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The RUSSIAN DIASPORA is the global community of ethnic Russians
Russians
. The RUSSIAN SPEAKING (RUSSOPHONE ) DIASPORA are the people for whom Russian language
Russian language
is the native language , regardless of whether they are ethnic Russians
Russians
or, for example, Belarusians
Belarusians
, Tatars
Tatars
, Jews .

The number of ethnic Russians
Russians
living outside the Russian Federation is estimated at roughly between 20 and 30 million people (depending on the notion of "ethnicity" used), the majority of them in countries of the Former Soviet Union ; about 30 million native speakers of Russian are estimated to live outside the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(compared to 147 million living within the Russian Federation).

The largest overseas community is found in the United States
United States
, estimated at some 3 million people. The next largest communities of Russian speakers outside the Former Soviet Union are found in Israel and then in Germany
Germany
, both of unknown size but estimated in the six-figure range in Israel
Israel
and in the five-figure range in Germany. In addition, in Canada
Canada
, Argentina
Argentina
, Brazil
Brazil
, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Venezuela
Venezuela
, several hundred thousand citizens each identify as being of at least partial Russian descent.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Statistics

* 2.1 Former USSR * 2.2 East Asia * 2.3 Americas * 2.4 Other

* 3 See also * 4 References

HISTORY

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Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois Russian Cemetery near Paris
Paris
, the foremost necropolis of the White émigrés .

A significant ethnic Russian emigration took place in the wake of the Old Believer schism in the 17th century (for example, the Lipovans , who migrated southwards around 1700). Later ethnic Russian communities, such as the Doukhobors (who emigrated to the Transcaucasus
Transcaucasus
from 1841 and onwards to Canada
Canada
from 1899), also emigrated as religious dissidents fleeing centrist authority.

Emigration from the USSR is often broken down into three "waves" (волны) of emigration. The waves are the "First Wave", or "White Wave", which left during the Communist Revolution of 1917 and the following civil war, the "Second Wave" which emigrated during and after World War Two, and the "Third Wave", which emigrated throughout the 1950s, 1960's, 1970's, and 1980's.

A sizable wave of ethnic Russians
Russians
emigrated in the wake of the October Revolution
October Revolution
of 1917 and Civil War of 1917-1922. They became known collectively as the White émigrés . This emigration is also referred to as the "first wave", even though previous emigrations had taken place, as it was comprised the first emigrants to have left in the wake of the communist revolution, and because it exhibited a heavily political character.

A smaller group of Russians, often referred to by Russians
Russians
as the "second wave" of Russian emigration, left during World War II
World War II
. They were refugees, Soviet POWs , eastern workers , or surviving veterans of the Russian Liberation Army
Russian Liberation Army
and other anti-communist armed units who had served under the German command and evaded forced repatriation . In the immediate postwar period, the largest Russian communities in the emigration settled in Germany
Germany
, Canada
Canada
, the U.S. , United Kingdom and Australia
Australia
.

Emigres who left after the death of Stalin, but before perestroika, are often grouped into a "third wave". These emigres were mostly Jews, Armenians, Germans, and other peoples who resided outside the former borders of the Russian Empire but now found themselves inside the borders of the USSR. This majority of this wave left during the 1970s.

At the beginning of the 1990s, Russia
Russia
experienced one of the most dramatic periods in its history; as a result, the former administrative SFSR of the Soviet Union became a separate sovereign state. The collapse of the USSR resulted in an upsurge of international migrations to Russia, and the overwhelming number of them involve population movements between Russia
Russia
and other post-Soviet states.

STATISTICS

States in which Russian is an official, semi-official, and working language.

Some 20 to 40 million ethnic Russians
Russians
are estimated to live outside the bounds of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(depending on the definition of "ethnicity"). Official census data often only considers nationality. The number of native speakers of the Russian language
Russian language
who reside outside of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is estimated as close to 30 million by SIL Ethnologue . In the Former Soviet Union

COUNTRY ETHNIC RUSSIANS

Ukraine
Ukraine
8.3 million (2001)

Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
3,644,529 (20.61%)2016

Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
0.64 million

Belarus
Belarus
0.8 million

Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
0.4 million

Latvia
Latvia
0.57 million

Moldova
Moldova
0.37 million (2004)

Estonia
Estonia
0.31 million

Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
0.3 million

Lithuania
Lithuania
0.18 million

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
0.14 million

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
68,200

Georgia 67,671

Armenia
Armenia
14,660

Former Warsaw Pact

COUNTRY ETHNIC RUSSIANS

Romania
Romania
30,000

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
15,595

Poland
Poland
13,000

Outside of the former Soviet Union or Warsaw Pact

COUNTRY ETHNIC RUSSIANS

United States
United States
3.1 million

Germany
Germany
1.213 million

Israel
Israel
938,500

Canada
Canada
550,520

Brazil
Brazil
200.000

Finland
Finland
50,000 (2009)

France
France
200,000 to 500,000

Colombia
Colombia
88,000

Australia
Australia
67,550

United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
56,600

Cuba
Cuba
50,200

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
c. 35,000 (2013)

Venezuela
Venezuela
34,600

Austria
Austria
30,249

Belgium
Belgium
c. 20,000

Italy
Italy
20,000 (2006)

China
China
15,600

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
5,000

Norway
Norway
13,914

New Zealand
New Zealand
10,235

Qatar
Qatar
5,000

Serbia
Serbia
3,290

FORMER USSR

Ethnic
Ethnic
Russians
Russians
in former Soviet Union states according to the most recent census Main article: Ethnic
Ethnic
Russians
Russians
in post-Soviet states

Today the largest ethnic Russian diasporas outside of Russia
Russia
exist in former Soviet states such as Ukraine
Ukraine
(about 8 million), Kazakhstan (3,644,529 / 20.61%) 2016 , Belarus
Belarus
(about 1.2 million), Latvia
Latvia
(about 620,000), Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(about 650, 000) and Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(about 600,000).

The situation faced by ethnic Russian diasporas varied widely. In Belarus
Belarus
there was no perceivable change in status. While in Estonia and Latvia
Latvia
they were labelled foreigners or non-citizens if none of their ancestors had been a citizen of these countries before Soviet occupation and if they did not request Russian Federation
Russian Federation
citizenship during the period it was available.

EAST ASIA

Russians
Russians
(eluosizu) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People\'s Republic of China
China
. There are approximately 15,600, living mostly in northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
, and also in Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
and Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
. In the 1920s Harbin
Harbin
was flooded with 100,000 to 200,000 Russian White émigrés fleeing from Russia. Some Harbin
Harbin
Russians
Russians
moved to other cities such as Shanghai
Shanghai
, Beijing
Beijing
, and Tianjin
Tianjin
. By the 1930s, Shanghai\'s Russian community had grown to more than 25,000.

There are also smaller numbers of Russians
Russians
in Japan and in Korea . The Japanese government disputes Russia's claim to the Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands
, which were annexed by the USSR in 1945 after Japan's surrender in World War II. The Red Army expelled all Japanese from the island chain, which was resettled by Russians
Russians
and other Soviet nationalities. A few Russians
Russians
also settled in the Korean peninsula in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The population of Russians
Russians
in Singapore was estimated at no more than a thousand by the local Russian embassy in 2008; they are a largely professional and business-oriented expatriate community, and count among their numbers more than a hundred company owners or local heads of branches of large Russian multinationals.

AMERICAS

See also: Russian Americans

Russian settlement in Mexico was minimal but well documented in the 19th and early 20th centuries. A breakaway sect of Old Believers
Old Believers
of the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
, the Molokans arrived in Baja California in the 1880s-1920s to escape persecution from Tsarist Russia. The Molokans received a land grant in the Guadalupe Valley south of Ensenada to establish a few villages and maintained their Russian culture for a few decades before they were abandoned; cemeteries bearing Cyrillic letters remain. Dissenters of the official Soviet Communist party like the Trotskyites along with leader Leon Trotsky found refuge in Mexico in the 1930s, where Trotsky himself was assassinated by Ramon Mercader in 1940. Russian Orthodox Church in Belgrade
Belgrade
, Serbia
Serbia

Some Ukrainian Americans , Belarusian Americans , Russian Jewish Americans , Russian German Americans , Georgian Americans , Azerbaijani Americans , Armenian Americans , and Rusyn Americans identify as Russian American.

OTHER

Finland
Finland
borders Russia
Russia
directly ( Finland
Finland
was an autonomous Russian Grand Duchy between 1809 and 1917, but not part of the Soviet Union) and has 31,000 Russian Federation
Russian Federation
citizens, which amounts to 0.56% of the population, and 66,000 (1.2%) speak Russian language
Russian language
as their mother tongue.

SEE ALSO

* Russian language
Russian language
in post-Soviet states

REFERENCES

* ^ native speakers of Russian do not necessarily identify as ethnically Russian; notably, in Ukraine
Ukraine
, 5.5 million native speakers of Russian self-identified as ethnic Ukrainians in the 2000 census (see demographics of Ukraine
Ukraine
); in Israel, up to a million Russian speakers may or may not identify as "ethnic Russians" on top of self-identification as Jewish. * ^ Uma A. Segal Professor of Social Work University of Missouri; Doreen Elliott Professor of Social Work University of Texas at Arlington; Nazneen S. Mayadas Professor Emerita University of Texas at Arlington (13 December 2009). Immigration Worldwide : Policies, Practices, and Trends: Policies, Practices, and Trends. Oxford University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-19-974167-0 . Retrieved 1 September 2013. * ^ reporting 137 million native speakers within the Russian federation as of 2010, out of 167 million native speakers worldwide. Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2014. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International * ^ out of 8.3 million Ukrainian residents who identified as ethnic Russians, 0.3 million identified Ukrainian as their primary language; conversely, out of 37.5 million who identified as ethnic Ukrainians, 5.5 million identified Russian as their primary language. (2001 census) * ^ A B Численность населения Республики Казахстан по отдельным этносам на начало 2016 года * ^ CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
in 2014 estimates 8.3% ethnic Russians
Russians
out of a population of 9.61 million. * ^ "Демографические тенденции, формирование наций и межэтнические отношения в Киргизии". Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
in 2014 estimates 26.2% ethnic Russians
Russians
out of a population of 2.16 million. * ^ 369,896 or 9.39% of total population according to the 2004 census * ^ CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
in 2014 estimates 24.8% ethnic Russians
Russians
out of a population of 1.26 million. (2013) * ^ Turkmen pledge on Russian rights, BBC News * ^ 5.8% of the total population according to the Lithuanian census of 2011. * ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ "Southern Caucasus: Facing Integration Problems, Ethnic Russians
Russians
Long For Better Life". EurasiaNet.org. Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ "Итоги переписи населения Таджикистана 2000 года: национальный, возрастной, половой, семейный и образовательный составы". Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ "Statistics - Mathematical Insight". Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ Georgia: Ethnic
Ethnic
Russians
Russians
Feel Insulated From Tensions, Radio Free Europe * ^ (2002 census) * ^ Informatii utile Agentia Nationala pentru Intreprinderi Mici si Mijlocii * ^ "National Statistical Institute". Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ http://www.stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/LUD_ludnosc_stan_str_dem_spo_NSP2011.pdf * ^ self-reported ethnicity as of 2007; 0.4 million Russian-born. * ^ Russian migrants residing in Germany—this includes current and former citizens of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as well as former citizens of the Soviet Union. https://www.destatis.de/EN/FactsFigures/SocietyState/Population/MigrationIntegration/PersonsMigrationBackground/Tables/MigrantStatusFormerCitizenhip.html * ^ * ^ self-reported ethnic origin as of 2011; 107,300 gave Russian as single ethnic origin; an additional 443,220 gave Russian as one of several ethnic origins im "multiple ethnic origins responses". * ^ (2005) Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Immigrants and the difficulties of integration and getting into the cultural mainstream. "According to the Population Register Centre, a total of 155,660 foreign citizens lived in Finland
Finland
at the end of 2009. The largest language-groups are Russian-speakers (51,683), Estonian (25,096), English (12,063), Somali (11,681), Arabic (9,682), Kurdish (7,135), Chinese (7,078), and Albanian (6,736)." An estimated 70,000 people in Finland
Finland
speak Russian as their first language. * ^ "La communauté russe en France
France
est "éclectique"". Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ "Australian Bureau of Statistics". Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ A B "Créditos". Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ "Nationality and country of birth by age, sex and qualifications Jan - Dec 2013 (Excel sheet 60Kb)". www.ons.gov.uk. Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
. Retrieved 11 June 2014. . 35,000 Russian nationals and 39,000 Russian-born residents estimated for 2013 (based on 2011 data). * ^ Joshua Project. "Country - Venezuela
Venezuela
:: Joshua Project Joshua Project". Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ Statistik Austria. "STATISTIK AUSTRIA - Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ Belgian residents from the ex-USSR countries that resided in Belgium
Belgium
in 2008: 21,655. An estimate of 50,000 was given by diaspora organisation russian-belgium.be, based on extrapolation of naturalization data, online polls among their members, and a loose definition of "Russian" as anyone who has been exposed to the Soviet education system or who speaks Russian. * ^ 20,459 citizens of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
registered in Italy as of 2006 * ^ (2000 census) * ^ 俄羅斯在港 * ^ Statistics Norway * ^ "3. Facts and figures – Russians, Ukrainians and Baltic peoples – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ "Qatar\'s population - by nationality". bq Magazine. Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ Миграциони профил Републике Србије за 2013. годину * ^ Uzbekistan: People: Ethnic
Ethnic
Groups. World Factbook of CIA * ^ John Pike. "KYRGYZSTAN: Economic disparities driving inter-ethnic conflict". Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ " Russians
Russians
beyond the Limits of Russia", O.I. Vendina, Geography newspaper, no. 11, 2001 (in Russian) * ^ Tales of Old Shanghai
Shanghai
- cultures - Russians * ^ Clark, Donald N. (1994), "Vanished Exiles: The Prewar Russian Community in Korea", in Dae-Sook Suh, Korean Studies: New Pacific Currents, University of Hawaii Press, pp. 41–58, ISBN 0-8248-1598-X

* ^ Drankina, Yekaterina (2008-03-10), "Сингапурский десант", Kommersant Den'gi, 9 (664), retrieved 2009-07-30 * ^ Tilastokeskus: Ulkomaiden kansalaiset (Statistics Finland: Foreign Citizenship) in Finnish, 2013

* Russia
Russia
Abroad: A comprehensive guide to Russian Emigration after 1917 Biographical databases. Photoarchive. Research results accompanied by original documents, paper extracts. * Largest Russian-Ukrainian settlement support network outside of xUSSR - 300.000 members: pomogaem.net

* v * t * e

European diasporas

CENTRAL EUROPE

* Czechs * Germans * Hungarians

* Poles

* Kashubians

* Slovaks * Slovenes * Swiss

EASTERN EUROPE

* Armenians 5 * Azerbaijanis 3 * Belarusians
Belarusians
* Georgians 3 * Kazakhs 4 * Russians1

* Ukrainians

* Crimean Tatars
Tatars

NORTHERN EUROPE

* British

* English * Scottish * Welsh * Cornish

* Danes * Estonians * Finns * Icelanders * Irish * Latvian * Lithuanians * Norwegians * Swedes

SOUTHEAST EUROPE

* Albanians

* Kosovar

* Bosnians * Bulgarians * Croats

* Cypriots

* Greek Cypriots 5 * Turkish Cypriots 5

* Greeks * Macedonians

* Romanians

* Moldovans

* Serbian * Turkish 2

SOUTHERN EUROPE

* Italians

* Calabrians

* Maltese * Portuguese

* Spaniards

* Basques * Isleños

WESTERN EUROPE

* Belgians
Belgians

* Flanders

* Dutch

* French

* Basques

1 Russia
Russia
is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia
Russia
, therefore Russia
Russia
as a whole is included as a European country here.

2 Turkey is a transcontinental country in the Middle East and Southeast Europe. It has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe called Turkish Thrace .

3 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Georgia are transcontinental countries. Both have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus
Caucasus
.

4 Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is a transcontinental country. It has a small part of its territories located west of the Urals in Eastern Europe.

5 Armenia
Armenia
and Cyprus
Cyprus
are entirely in Southwest Asia, but have socio-political and historical connections with Europe.

* v * t * e

Russian diaspora
Russian diaspora

Former Russian Empire or the USSR

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

* Belarus
Belarus
* Poland
Poland
* Ukraine
Ukraine

BALTIC STATES

* Estonia
Estonia
* Latvia
Latvia
* Lithuania
Lithuania

CENTRAL ASIA

* Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
* Tajikistan
Tajikistan
* Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
* Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan

CAUCASUS

* Armenia
Armenia
* Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Georgia

OTHER STATES

* Moldova
Moldova
* Finland
Finland

AMERICAS

* Argentina
Argentina
* Brazil
Brazil
* Canada
Canada
* Chile * Guatemala * Mexico * United States
United States
* Uruguay * Venezuela
Venezuela

ASIA

EAST ASIA

* China
China

* Albazinians
Albazinians
* Harbin
Harbin
* Hong Kong
Hong Kong
* Shanghai
Shanghai

* Taiwan * Japan * Korea

SOUTH-EAST ASIA

* Philippines

SOUTH ASIA

* Afghanistan * India * Nepal * Pakistan

SOUTH-WEST ASIA

* Turkey * Iran * Israel
Israel
* Lebanon * United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates

EUROPE

* Austria
Austria
* Belgium
Belgium
* Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Croatia * Cyprus
Cyprus
* France
France
* Germany
Germany
* Greece * Romania
Romania
* Spain * Svalbard * Sweden * United Kingdom
United Kingdom

OCEANIA

* Australia
Australia

1 Related topics: Ethnic
Ethnic
Russians
Russians
in post-Soviet states , Near abroad and White émigré
White émigré
.

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