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The Russian Far East
Far East
(Russian: Дальний Восток России, tr. Dal'niy Vostok Rossii, IPA: [ˈdalʲnʲɪj vɐˈstok rɐˈsʲiɪ]) comprises the Russian part of the Far East
Far East
- the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
in Eastern Siberia
Siberia
and the Pacific Ocean. The Far Eastern Federal District, which covers this area, borders with the Siberian Federal District to the west. The Far Eastern Federal District
Far Eastern Federal District
has land borders with the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
and with North Korea
North Korea
to the south west and maritime borders with Japan
Japan
and with the United States. Although traditionally considered[by whom?] part of Siberia, the Russian Far East
Far East
is categorized separately from Siberia
Siberia
in Russian regional schemes (and previously during the Soviet era when it was called the Soviet Far East).

Contents

1 Terminology

1.1 In Russia

2 Geographic features 3 Fauna

3.1 Order Artiodactyla 3.2 Order Carnivora

3.2.1 Family Felidae 3.2.2 Family Ursidae

4 Flora 5 History

5.1 Russian exploration 5.2 Russo-Japanese War 5.3 Soviet era

5.3.1 Soviet–Japanese conflicts 5.3.2 World War II 5.3.3 Cold War 5.3.4 Russian Homestead Act 5.3.5 Russian-Japanese relations in the 21st century

6 Demographics

6.1 Population 6.2 Cities 6.3 Ukrainian Resettlement Program 6.4 Traditional ethnic groups

7 Transportation 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 External links

Terminology[edit] In Russia[edit] In Russia, the region is usually referred to as just "Far East" (Дальний Восток). What is known in English as the Far East is usually referred to as "the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Region" (Азиатско-тихоокеанский регион, abbreviated to АТР), or "East Asia" (Восточная Азия). Geographic features[edit] Further information: Geography of Russia
Russia
§ Northeast Siberia
Siberia
and Kamchatka

On the Amur in Khabarovsk

Koryaksky
Koryaksky
volcano in Kamchatka

Beyenchime-Salaatin crater Klyuchevskaya Sopka
Klyuchevskaya Sopka
volcano Kuril–Kamchatka Trench

Fauna[edit] Order Artiodactyla[edit]

Manchurian wapiti[1] Siberian musk deer[2]

Order Carnivora[edit]

Sikhote-Alin
Sikhote-Alin
is the home to Amur tigers

Family Felidae[edit]

Amur leopard[3] Amur tiger[4]

Family Ursidae[edit]

Asian black bear[5] Brown bear[6] Polar bear

Flora[edit]

Picea obovata[7] Pinus pumila[8]

History[edit] Russian exploration[edit]

Vladivostok
Vladivostok
in the early 1900s

Further information: Russian conquest of Siberia Further information: Outer Manchuria Russia
Russia
reached the Pacific coast in 1647 with the establishment of Okhotsk, and consolidated its control over the Russian Far East
Far East
in the 19th century. Primorskaya Oblast
Primorskaya Oblast
was established as a separate administrative division of the Russian Empire in 1856, with its administrative center at Khabarovsk. Several entities with the name "Far East" had existed in the first half of the 20th century, all with rather different boundaries:

1920–1922: the Far Eastern Republic, which included Transbaikal, Amur, Primorskaya, and Kamchatka Oblasts and northern Sakhalin; 1922–1926: Far-Eastern Oblast, which the Guberniya
Guberniya
included Amur, Transbaikal, Kamchatka, and 1926–1938: Far-Eastern Krai, which included modern Primorsky and Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
Krais.

Until 2000, the Russian Far East
Far East
lacked officially defined boundaries. A single term " Siberia
Siberia
and the Far East" (Сибирь и Дальний Восток) was often used to refer to Russia's regions east of the Urals without drawing a clear distinction between "Siberia" and "the Far East".

Annual procession with the Albazin icon of Theotokos, Jewish Autonomous Region.

In 2000, Russia's federal subjects were grouped into larger federal districts, and the Far Eastern Federal District
Far Eastern Federal District
was created, comprising Amur Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Kamchatka Oblast
Kamchatka Oblast
with Koryak Autonomous Okrug, Khabarovsk Krai, Magadan
Magadan
Oblast, Primorsky Krai, the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, and Sakhalin
Sakhalin
Oblast. Since 2000, the term "Far East" has been increasingly used in Russia
Russia
to refer to the federal district, though it is often also used more loosely. Defined by the boundaries of the federal district, the Far East
Far East
has an area of 6.2 million square kilometers—over one-third of Russia's total area. Russo-Japanese War[edit] Further information: Russo-Japanese War Russia
Russia
in the early 1900s persistently sought a warm water port on the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
for the navy as well as to facilitate maritime trade. The recently established Pacific seaport of Vladivostok
Vladivostok
was operational only during the summer season, but Port Arthur in Manchuria
Manchuria
was operational all year. After the First Sino-Japanese War and the failure of the 1903 negotiations between Japan
Japan
and the Tsars's government, Japan
Japan
chose war to protect its domination of Korea
Korea
and adjacent territories. Russia, meanwhile, saw war as a means of distracting its populace from government repression and of rallying patriotism in the aftermath of several general strikes. Japan
Japan
issued a declaration of war on 8 February 1904. However, three hours before Japan's declaration of war was received by the Russian Government, the Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
attacked the Russian Far East Fleet at Port Arthur. Eight days later Russia
Russia
declared war on Japan. The war ended in September 1905 with a Japanese victory following the fall of Port Arthur and the failed Russian invasion of Japan
Japan
through the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
and Northeast China; also, Japan
Japan
had threatened to invade Primorsky Krai
Primorsky Krai
via Korea. The Treaty of Portsmouth
Treaty of Portsmouth
was later signed and both Japan
Japan
and Russia
Russia
agreed to evacuate Manchuria
Manchuria
and return its sovereignty to China, but Japan
Japan
was allowed to lease the Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
(containing Port Arthur and Talien), and the Russian rail system in southern Manchuria
Manchuria
with its access to strategic resources. Japan
Japan
also received the southern half of the Island of Sakhalin
Sakhalin
from Russia. Russia
Russia
was also forced to confiscate land from Korean settlers who formed the majority of Primorsky Krai's population due to a fear of an invasion of Korea
Korea
and ousting of Japanese troops by Korean guerrillas. Soviet era[edit]

Number and share of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
in the population of the regions of the RSFSR
RSFSR
(1926 census)

Between 1937 and 1939, the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin deported over 200,000 Koreans to Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Kazakhstan, fearing that the Koreans might act as spies for Japan. Many Koreans died on the way in cattle trains due to starvation, illness, or freezing conditions. Many community leaders were purged and executed, Koryo-saram
Koryo-saram
were not allowed to travel outside of Central Asia
Asia
for the next 15 years. Koreans were also not allowed to use the Korean language and its use began to become lost with the involvement of Koryo-mar and the use of Russian. Development of numerous remote locations relied on GULAG
GULAG
labour camps during Stalin's rule, especially in the region's northern half. After that, the large-scale use of forced labour waned and was superseded by volunteer employees attracted by relatively high wages. Soviet–Japanese conflicts[edit] Main article: Soviet–Japanese border conflicts During the Japanese invasion of Manchuria
Manchuria
in 1931, the Soviets occupied Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island, Yinlong Island, and several adjacent islets to separate the city of Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
from the territory controlled by a possibly hostile power.[9] Indeed, Japan
Japan
turned its military interests to Soviet territories. Conflicts between the Japanese and the Soviets frequently happened on the border of Manchuria
Manchuria
between 1938 and 1945. The first confrontation occurred in Primorsky Krai, the Battle of Lake Khasan
Battle of Lake Khasan
was an attempted military incursion of Manchukuo (Japanese) into the territory claimed by the Soviet Union. This incursion was founded in the beliefs of the Japanese side that the Soviet Union misinterpreted the demarcation of the boundary based on the Treaty of Peking between Imperial Russia
Russia
and Manchu China. Primorsky Krai
Primorsky Krai
was always threatened by a Japanese invasion despite the fact that most of the remaining clashes occurred in Manchukuo. The clashes ended shortly before the conclusion of the World War II when a weakened Japan
Japan
found its territories of Manchukuo, Mengjiang, Korea, and South Sakhalin
Sakhalin
invaded by Soviet and Mongolian troops. World War II[edit] Main articles: Pacific War
Pacific War
and Soviet–Japanese War Primorsky Krai
Primorsky Krai
was a strategic location in World War II for both the Soviet Union and Japan
Japan
and clashes over the territory were common as the Soviets and the Allies considered it a key location to invade Japan
Japan
through Korea, and Japan
Japan
viewed it as a key location to begin a mass invasion of Eastern Russia. Primorsky Krai
Primorsky Krai
also served as the Soviet Union's Pacific headquarters in the war to plan an invasion for allied troops of Korea
Korea
in order to reach Japan. After the Soviet invasion, Manchukuo and Mengjiang
Mengjiang
were returned to China and Korea
Korea
became liberated. The Soviet Union also occupied and annexed Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands
and southern Sakhalin. Soviet invasion of Japan proper never happened. Cold War[edit] During the Korean War, Primorsky Krai
Primorsky Krai
became the site of extreme security concern for the Soviet Union. Vladivostok
Vladivostok
was the site of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
in 1974. At the time, the Soviet Union and the United States
United States
decided quantitative limits on various nuclear weapons systems and banned the construction of new land-based ICBM launchers. Vladivostok
Vladivostok
and other cities in Primorsky Krai
Primorsky Krai
soon became closed cities because of the base of the Soviet Pacific Fleet. Incursions of American reconnaissance aircraft from nearby Alaska sometimes happened. These concerns of the Soviet military caused the infamous Korean Air Lines Flight 007
Korean Air Lines Flight 007
incident in 1983. Russian Homestead Act[edit] In 2016, President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
proposed the Russian Homestead Act to populate the Russian Far East. Russian-Japanese relations in the 21st century[edit] Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said on December 21, 2017: Russia
Russia
is ready for a visa-free regime with Japan. Russia
Russia
is already ready to conclude an agreement on a visa-free regime with Japan. The goal of Russia
Russia
is to expand the circle of those countries with which we have such agreements. With the Japanese, we are ready to make such an agreement. Even now, Japanese citizens can visit Russian Vladivostok
Vladivostok
under a simplified visa regime. A simplified electronic visa to Primorsky Krai in 2016 brought 1338 citizens of Japan. Demographics[edit] Population[edit]

Students in Vladivostok
Vladivostok
celebrating St. Tatyana's Day, or Russian Students Day

Graph depicting population change in the Russian Far East

According to the 2010 Census, Far Eastern Federal District
Far Eastern Federal District
had a population of 6,293,129. Most of it is concentrated in the southern parts. Given the vast territory of the Russian Far East, 6.3 million people translates to slightly less than one person per square kilometer, making the Russian Far East
Far East
one of the most sparsely populated areas in the world. The population of the Russian Far East
Far East
has been rapidly declining since the dissolution of the Soviet Union (even more so than for Russia
Russia
in general), dropping by 14% in the last fifteen years. The Russian government has been discussing a range of re-population programs to avoid the forecast drop to 4.5 million people by 2015, hoping to attract in particular the remaining Russian population of the near abroad but eventually agreeing on a program to resettle Ukrainian Illegal immigrants. Ethnic Russians
Russians
and Ukrainians
Ukrainians
make up the majority of the population. Cities[edit] 75% of the population is urban. The largest cities are:

Vladivostok

Vladivostok Khabarovsk Komsomolsk-on-Amur Blagoveshchensk Yakutsk Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Nakhodka Ussuriysk

Ukrainian Resettlement Program[edit] In 2016 an ambitious program was approved which hoped to resettle at least 500,000 Ukrainians
Ukrainians
in the Far East. This included giving free land to attract voluntary immigrants from Ukraine and the settlement of refugees from East Ukraine.[10] Traditional ethnic groups[edit] The original population groups of the Russian Far East
Far East
include (grouped by language group):

Turkic: Sakha Eskimo–Aleut: Aleuts, Siberian Yupiks (Yuits) Chukotko-Kamchatkan: Chukchi, Koryaks, Alutors, Kereks, Itelmens Tungusic: Evenks, Evens, Nanais, Orochs, Ul'ch, Udegey, Orok Isolate: Yukaghirs, Nivkhs, Ainus

Transportation[edit]

Transportation on the Lena River

The region was not connected with the rest of Russia
Russia
via domestic highways, until M58 highway was completed in 2010. Uniquely for Russia, most cars have Right Hand Drive
Right Hand Drive
(73% of all cars in the region),[11] though traffic still flows on the right-hand side of the road. Railways were developed better. The Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
and Baikal–Amur Mainline
Baikal–Amur Mainline
(since 1984) provide connection with Siberia (and the rest of the country). Amur– Yakutsk
Yakutsk
Mainline is aimed to link the city of Yakutsk
Yakutsk
to the Russian railway network. Passenger trains reach Nizhny Bestyakh
Nizhny Bestyakh
as of 2013. Like in nearby Siberia, for many remote localities aviation is the main mode of transportation to/from the civilization, but the infrastructure is often poor. Maritime transport is also important for delivering supplies to localities at (or near) Pacific and Arctic
Arctic
coasts. See also[edit]

Russia
Russia
portal Geography portal

Extreme North
Extreme North
(Russia) Far Eastern Republic Kolyma North Asia Outer Manchuria List of Russian explorers Bering Strait

Footnotes[edit]

^ Valerius Geist (January 1998). Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology. Stackpole Books. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-8117-0496-0. Retrieved 30 January 2016.  ^ Nyambayar, B.; Mix, H. & Tsytsulina, K. (2008). "Moschus moschiferus". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 30 January 2016.  Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of vulnerable. ^ Uphyrkina, O.; Miquelle, D.; Quigley, H.; Driscoll, C.; O’Brien, S. J. (2002). "Conservation Genetics of the Far Eastern Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis)" (PDF). Journal of Heredity. 93 (5): 303–11. doi:10.1093/jhered/93.5.303. PMID 12547918. Retrieved 30 January 2016.  ^ Miquelle, D.; Darman, Y.; Seryodkin, I. (2011). "Panthera tigris ssp. altaica". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 30 January 2016.  ^ Garshelis, D. L.; Steinmetz, R. & IUCN
IUCN
SSC Bear Specialist Group (2008). "Ursus thibetanus". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 30 January 2016.  ^ McLellan, B.N.; Servheen, C. & Huber, D. (2008). "Ursus arctos". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 30 January 2016.  ^ Farjon, A. (2013). "Pinus pumila". The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T42405A2977712. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42405A2977712.en. Retrieved 12 January 2018.  ^ A. Farjon (2013). "Picea obovata". The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T42331A2973177. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42331A2973177.en. Retrieved 12 January 2018.  ^ Russian possession of the eastern half of these lands was recognized by People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
in the treaty of 2004, whereas the western half was then returned to China. ^ "Go East! Government supports Siberian resettlement of Ukraine refugees". 16 February 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ "В России посчитали всех "праворуких"". auto.vesti.ru. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Russian Far East.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Russian Far East.

Meeting of Frontiers: Siberia, Alaska, and the American West (includes materials on Russian Far East) Дальневосточный федеральный округ at WGEO

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Russian Far East

Topics

Cities and towns Far Eastern Federal District Far Eastern economic region Far Eastern Republic Indigenous peoples of Siberia Eastern Military District

Federal subjects

Amur Oblast Jewish Autonomous Oblast Kamchatka Krai Magadan
Magadan
Oblast Primorsky Krai Sakha Republic Sakhalin
Sakhalin
Oblast Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
Krai Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

Largest cities

Vladivostok Khabarovsk Komsomolsk-on-Amur Blagoveshchensk Yakutsk Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Nakhodka Ussuriysk Magadan Birobidzhan

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan
Japan
Arc Sakhalin
Sakhalin
Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China
Northeast China
Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska
Alaska
Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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