro
users, including the Eurozone
Eurozone
Currencies pegged to the euro Australian dollar users, including Australia New Zealand dollar users, including New Zealand South African rand users (CMA , including South Africa) Indian rupee users and pegs, including India Pound sterling
Pound sterling
users and pegs, including the United Kingdom Special drawing rights or other currency basket pegs Three cases of a country using or pegging the currency of a neighbour

In 1998, following the financial crisis , the Russian ruble
Russian ruble
was redenominated with the new ISO 4217 code "RUB" and number 643, and was exchanged at the rate of 1 RUB = 1,000 RUR. The redenomination was an administrative step that reduced the unwieldiness of the old ruble but occurred on the brink of the 1998 Russian financial crisis . The ruble lost 70% of its value against the US dollar
US dollar
in the six months following this financial crisis.

RUBLE SYMBOL

Main article: Ruble
Ruble
sign Not to be confused with the Armenian letter ք or the Latin letter . The "ruble" symbol used throughout the 17th century, composed of the Russian letters " Р " and " У ". The eventual winning Ruble
Ruble
sign design.

A currency symbol was used for the ruble between the 16th century and the 18th century. The symbol consisted of the Russian letters " Р " (rotated 90° counter-clockwise) and " У " (written on top of it). The symbol was placed over the amount number it belonged to. This symbol, however, fell into disuse by the mid-19th century.

No official symbol was used during the final years of the Empire, nor was one introduced in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. The characters R and руб. were used and remain in use today, though they are not official.

In July 2007, the Central Bank of Russia
Russia
announced that it would decide on a symbol for the ruble and would test 13 symbols. This included the symbol Р Р (the initials of Российский Рубль "Russian ruble"), which received preliminary approval from the Central Bank. However, one more symbol, a Р with a horizontal stroke below the top similar to the Philippine peso
Philippine peso
sign, was proposed unofficially. Proponents of the new sign claimed that it is simple, recognizable and similar to other currency signs. This symbol is also similar to the Armenian letter ք or the Latin letter .

On 11 December 2013, the official symbol for the ruble became _ , a Cyrillic letter Er_ with a single added horizontal stroke, though the abbreviation руб. is in wide use. In Unicode
Unicode
version 7.0 it was assigned the encoding U+20BD ruble sign (HTML ).

On 4 February 2014, the Unicode
Unicode
Technical Committee during its 138th meeting in San Jose accepted U+20BD Ruble
Ruble
Sign symbol for the Unicode
Unicode
version 7.0; the symbol was then included into Unicode
Unicode
7.0 released on 16 June 2014. In August 2014, Microsoft
Microsoft
issued updates for all of its mainstream versions of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows that enabled support for the new ruble sign.

COINS

In 1998, the following coins were introduced in connection with the ruble revaluation:

Currently circulating coins IMAGE VALUE TECHNICAL PARAMETERS DESCRIPTION YEARS OF MINTING

OBVERSE REVERSE DIAMETER MASS COMPOSITION EDGE OBVERSE REVERSE

1 коп. 15.5 mm 1.5 g Cupronickel
Cupronickel
-steel Plain Saint George
Saint George
Value 1997-2009 2014

5 коп. 18.5 mm 2.6 g 1997-1998 2000-2009 2014

10 коп. 17.5 mm 1,95 g Brass
Brass
1997–2006 Brass-plated steel 2006–2014 Reeded for brass and Plain for plated Saint George Value 1997-2006

1,85 g 2006-2014

50 коп. 19.5 mm 2.90 g 1997-1999 2002-2006

2.75 g 2006-2014

1₽ 20.5 mm 3.25 g Cupronickel
Cupronickel
1997–2009 Nickel-plated steel 2009– Reeded 2-headed eagle emblem of the Bank of Russia
Russia
(1st coin) Coat of arms of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(2nd coin) Value 1997-1999 2005-2009

3.00 g 2009-2015

2016

2₽ 23 mm 5.10 g Segmented (Plain and Reeded edges) 1997-1999 2006-2009

5.00 g 2009-2015

2016

5₽ 25 mm 6.45 g Cupronickelclad -copper 1997–2009 Nickel-plated steel 2009– 1997-1998 2008-2009

6.00 g 2009-2015

2016

10₽ 22 mm 5.63 g Brass-plated steel Segmented (Plain and Reeded edges) 2-headed eagle emblem of the Bank of Russia
Russia
(1st coin) Coat of arms of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(2nd coin) Value 2009-2015

2016

1 and 5 kopek coins are rarely used (especially the 1 kopek coin) due to their low value and in some cases may not be accepted by stores or individuals. In some cases, the 10 kopek coin is disregarded (refused by individuals but is accepted by vendors and is mandatory for offer in exchange).

These coins began being issued in 1998, although some of them bear the year 1997. Kopek denominations all depict St George and the Dragon, and all ruble denominations (with the exception of commemorative pieces) depict the double headed eagle. Mint marks are denoted by "Л" or "M" on kopeks and the logo of either the Leningrad or Moscow
Moscow
mint on rubles. Since 2000, many bimetallic 10 ruble circulating commemorative coins have been issued. These coins have a unique holographic security feature inside the "0" of the denomination 10.

In 2008, it was proposed by the Bank of Russia
Russia
to withdraw 1 and 5 kopek coins from circulation and to round all the prices to multiples of 10 kopeks, although the proposal hasn't been realized yet (though characteristic "x.99" prices are treated as rounded in exchange).

The material of 1, 2 and 5 ruble coins was switched from copper-nickel-zinc and copper nickel clad to nickel-plated steel in the second quarter of 2009. 10 and 50 kopeks were also changed from aluminum-bronze to brass steel clad.

In October 2009, a new 10 ruble coin made of brass-plated steel was issued, featuring optical security features. The 10 ruble banknote would have been withdrawn in 2012, but a shortage of 10-ruble coins prompted the Central Bank to delay this and put new ones in circulation. Bimetallic commemorative 10 ruble coins will continue to be issued.

A series of circulating Olympic commemorative 25 ruble coins started in 2011. The new coins are made of cupronickel . A number of commemorative smaller denominations of these coins exist in circulation as well, depicting national historic events and anniversaries.

The Bank of Russia
Russia
issues other commemorative non-circulating coins ranging from 1–50,000 rubles.

BANKNOTES

On 1 January 1998 a new series of banknotes dated 1997 was released in denominations of 5₽, 10₽, 50₽, 100 and 500₽. The 1,000 banknote was first issued on 1 January 2001 and the 5,000₽ banknote was first issued on 31 July 2006. Modifications to the series were made in 2001, 2004, 2010 and 2014.

In April 2016, the Central Bank of Russia
Russia
announced that it will introduce two new banknotes - 200 and 2,000 - in 2017. In September 2016, a vote was held to decide which symbols and cities will be displayed on the new notes. In February 2017, the Central Bank of Russia
Russia
announced the new symbols, the 200 banknote will feature the symbols of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and the Monument to the Sunken Ships and the view of Chersonesus , and the 2,000 banknote will bear images of famous Far Eastern sites and the bridge to Russky Island and the Vostochny Cosmodrome
Vostochny Cosmodrome
in the Amur Oblast .

1997 series IMAGE VALUE DIMENSIONS DESCRIPTION DATE OF

OBVERSE REVERSE OBVERSE REVERSE WATERMARK PRINTING* ISSUE WITHDRAWAL LAPSE

5 137 × 61 mm The Millennium of Russia
Russia
monument on background of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Veliky Novgorod Fortress wall of the Novgorod Kremlin "5", Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod
1997 1 January 1998 Current, but no longer issued since 2001 and very rarely seen in circulation.

10 150 × 65 mm Kommunalny Bridge across the Yenisei River in Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
and Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Chapel Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
hydroelectric plant "10", Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Chapel 1997 2001 2004 Current, but no longer issued since January 2010. Still in use, but rarely seen in circulation.

_

50₽ A Rostral Column sculpture on background of Petropavlosk Fortress in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns "50", Peter and Paul Cathedral
Peter and Paul Cathedral
Current

100₽ Quadriga
Quadriga
on the portico of the Bolshoi Theatre
Bolshoi Theatre
in Moscow
Moscow
The Bolshoi Theatre
Bolshoi Theatre
"100", The Bolshoi Theatre
Bolshoi Theatre

-_ _-_ 200₽ View of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and the Monument to the Sunken Ships View of Chersonesus _-_ (Expected in late 2017)

500₽ Monument to Peter the Great , sailing ship and sea terminal in Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk
Solovetsky Monastery "500", Monument to Peter the Great 1997 2001 2004 2010 1 January 1998 Current

1,000₽ 157 × 69 mm Monument to Yaroslav I the Wise and the Lady of Kazan Chapel in Yaroslavl
Yaroslavl
John the Baptist Church in Yaroslavl
Yaroslavl
"1,000", Monument to Yaroslav I the Wise 1997 2004 2010 1 January 2001

_-_ _-_ 2,000₽ The bridge to Russky Island Vostochny Cosmodrome
Vostochny Cosmodrome
_-_ (Expected in late 2017)

5,000₽ Monument to Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky in Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
Bridge over the Amur "5,000", Head of the monument to Muravyov-Amursky 1997 2010 31 July 2006 Current

These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table .

* Each new banknote series has enhanced security features, but no major design changes. Banknotes printed after 1997 bear the fine print "модификация 2001г." (or later date) meaning "modification of year 2001" on the left watermark area.

Printing

All Russian ruble
Russian ruble
banknotes are currently printed at the state-owned factory Goznak in Moscow, which was founded on 6 June 1919 and has continued to operate ever since. Coins are minted in Moscow
Moscow
and at the Saint Petersburg Mint , which has been operating since 1724.

Controversy

On 8 July 2014 State Duma deputy and Vice-Chairman of the Duma Regional Political Committee Roman Khudyakov alleged that the image of Apollo
Apollo
driving Quadriga
Quadriga
on the portico of the Bolshoi Theatre
Bolshoi Theatre
in Moscow
Moscow
on the 100 ruble banknote constitutes pornography that should only be available to persons over the age of 18. Since it is impractical to limit the access of minors to banknotes, he requested in his letter to the Governor of the Bank of Russia
Russia
Elvira Nabiullina to immediately change the design of the banknote.

Khudyakov, a member of parliament for the LDPR party stated, "You can clearly see that Apollo
Apollo
is naked, you can see his genitalia. I submitted a parliamentary request and forwarded it directly to the head of the central bank asking for the banknote to be brought into line with the law protecting children and to remove this Apollo."

COMMEMORATIVE BANKNOTES

Commemorative banknote series IMAGE VALUE DIMENSIONS DESCRIPTION DATE OF

OBVERSE REVERSE OBVERSE REVERSE WATERMARK PRINTING* ISSUE WITHDRAWAL LAPSE

100 ₽ 150 × 65 mm A snowboarder and some of the Olympic venues of the Sochi
Sochi
coastal cluster Fisht Olympic Stadium
Fisht Olympic Stadium
in Sochi
Sochi
"sochi.ru 2014" 2014 30 October 2013 Current

100 ₽ 150 × 65 mm Monument to the Sunken Ships in the Sevastopol
Sevastopol
bay and the fragment of the painting by I.K. Aivazovsky Castle Swallow’s Nest and a green stripe containing a QR-code linking to the Bank of Russia
Russia
webpage containing historical information relating to the commemorative banknote. "Portrait of Empress Catherine
Empress Catherine
the Great" 2015 23 December 2015

In 2013 a special banknote in honour of the Olympic Games in Sochi was issued. The banknote is printed on high quality white cotton paper. A transparent polymer security stripe is embedded into the paper to make a transparent window incorporating an optically variable element in the form of a snowflake. The highlight watermark is visible in the upper part of the banknote. Ornamental designs run vertically along the banknote. The front of the note features a snowboarder and some of the Olympic venues of the Sochi
Sochi
coastal cluster. The back of the note features the Fisht Olympic stadium in Sochi. The predominant colour of the note is blue.

In December 2015, another commemorative 100 ruble banknote was issued to celebrate the "reunification of Crimea and Russia". The banknote is printed on light-yellow coloured cotton paper. One side of the note is devoted to Sevastopol, the other one – to Crimea. А wide security thread is embedded into the paper. It comes out on the surface on the Sevastopol
Sevastopol
side of the banknote in the figure shaped window. A multitone combined watermark is located on the unprinted area in the upper part of the banknote. Ornamental designs run vertically along the banknote. The Sevastopol
Sevastopol
side of the note features the Monument to the Sunken Ships in Sevastopol
Sevastopol
bay and a fragment of the painting by I.K. Aivazovsky "Russian Squadron on the Roads of Sevastopol". The Crimea side of the note features the Swallow’s Nest, a decorative castle and local landmark. In the lower part of the Sevastopol
Sevastopol
side of the banknote in the green stripe there is a QR-code containing a link to the Bank of Russia's webpage, which lists historical information related to the banknote. The predominant colour of the note is olive green.

ECONOMICS

Most traded currencies by value Currency
Currency
distribution of global foreign exchange market turnover RANK CURRENCY ISO 4217 code (symbol) % daily share (April 2016)

1   United States dollar
United States dollar
USD ($) 80.6%

2   Euro
Euro
EUR (€) 37.4%

3   Japanese yen
Japanese yen
JPY (¥) 21.6%

4   Pound sterling
Pound sterling
GBP (£) 12.8%

5   Australian dollar AUD (A$) 6.9%

6   Canadian dollar
Canadian dollar
CAD (C$) 5.1%

7   Swiss franc CHF (Fr) 4.8%

8   Renminbi
Renminbi
CNY (元) 4.0%

9   Swedish krona
Swedish krona
SEK (kr) 2.2%

10   New Zealand dollar NZD (NZ$) 2.1%

11   Mexican peso MXN ($) 1.9%

12   Singapore dollar SGD (S$) 1.8%

13   Hong Kong dollar HKD (HK$) 1.7%

14 Norwegian krone NOK (kr) 1.7%

15 South Korean won KRW (₩) 1.7%

16   Turkish lira
Turkish lira
TRY (₺) 1.4%

17  Russian ruble RUB (₽) 1.1%

18 Indian rupee INR (₹) 1.1%

19 Brazilian real BRL (R$) 1.0%

20 South African rand ZAR (R) 1.0%

Other 7.1%

Total 200.0%

The use of other currencies for transactions between Russian residents is punishable, with a few exceptions, with a fine of 75% to 100% of the value of the transaction.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE

On 23 November 2010, at a meeting of Russian President Vladimir Putin and Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao
, it was announced that Russia
Russia
and China had decided to use their own national currencies for bilateral trade , instead of the US dollar. The move is aimed to further improve relations between Beijing and Moscow
Moscow
and to protect their domestic economies during the Great Recession . The trading of the Chinese yuan against the ruble has started in the Chinese interbank market, while the yuan's trading against the ruble was set to start on the Russian foreign exchange market in December 2010.

In January 2014, President Putin said there should be a sound balance on the ruble exchange rate; that the Central Bank only regulated the national currency exchange rate when it went beyond the upper or lower limits of the floating exchange rate; and that the freer the Russian national currency is, the better it is, adding that this would make the economy react more effectively and timely to processes taking place in it.

INFLATION

Russian ruble
Russian ruble
per US dollar
US dollar
between 2014-2017

The financial crisis in Russia
Russia
in 2014-2016 was the result of the collapse of the Russian ruble
Russian ruble
beginning in the second half of 2014. A decline in confidence in the Russian economy caused investors to sell off their Russian assets, which led to a decline in the value of the Russian ruble
Russian ruble
and sparked fears of a Russian financial crisis. The lack of confidence in the Russian economy stemmed from at least two major sources. The first is the fall in the price of oil in 2014. Crude oil
Crude oil
, a major export of Russia, declined in price by nearly 50% between its yearly high in June 2014 and 16 December 2014. The second was the result of international economic sanctions imposed on Russia following Russia's annexation of Crimea and the Russian military intervention in Ukraine .

The crisis affected the Russian economy, both consumers and companies, and regional financial markets, as well as Putin's ambitions regarding the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
. The Russian stock market in particular experienced large declines, with a 30% drop in the RTS Index from the beginning of December through 16 December 2014. From July 2014 to February 2015 the ruble fell dramatically against the US dollar. A 6.5 percentage point interest rate rise to 17 percent failed to prevent the currency hitting record lows in a "perfect storm" of low oil prices, looming recession and Western sanctions over the Ukraine crisis .

Russian rubles per USD 1998–2017 YEAR

LOWEST ↓

HIGHEST ↑

AVERAGE

DATE RATE DATE RATE RATE

1998 1 January 5.9600 29 December 20.9900 9.7945

1999 1 January 20.6500 29 December 27.0000 24.6489

2000 6 January 26.9000 23 February 28.8700 28.1287

2001 4 January 28.1600 18 December 30.3000 29.1753

2002 1 January 30.1372 7 December 31.8600 31.3608

2003 20 December 29.2450 9 January 31.8846 30.6719

2004 30 December 27.7487 1 January 29.4545 28.8080

2005 18 March 27.4611 6 December 28.9978 27.1910

2006 6 December 26.1840 12 January 28.4834 27.1355

2007 24 November 24.2649 13 January 26.5770 25.5808

2008 16 July 23.1255 31 December 29.3804 24.8529

2009 13 November 28.6701 19 February 36.4267 31.7403

2010 16 April 28.9310 8 June 31.7798 30.3679

2011 6 May 27.2625 5 October 32.6799 29.3823

2012 28 March 28.9468 5 June 34.0395 31.0661

2013 5 February 29.9251 5 September 33.4656 31.9063

2014 1 January 32.6587 18 December 67.7851 38.6025

2015 17 April 49.6749 31 December 72.8827 61.3400

2016 30 December 60.2730 22 January 83.5913 66.8336

2017 26 April 55.84 12 July 60.96

Source: USD exchange rates in RUB, Bank of Russia
Russia

XE Currency
Currency
US Dollar to Russian Ruble
Ruble

EXCHANGE RATES

CURRENT RUB EXCHANGE RATES

From Google Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR

From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR

From XE: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR

From OANDA: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR

From fxtop.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR

INTERESTING FACTS

In the countries of the former USSR there is an interesting tradition associated with the color of money. Almost always denominations of 10 denominations denominated in red have a red tinge, and they are called by the locals a word: "chervonets" (rus. червонец) which comes from the old Russian word "chervony" (rus. червоный) - that is, red. The fact is that in the Russian Empire, the high-grade gold from which the coins were made was called "red gold." Then began to issue the corresponding denominations worth 10 rubles with a red tinge that were subject to exchange for gold. In the USSR (which included almost all the regions of the former Russian Empire) in the early 1920s, banknotes of one chervonetz were also issued, which were provided with gold.

REFERENCES

* ^ The history of Russian ruble
Russian ruble
and kopeck at the law-theory.ru (in Russian) * ^ Рубль: одно название за 700 лет и еще 21 факт * ^ ПОЛОЖЕНИЕ О ПОРЯДКЕ ОБМЕНА ДЕНЕЖНОЙ НАЛИЧНОСТИ - ФИЗИЧЕСКИМ ЛИЦАМ В СООТВЕТСТВИИ С УКАЗОМ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА - РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ ОТ 4 АВГУСТА 1997 ГОДА N 822 "ОБ - ИЗМЕНЕНИИ НАРИЦАТЕЛЬНОЙ СТОИМОСТИ РОССИЙСКИХ - ДЕНЕЖНЫХ ЗНАКОВ И МАСШТАБА ЦЕН" * ^ "Банк России заменит на монетах свою эмблему на герб России". _Zavtra_ (in Russian). December 30, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2016. * ^ "Mit alten Rubelmünzen Automaten am Zürcher HB geplündert" (in German). Swissinfo . 15 November 2006. * ^ " Russia
Russia
to redenominate ruble." Jill Dougherty. CNN, 4 August 1997 * ^ "Why Russians and the World Dislike the Ruble." Martin Gilman. _The Moscow
Moscow
Times _, 21 Nov. 2012 * ^ Забытый знак российского рубля (IN RUSSIAN). RIA NOVOSTI . RETRIEVED 6 MAY 2006. * ^ "В поисках утраченного рубля". 2000-03-08. Retrieved 2017-07-09. * ^ "Currencies of the World". The University of British Columbia Sauder School of Business. Retrieved 28 June 2007. * ^ "Russia". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 28 June 2007. * ^ Valeria Korchagina (15 June 2006). "\'R\' for Ruble
Ruble
Is Symbol of Pride". _The Moscow
Moscow
Times_. Retrieved 28 June 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ Peter Finn (28 June 2006). "Russians Bet Ruble
Ruble
Will Rise To Status of Dollar, Euro, Yen". _ The Washington Post _. Retrieved 28 June 2007. * ^ "О знаке рубля". 1 August 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2008. * ^ "Знак рубля. Попытка анализа". Imadesign.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. * ^ "Знак рубля". Fonts.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. * ^ "Экономика: Деньги: Банк России утвердил символ рубля". Lenta.ru. 25 November 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013. * ^ 2013-12-11, Russian ruble
Russian ruble
gets graphic symbol, RT.com * ^ The UTC just accepted the Russian ruble
Russian ruble
currency symbol * ^ _Proposal to add the currency sign for the Russian Ruble
Ruble
to the UCS_ (PDF), 11 February 2014, retrieved 16 June 2014 * ^ "UTC 138 Draft Minutes". The Unicode
Unicode
Consortium. 10 February 2014. * ^ "Announcing The Unicode
Unicode
Standard, Version 7.0". The Unicode Consortium. 16 June 2014. * ^ "Update to support the new currency symbol for the Russian ruble in Windows". Microsoft. August 2014. * ^ "Coins, Bank of Russia". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. * ^ "Монеты, Банк России". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. * ^ "Монеты, Банк России". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. * ^ "Монеты, Банк России". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. * ^ "Монеты, Банк России". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. * ^ "News article about new 10-ruble coins being issued". Altapress.Ru. 22 September 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2012. * ^ "ЦБ возвращает в оборот 10-рублевые банкноты". Rbc.Ru. 22 December 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2013.

* ^ "Commemorative and Investment Coins database, Bank of Russia". Cbr.ru. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2011. * ^ " Russia
Russia
to issue 200- and 2,000-ruble banknotes". 2016-04-12. Retrieved 2017-04-01. * ^ "Голосуем за дизайн новых банкнот 200 и 2000 рублей". _www.tvoya-rossiya.ru_. Retrieved 2016-08-24. * ^ "New 200 and 2000 ruble banknotes get their symbols". 2017-02-01. Retrieved 2017-04-01. * ^ "Banknotes and Coins". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. * ^ The 500-ruble Bank of Russia
Russia
note * ^ "На 100-рублевой купюре в Госдуме разглядели "порнографию"". Izvestia . 8 July 2014. * ^ Baczynska, Gabriela (9 July 2014). "No more naked Apollos on Russian banknotes, lawmaker says". Reuters. Retrieved 12 July 2014. * ^ Wong, Curtis (9 July 2014). "Russia\'s 100- Ruble
Ruble
Banknote With Naked Apollo
Apollo
Image Is Pornographic, Politician Argues". _Huffington Post_. Retrieved 12 July 2014. * ^ "Banknotes and Coins". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. * ^ "Triennial Central Bank Survey Foreign exchange turnover in April 2016" (PDF). _Triennial Central Bank Survey_. Basel, Switzerland: Bank for International Settlements. 11 December 2016. p. 7. Retrieved 22 March 2017. * ^ https://normativ.kontur.ru/document?moduleId=1&documentId=206129#h418 * ^ "China, Russia
Russia
quit dollar" _ China Daily
China Daily
_, November 24, 2010 * ^ Chinese minister says China- Russia
Russia
economic, trade co-op at new starting point Xinhua News , November 25, 2010 * ^ "Putin hopes Central Bank and government find balance in ruble exchange rate dynamics". ITAR-TASS . 22 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kitroeff, Natalie; Weisenthal, Joe (16 December 2014). "Here\'s Why the Russian Ruble
Ruble
Is Collapsing". _Businessweek_. Bloomberg. Retrieved 17 December 2014. * ^ Hille, Kathrin (25 December 2014). " Moscow
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says rouble crisis is over". _The Financial Times_. Retrieved 2 January 2015. * ^ Gessen, Masha (27 December 2014). "The News in Moscow". _The New Yorker_. Retrieved 2 January 2015. * ^ Hartley, Jon (1 January 2015). "Online Prices Indicate Russian Inflation Spike After Ruble
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* Krause, Chester L.; Clifford Mishler (1991). _Standard Catalog of World Coins : 1801–1991_ (18th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0873411501 . * Pick, Albert (1994). _ Standard Catalog of World Paper Money : General Issues_. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (7th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-207-9 .

* ^ Abkhaz : амааҭ; Bashkir : һум; Chuvash : тенкĕ; Komi : шайт; Lak : къуруш; Mari : теҥге; Ossetian : сом; Tatar : сум; Udmurt : манет; Yakut : солкуобай * ^ Tatar : тиен; Bashkir : тин; Chuvash : пус; Ossetian : капекк; Udmurt : коны; Mari : ыр; Yakut : харчы * ^ The Russian ruble
Russian ruble
is used in Russia
Russia
, including the Russian Federal subject of Crimea (Reference: Рубль стал единственной официальной валютой в Крыму и Севастополе.) * ^ Donetsk and Luhansk are recognized by the partially recognized South Ossetia
South Ossetia
, though lack recognition from members of the United Nations. (Reference: Donetsk People\'s Republic#Recognition ) * ^ The total sum is 200% because each currency trade always involves a currency pair .

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