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Victory for the Red Army
Red Army
in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, South Caucasus, Central Asia, Tuva, and Mongolia; Victory for pro-independence movements in Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland

Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine
Ukraine
(1919–20) Left SR (until March 1918) Green armies
Green armies
(until 1919)

Territorial changes Establishment of the Soviet Union; Independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland[3] Cessation of Kars, Erzurum, Ardahan, Ağrı and Iğdır to Turkey Union of Bessarabia with Romania

Belligerents

Soviet Russia
Russia
and other Soviet republics

White Movement

Including

Provisional All-Russian Government Armed Forces of South Russia Siberian Army Komuch Don Army Kuban
Kuban
cossacks Alash Autonomy

Other new republics

Including

 Poland  Finland  Estonia  Latvia Lithuania Ukraine Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan Mountain Republic Don Republic Kuban
Kuban
People's Republic and other pro-independence movements

Allied intervention

Including

 United Kingdom

 Canada  Australia

 Japan  Czechoslovakia  Greece  United States  France  Serbia  Romania  Italy  China

German-led intervention

Including

 Germany Landeswehr Freikorps West Russian Volunteer Army

Other factions

Green armies
Green armies
(from 1919) Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine
Ukraine
(1920–21) Kronstadt rebels Left SR (from March 1918)

Basmachi Bukhara Khiva

Ottoman Empire

Mongolia

Commanders and leaders

Vladimir Lenin Leon Trotsky Jukums Vācietis Sergey Kamenev

Nestor Makhno Alexander Kolchak  Lavr Kornilov † Anton Denikin Pyotr Wrangel Nikolai Yudenich Grigory Semyonov

Strength

5,427,273 (peak)[4]

103,000 Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine[citation needed] 2,400,000 White Russians

Casualties and losses

1,212,824 casualties (records incomplete)[5] At least 1,500,000[citation needed]

v t e

Theaters of the Russian Civil War

October Revolution Left-wing uprisings Allied Intervention (Siberia, North Russia)

Northern

Vaga River Bolshie Ozerki

Western

Finland Heimosodat Estonia Latvia Lithuania

Southern

Ukraine West Ukraine Poland Ossetia Georgia Armenia and Azerbaijan

Soviet invasion of Azerbaijan

Tambov

Eastern

Yakutia

Central Asian

Basmachi

The Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(Russian: Гражда́нская война́ в Росси́и, tr. Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922)[6] was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favoring monarchism, capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and antidemocratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and nonideological Green armies
Green armies
fought against both the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the Allied Forces and the pro-German armies.[7] The Red Army
Red Army
defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia
Russia
in Ukraine
Ukraine
and the army led by Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak
Aleksandr Kolchak
in Siberia
Siberia
in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel were beaten in Crimea
Crimea
and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923 in the sense that Red control of the newly formed Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia
Central Asia
was not completely crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians. The Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
has been described by some as the greatest national catastrophe that Europe
Europe
had yet seen.[8] Many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and fought in the war.[3] Several parts of the former Russian Empire—Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland—were established as sovereign states, with their own civil wars and wars of independence. The rest of the former Russian Empire was consolidated into the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
shortly afterwards.

Contents

1 Background

1.1 February Revolution 1.2 Formation of the Red Army 1.3 Anti-Bolshevik movement

2 Geography and chronology 3 Warfare

3.1 October Revolution 3.2 Initial anti-Bolshevik uprisings 3.3 Peace with the Central Powers 3.4 Ukraine, South Russia, and Caucasus 1918 3.5 Eastern Russia, Siberia
Siberia
and Far East of Russia, 1918 3.6 Central Asia
Central Asia
1918 3.7 Left SR uprising 3.8 Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Petrograd 3.9 Northern Russia
Russia
1919 3.10 Siberia
Siberia
1919 3.11 South Russia
Russia
1919 3.12 Central Asia
Central Asia
1919 3.13 South Russia, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Kronstadt 1920–21 3.14 Siberia
Siberia
and the Far East 1920–22

4 Aftermath

4.1 Ensuing rebellion 4.2 Casualties 4.3 Brief Timeline

5 In fiction

5.1 Literature 5.2 Film

6 See also 7 References

7.1 Citations 7.2 Bibliography

8 Further reading 9 External links

Background[edit] February Revolution[edit] Main article: February Revolution After the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, the Russian Provisional Government was established during the February Revolution of 1917. Formation of the Red Army[edit] Main article: Red Army From mid-1917 onwards, the Russian Army, the successor-organisation of the old Russian Imperial Army, started to disintegrate;[9] the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
used the volunteer-based Red Guards as their main military force, augmented by an armed military component of the Cheka
Cheka
(the Bolshevik state-security apparatus). In January 1918, after significant Bolshevik reverses in combat, the future People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
headed the reorganization of the Red Guards into a Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in order to create a more effective fighting force. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
appointed political commissars to each unit of the Red Army to maintain morale and to ensure loyalty. In June 1918, when it had become apparent that a revolutionary army composed solely of workers would not suffice, Trotsky instituted mandatory conscription of the rural peasantry into the Red Army.[10] The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
overcame opposition of rural Russians to Red-Army conscription units by taking hostages and shooting them when necessary in order to force compliance,[11] exactly the same practices used by the White Army officers.[12] The Red Army
Red Army
utilized former Tsarist officers as "military specialists" (voenspetsy),[13] sometimes their families were taken hostage in order to ensure their loyalty.[14] At the start of the civil war, former Tsarist officers comprised three-quarters of the Red Army
Red Army
officer-corps.[14] By its end, 83% of all Red Army
Red Army
divisional and corps commanders were ex-Tsarist soldiers.[13] Anti-Bolshevik movement[edit] Main articles: White movement, Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War, and Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks While resistance to the Red Guard began on the very day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
and the political ban [clarification needed] became a catalyst[15] for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new regime. A loose confederation of anti-Bolshevik forces aligned against the Communist government, including landowners, republicans, conservatives, middle-class citizens, reactionaries, pro-monarchists, liberals, army generals, non-Bolshevik socialists who still had grievances and democratic reformists voluntarily united only in their opposition to Bolshevik rule. Their military forces, bolstered by forced conscriptions and terror[12] and by foreign influence and led by Gen. Yudenich, Adm. Kolchak and Gen. Denikin, became known as the White movement
White movement
(sometimes referred to as the "White Army") and controlled significant parts of the former Russian Empire
Russian Empire
for most of the war. A Ukrainian nationalist movement was active in Ukraine
Ukraine
during the war. More significant was the emergence of an anarchist political and military movement known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine
Ukraine
or the Anarchist
Anarchist
Black Army led by Nestor Makhno. The Black Army, which counted numerous Jews and Ukrainian peasants in its ranks, played a key part in halting Gen. Denikin's White Army offensive towards Moscow during 1919, later ejecting White forces from Crimea. The remoteness of the Volga Region, the Ural Region, Siberia
Siberia
and the Far East was favorable for the anti-Bolshevik forces, and the Whites set up a number of organizations in the cities of these regions. Some of the military forces were set up on the basis of clandestine officers' organizations in the cities. The Czechoslovak Legions had been part of the Russian army and numbered around 30,000 troops by October 1917. They had an agreement with the new Bolshevik government to be evacuated from the Eastern Front via the port of Vladivostok
Vladivostok
to France. The transport from the Eastern Front to Vladivostok
Vladivostok
slowed down in the chaos, and the troops became dispersed all along the Trans-Siberian Railway. Under pressure from the Central Powers, Trotsky ordered the disarming and arrest of the legionaries, which created tensions with the Bolsheviks. The Western Allies armed and supported opponents of the Bolsheviks. They were worried about (1) a possible Russo-German alliance, (2) the prospect of the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
making good on their threats to default on Imperial Russia's massive foreign loans and (3) the possibility that the Communist revolutionary ideas would spread (a concern shared by many Central Powers). Hence, many of these countries expressed their support for the Whites, including the provision of troops and supplies. Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
declared that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle".[16] The British and French had supported Russia
Russia
during World War I
World War I
on a massive scale with war materials. After the treaty, it looked like much of that material would fall into the hands of the Germans. Under this pretext began Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
with the United Kingdom and France sending troops into Russian ports. There were violent clashes with troops loyal to the Bolsheviks. The German Empire
German Empire
created several short-lived satellite buffer states within its sphere of influence after the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: the "United Baltic Duchy", "Duchy of Courland and Semigallia", "Kingdom of Lithuania", "Kingdom of Poland", the "Belarusian People’s Republic", and the "Ukrainian State". Following the defeat of Germany in World War I in November 1918, these states were abolished. Finland
Finland
was the first republic that declared its independence from Russia
Russia
in December 1917 and established itself in the ensuing Finnish Civil War from January–May 1918. The Second Polish Republic, Lithuania, Latvia
Latvia
and Estonia
Estonia
formed their own armies immediately after the abolition of the Brest-Litovsk
Brest-Litovsk
Treaty and the start of the Soviet westward offensive in November 1918. Geography and chronology[edit] Main articles: Southern Front of the Russian Civil War, North Russia Campaign, Eastern Front of the Russian Civil War, Yakut Revolt, and Finnish Civil War In the European part of Russia
Russia
the war was fought across three main fronts: the eastern, the southern and the northwestern. It can also be roughly split into the following periods.

Anti-Bolshevik Volunteer Army
Volunteer Army
in South Russia, January 1918

The first period lasted from the Revolution until the Armistice. Already on the date of the Revolution, Cossack
Cossack
Gen. Kaledin
Kaledin
refused to recognize it and assumed full governmental authority in the Don region,[17] where the Volunteer Army
Volunteer Army
began amassing support. The signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
also resulted in direct Allied intervention in Russia
Russia
and the arming of military forces opposed to the Bolshevik government. There were also many German commanders who offered support against the Bolsheviks, fearing a confrontation with them was impending as well. During this first period the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
took control of Central Asia out of the hands of the Provisional Government and White Army, setting up a base for the Communist Party in the Steppe and Turkestan, where nearly two million Russian settlers were located.[18]

Russian soldiers of the anti-Bolshevik Siberian Army
Siberian Army
in 1919

Most of the fighting in this first period was sporadic, involving only small groups amid a fluid and rapidly shifting strategic scene. Among the antagonists were the Czechs, known as the Czechoslovak Legion
Czechoslovak Legion
or "White Czechs",[19] the Poles of the Polish 5th Rifle Division
Polish 5th Rifle Division
and the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian riflemen. The second period of the war lasted from January to November 1919. At first the White armies' advances from the south (under Gen. Denikin), the east (under Adm. Kolchak) and the northwest (under Gen. Yudenich) were successful, forcing the Red Army
Red Army
and its allies back on all three fronts. In July 1919 the Red Army
Red Army
suffered another reverse after a mass defection of units in the Crimea
Crimea
to the anarchist Black Army under Nestor Makhno, enabling anarchist forces to consolidate power in Ukraine. Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
soon reformed the Red Army, concluding the first of two military alliances with the anarchists. In June the Red Army first checked Kolchak's advance. After a series of engagements, assisted by a Black Army offensive against White supply lines, the Red Army defeated Denikin's and Yudenich's armies in October and November. The third period of the war was the extended siege of the last White forces in the Crimea. Gen. Wrangel had gathered the remnants of Denikin's armies, occupying much of the Crimea. An attempted invasion of southern Ukraine
Ukraine
was rebuffed by the anarchist Black Army under the command of Nestor Makhno. Pursued into the Crimea
Crimea
by Makhno's troops, Wrangel went over to the defensive in the Crimea. After an abortive move north against the Red Army, Wrangel's troops were forced south by Red Army
Red Army
and Black Army forces; Wrangel and the remains of his army were evacuated to Constantinople
Constantinople
in November 1920. Warfare[edit] October Revolution[edit] Main article: October Revolution

European theatre of the Russian Civil War

In the October Revolution
October Revolution
the Bolshevik Party directed the Red Guard (armed groups of workers and Imperial army deserters) to seize control of Petrograd
Petrograd
(Saint Petersburg) and immediately began the armed takeover of cities and villages throughout the former Russian Empire. In January 1918 the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly and proclaimed the Soviets (workers’ councils) as the new government of Russia. Initial anti-Bolshevik uprisings[edit] Main articles: Kerensky-Krasnov uprising, Junker mutiny, and Volunteer Army The first attempt to regain power from the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
was made by the Kerensky-Krasnov uprising in October 1917. It was supported by the Junker Mutiny in Petrograd
Petrograd
but was quickly put down by the Red Guard, notably the Latvian Rifle Division. The initial groups that fought against the Communists were local Cossack
Cossack
armies that had declared their loyalty to the Provisional Government. Gen. Kaledin
Kaledin
of the Don Cossacks
Don Cossacks
and Gen. Semenov of the Siberian Cossacks
Cossacks
were prominent among them. The leading Tsarist officers of the old regime also started to resist. In November, Gen. Alekseev, the Tsar's Chief of Staff during the First World War, began to organize the Volunteer Army
Volunteer Army
in Novocherkassk. Volunteers of this small army were mostly officers of the old Russian army, military cadets and students. In December 1917 Alekseev was joined by Gen. Kornilov, Denikin
Denikin
and other Tsarist officers who had escaped from the jail, where they had been imprisoned following the abortive Kornilov affair just before the Revolution.[20] At the beginning of December 1917 groups of volunteers and Cossacks
Cossacks
captured Rostov. Having stated in the November 1917 “Declaration of Rights of Nations of Russia” that any nation under imperial Russian rule should be immediately given the power of self-determination, the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
had begun to usurp the power of the Provisional Government in the territories of Central Asia
Central Asia
soon after the establishment of the Turkestan Committee in Tashkent.[21] In April 1917 the Provisional Government set up this committee, which was mostly made up of former Tsarist officials.[22] The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
attempted to take control of the Committee in Tashkent
Tashkent
on 12 September 1917 but it was unsuccessful, and many leaders were arrested. However, because the Committee lacked representation of the native population and poor Russian settlers, they had to release the Bolshevik prisoners almost immediately due to public outcry, and a successful takeover of this government body took place two months later in November.[23] The triumph of the Bolshevik party over the Provisional Government during 1917 was mostly due to the support they received from the working class of Central Asia. The Leagues of Mohammedam Working People, which Russian settlers and natives who had been sent to work behind the lines for the Tsarist government in 1916 formed in March 1917, had led numerous strikes in the industrial centers throughout September 1917.[24] However, after the Bolshevik destruction of the Provisional Government in Tashkent, Muslim elites formed an autonomous government in Turkestan, commonly called the " Kokand
Kokand
autonomy" (or simply Kokand).[25] The White Russians supported this government body, which lasted several months because of Bolshevik troop isolation from Moscow.[26] In January 1918 the Soviet forces under Lt. Col. Muravyov invaded Ukraine
Ukraine
and invested Kiev, where the Central Council of the Ukrainian People's Republic held power. With the help of the Kiev
Kiev
Arsenal Uprising, the Bolsheviks captured the city on 26 January.[27] Peace with the Central Powers[edit] Main article: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Soviet delegation with Trotsky greeted by German officers at Brest-Litovsk, 8 January 1918

The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
decided to immediately make peace with the German Empire and the Central Powers, as they had promised the Russian people before the Revolution.[28] Vladimir Lenin's political enemies attributed that decision to his sponsorship by the Foreign Office of Wilhelm II, German Emperor, offered to Lenin in hope that, with a revolution, Russia
Russia
would withdraw from World War I. That suspicion was bolstered by the German Foreign Ministry's sponsorship of Lenin's return to Petrograd.[29] However, after the military fiasco of the summer offensive (June 1917) by the Russian Provisional Government, and in particular after the failed summer offensive of the Provisional Government had devastated the structure of the Russian army, it became crucial that Lenin realize the promised peace.[30][31] Even before the failed summer offensive the Russian population was very skeptical about the continuation of the war. Western socialists had promptly arrived from France and from the UK to convince the Russians to continue the fight, but could not change the new pacifist mood of Russia.[32] On 16 December 1917 an armistice was signed between Russia
Russia
and the Central Powers
Central Powers
in Brest-Litovsk
Brest-Litovsk
and peace talks began.[33] As a condition for peace, the proposed treaty by the Central Powers conceded huge portions of the former Russian Empire
Russian Empire
to the German Empire and the Ottoman Empire, greatly upsetting nationalists and conservatives. Leon Trotsky, representing the Bolsheviks, refused at first to sign the treaty while continuing to observe a unilateral cease-fire, following the policy of "No war, no peace".[34] In view of this, on 18 February 1918 the Germans began Operation Faustschlag on the Eastern Front, encountering virtually no resistance in a campaign that lasted 11 days.[34] Signing a formal peace treaty was the only option in the eyes of the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
because the Russian army was demobilized, and the newly formed Red Guard was incapable of stopping the advance. They also understood that the impending counterrevolutionary resistance was more dangerous than the concessions of the treaty, which Lenin viewed as temporary in the light of aspirations for a world revolution. The Soviets acceded to a peace treaty, and the formal agreement, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, was ratified on 6 March. The Soviets viewed the treaty as merely a necessary and expedient means to end the war. Therefore, they ceded large amounts of territory to the German Empire. Ukraine, South Russia, and Caucasus 1918[edit] Main articles: Ukrainian People's Republic, Kiev
Kiev
Arsenal January Uprising, Ice March, 26 Baku Commissars, German Caucasus Expedition, Battle of Baku, and Central Caspian Dictatorship

February 1918 article from The New York Times
The New York Times
showing a map of the Russian Imperial territories claimed by the Ukrainian People's Republic at the time, before the annexation of the Austro-Hungarian lands of the West Ukrainian People's Republic

Under Soviet pressure, the Volunteer Army
Volunteer Army
embarked on the epic Ice March from Yekaterinodar to Kuban
Kuban
on 22 February 1918, where they joined with the Kuban
Kuban
Cossacks
Cossacks
to mount an abortive assault on Yekaterinodar.[35] The Soviets recaptured Rostov on the next day.[36] Gen. Kornilov was killed in the fighting on 13 April, and Gen. Denikin took over command. Fighting off its pursuers without respite, the army succeeded in breaking its way through back towards the Don, where the Cossack
Cossack
uprising against Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
had started. The Baku Soviet Commune was established on 13 April. Germany landed its Caucasus Expedition troops in Poti
Poti
on 8 June. The Ottoman Army of Islam (in coalition with Azerbaijan) drove them out of Baku on 26 July 1918. Subsequently, the Dashanaks, Right SRs and Mensheviks
Mensheviks
started negotiations with Gen. Dunsterville, the commander of the British troops in Persia. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
and their Left SR allies were opposed to it, but on 25 July the majority of the Soviet voted to call in the British and the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
resigned. The Baku Soviet Commune ended its existence and was replaced by the Central Caspian Dictatorship. In June 1918 the Volunteer Army, numbering some 9,000 men, started its second Kuban
Kuban
campaign. Yekaterinodar was encircled on 1 August and fell on the 3rd. In September–October, heavy fighting took place at Armavir and Stavropol. On 13 October Gen. Kazanovich's division took Armavir, and on 1 November Gen. Pyotr Wrangel
Pyotr Wrangel
secured Stavropol. This time Red forces had no escape, and by the beginning of 1919 the whole Northern Caucasus was controlled by the Volunteer Army. In October Gen. Alekseev, the leader of the White armies in southern Russia, died of a heart attack. An agreement was reached between Denikin, head of the Volunteer Army, and Pyotr Krasnov, Ataman of the Don Cossacks, which united their forces under the sole command of Denikin. The Armed Forces of South Russia
Russia
were thus created. Eastern Russia, Siberia
Siberia
and Far East of Russia, 1918[edit] Main article: Revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion The revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion
Czechoslovak Legion
broke out in May 1918,[37] and the legionaries took control of Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk
in June. Simultaneously Russian officers' organizations overthrew the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
in Petropavlovsk (in present-day Kazakhstan) and in Omsk. Within a month the Whites controlled most of the Trans-Siberian Railroad between Lake Baikal and the Ural regions. During the summer Bolshevik power in Siberia
Siberia
was eliminated. The Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia
Siberia
formed in Omsk. By the end of July the Whites had extended their gains westwards, capturing Ekaterinburg
Ekaterinburg
on 26 July 1918. Shortly before the fall of Yekaterinburg on 17 July 1918, the former Tsar and his family were murdered by the Ural Soviet
Ural Soviet
to prevent them falling into the hands of the Whites. Mensheviks
Mensheviks
and Socialist-Revolutionaries supported peasants fighting against Soviet control of food supplies.[38] In May 1918, with the support of the Czechoslovak Legion, they took Samara and Saratov, establishing the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly—known as the "Komuch". By July the authority of the Komuch extended over much of the area controlled by the Czechoslovak Legion. The Komuch
Komuch
pursued an ambivalent social policy, combining democratic and socialist measures, such as the institution of an eight-hour working day, with "restorative" actions, such as returning both factories and land to their former owners. After the fall of Kazan, Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
called for the dispatch of Petrograd
Petrograd
workers to the Kazan
Kazan
Front: "We must send down the maximum number of Petrograd workers: (1) a few dozen 'leaders' like Kayurov; (2) a few thousand militants 'from the ranks'".[39] After a series of reverses at the front, the Bolsheviks' War Commissar, Trotsky, instituted increasingly harsh measures in order to prevent unauthorized withdrawals, desertions and mutinies in the Red Army. In the field the Cheka
Cheka
special investigations forces, termed the Special
Special
Punitive Department of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combat of Counter-Revolution and Sabotage or Special Punitive Brigades, followed the Red Army, conducting field tribunals and summary executions of soldiers and officers who deserted, retreated from their positions or failed to display sufficient offensive zeal.[40][41] Trotsky extended the use of the death penalty to the occasional political commissar whose detachment retreated or broke in the face of the enemy.[42] In August, frustrated at continued reports of Red Army
Red Army
troops breaking under fire, Trotsky authorized the formation of barrier troops - stationed behind unreliable Red Army units and given with orders to shoot anyone withdrawing from the battle line without authorization.[43]

Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
killed by Czechoslovak legionaries of the 8th Regiment at Nikolsk-Ussuriysky, 1918

In September 1918 Komuch, the Siberian Provisional Government and other local anti-Soviet governments met in Ufa
Ufa
and agreed to form a new Provisional All-Russian Government
Provisional All-Russian Government
in Omsk, headed by a Directory of five: two Socialist-Revolutionaries ( Nikolai Avksentiev
Nikolai Avksentiev
and Vladimir Zenzinov), two Kadets (V. A. Vinogradov (ru) and PV Vologodskii) and General Vasily Boldyrev. By the fall of 1918 anti-Bolshevik White forces in the east included the People's Army (Komuch), the Siberian Army
Siberian Army
(of the Siberian Provisional Government) and insurgent Cossack
Cossack
units of Orenburg, Ural, Siberia, Semirechye, Baikal, Amur and Ussuri Cossacks, nominally under the orders of Gen. V.G. Boldyrev, Commander-in-Chief, appointed by the Ufa
Ufa
Directorate. On the Volga, Col. Kappel's White detachment captured Kazan
Kazan
on 7 August, but the Reds re-captured the city on 8 September 1918 following a counteroffensive. On the 11th Simbirsk
Simbirsk
fell, and on 8 October Samara. The Whites fell back eastwards to Ufa
Ufa
and Orenburg. In Omsk
Omsk
the Russian Provisional Government
Russian Provisional Government
quickly came under the influence - then the dominance - of its new War Minister, Rear-Admiral Kolchak. On 18 November a coup d'état established Kolchak as dictator. The members of the Directory were arrested and Kolchak proclaimed the "Supreme Ruler of Russia". By mid-December 1918 White armies had to leave Ufa, but they balanced this failure with a successful drive towards Perm, which they took on 24 December. Central Asia
Central Asia
1918[edit] In February 1918 the Red Army
Red Army
overthrew the White Russian-supported Kokand
Kokand
autonomy of Turkestan.[44] Although this move seemed to solidify Bolshevik power in Central Asia, more troubles soon arose for the Red Army
Red Army
as the Allied Forces began to intervene. British support of the White Army provided the greatest threat to the Red Army
Red Army
in Central Asia
Central Asia
during 1918. Great Britain sent three prominent military leaders to the area. One was Lt. Col. Bailey, who recorded a mission to Tashkent, from where the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
forced him to flee. Another was Gen. Malleson, leading the Malleson Mission, who assisted the Mensheviks
Mensheviks
in Ashkhabad (now the capital of Turkmenistan) with a small Anglo-Indian force. However, he failed to gain control of Tashkent, Bukhara and Khiva. The third was Maj. Gen. Dunsterville, who the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
drove out of Central Asia
Central Asia
only a month after his arrival in August 1918.[45] Despite setbacks due to British invasions during 1918, the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
continued to make progress in bringing the Central Asian population under their influence. The first regional congress of the Russian Communist Party convened in the city of Tashkent
Tashkent
in June 1918 in order to build support for a local Bolshevik Party.[46]

London Geographical Institute’s 1919 map of Europe
Europe
after the treaties of Brest-Litovsk
Brest-Litovsk
and Batum and before the treaties of Tartu, Kars, and Riga

Left SR uprising[edit] Main article: Left SR uprising In July two Left SR and Cheka
Cheka
employees, Blyumkin and Andreyev, assassinated the German ambassador, Count Mirbach. In Moscow a Left SR uprising was put down by the Bolsheviks, using Cheka
Cheka
military detachments. Lenin personally apologized to the Germans for the assassination. Mass arrests of Socialist-Revolutionaries followed. Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Petrograd[edit] Estonia
Estonia
cleared its territory of the Red Army
Red Army
by January 1919.[47] Baltic German volunteers captured Riga
Riga
from the Red Latvian Riflemen on 22 May, but the Estonian 3rd Division defeated the Baltic Germans a month later, aiding the establishment of the Republic of Latvia.[48] This rendered possible another threat to the Red Army—one from Gen. Yudenich, who had spent the summer organizing the Northwestern Army in Estonia
Estonia
with local and British support. In October 1919 he tried to capture Petrograd
Petrograd
in a sudden assault with a force of around 20,000 men. The attack was well-executed, using night attacks and lightning cavalry maneuvers to turn the flanks of the defending Red Army. Yudenich also had six British tanks, which caused panic whenever they appeared. The Allies gave large quantities of aid to Yudenich, who, however, complained that he was receiving insufficient support.

Gen. Nikolai Yudenich

By 19 October Yudenich's troops had reached the outskirts of the city. Some members of the Bolshevik central committee in Moscow were willing to give up Petrograd, but Trotsky refused to accept the loss of the city and personally organized its defenses. Trotsky himself declared, "It is impossible for a little army of 15,000 ex-officers to master a working-class capital of 700,000 inhabitants." He settled on a strategy of urban defense, proclaiming that the city would "defend itself on its own ground" and that the White Army would be lost in a labyrinth of fortified streets and there "meet its grave".[49] Trotsky armed all available workers, men and women, ordering the transfer of military forces from Moscow. Within a few weeks the Red Army defending Petrograd
Petrograd
had tripled in size and outnumbered Yudenich three to one. At this point Yudenich, short of supplies, decided to call off the siege of the city and withdrew, repeatedly asking permission to withdraw his army across the border to Estonia. However, units retreating across the border were disarmed and interned by order of the Estonian government, which had entered into peace negotiations with the Soviet Government on 16 September and had been informed by the Soviet authorities of their 6 November decision that, should the White Army be allowed to retreat into Estonia, it would be pursued across the border by the Reds.[50] In fact, the Reds attacked Estonian army positions and fighting continued until a cease-fire went into effect on 3 January 1920. Following the Treaty of Tartu most of Yudenich's soldiers went into exile. Former Imperial Russian and now Finnish Gen. Mannerheim
Mannerheim
planned an intervention to help the Whites in Russia
Russia
capture Petrograd. He did not, however, gain the necessary support for the endeavor. Lenin considered it "completely certain, that the slightest aid from Finland
Finland
would have determined the fate of Petrograd". Northern Russia
Russia
1919[edit] Main article: North Russia
Russia
Intervention The British occupied Murmansk
Murmansk
and, alongside the Americans, seized Arkhangelsk. With the retreat of Kolchak in Siberia, they pulled their troops out of the cities before the winter trapped them in the port. The remaining White forces under Yevgenii Miller evacuated the region in February 1920. Siberia
Siberia
1919[edit]

Admiral Kolchak reviewing the troops, 1919

At the beginning of March 1919 the general offensive of the Whites on the eastern front began. Ufa
Ufa
was retaken on 13 March; by mid-April, the White Army stopped at the Glazov–Chistopol–Bugulma–Buguruslan–Sharlyk line. Reds started their counteroffensive against Kolchak's forces at the end of April. The Red 5th Army, led by the capable commander Tukhachevsky, captured Elabuga
Elabuga
on 26 May, Sarapul
Sarapul
on 2 June and Izevsk
Izevsk
on the 7th and continued to push forward. Both sides had victories and losses, but by the middle of summer the Red Army
Red Army
was larger than the White Army and had managed to recapture territory previously lost. Following the abortive offensive at Chelyabinsk, the White armies withdrew beyond the Tobol. In September 1919 a White offensive was launched against the Tobol
Tobol
front, the last attempt to change the course of events. However, on 14 October the Reds counterattacked, and thus began the uninterrupted retreat of the Whites to the east. On 14 November 1919 the Red Army
Red Army
captured Omsk.[51] Adm. Kolchak lost control of his government shortly after this defeat; White Army forces in Siberia
Siberia
essentially ceased to exist by December. Retreat of the eastern front by White armies lasted three months, until mid-February 1920, when the survivors, after crossing Lake Baikal, reached Chita area and joined Ataman Semenov's forces. South Russia
Russia
1919[edit] The Cossacks
Cossacks
had been unable to organize and capitalize on their successes at the end of 1918. By 1919 they had begun to run short of supplies. Consequently, when the Soviet counteroffensive began in January 1919 under the Bolshevik leader Antonov-Ovseenko, the Cossack forces rapidly fell apart. The Red Army
Red Army
captured Kiev
Kiev
on 3 February 1919.

White propaganda poster "For united Russia" representing the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
as a fallen communist dragon and the White Cause as a crusading knight

Gen. Denikin's military strength continued to grow in the spring of 1919. During several months in winter and spring of 1919, hard fighting with doubtful outcomes took place in the Donbass, where the attacking Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
met White forces. At the same time Denikin's Armed Forces of South Russia
Russia
(AFSR) completed the elimination of Red forces in the northern Caucasus and advanced towards Tsaritsyn. At the end of April and beginning of May the AFSR attacked on all fronts from the Dnepr to the Volga, and by the beginning of the summer they had won numerous battles. French forces landed in Odessa
Odessa
but, after having done almost no fighting, withdrew on 8 April 1919. By mid-June the Reds were chased from the Crimea
Crimea
and the Odessa
Odessa
area. Denikin's troops took the cities of Kharkov
Kharkov
and Belgorod. At the same time White troops under Wrangel's command took Tsaritsyn on 17 June 1919. On 20 June Denikin
Denikin
issued his Moscow directive, ordering all AFSR units to prepare for a decisive offensive to take Moscow. Although Great Britain had withdrawn its own troops from the theater, it continued to give significant military aid (money, weapons, food, ammunition and some military advisors) to the White Armies during 1919. Major Ewen Cameron Bruce of the British Army had volunteered to command a British tank mission assisting the White Army. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order[52] for his bravery during the June 1919 battle of Tsaritsyn for single-handedly storming and capturing the fortified city of Tsaritsyn, under heavy shell fire in a single tank; this led to the capture of over 40,000 prisoners.[53] The fall of Tsaritsyn is viewed "as one of the key battles of the Russian Civil War" which greatly helped the White Russian cause.[53] Notable historian Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart
Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart
comments that Bruce's tank action during this battle is to be seen as "one of the most remarkable feats in the whole history of the Tank Corps".[54] After the capture of Tsaritsyn, Wrangel pushed towards Saratov
Saratov
but Trotsky, seeing the danger of the union with Kolchak, against whom the Red command was concentrating large masses of troops, repulsed his attempts with heavy losses. When Kolchak's army in the east began to retreat in June and July, the bulk of the Red Army, free now from any serious danger from Siberia, was directed against Denikin. Denikin's forces constituted a real threat and for a time threatened to reach Moscow. The Red Army, stretched thin by fighting on all fronts, was forced out of Kiev
Kiev
on 30 August. Kursk
Kursk
and Orel were taken, on 20 September and 14 October, respectively. The latter, only 205 miles (330 km) from Moscow, was the closest the AFSR would come to its target.[55] The Cossack
Cossack
Don Army
Don Army
under the command of Gen. Vladimir Sidorin continued north towards Voronezh, but there Semyon Budyonny's cavalrymen defeated them on 24 October. This allowed the Red Army
Red Army
to cross the Don River, threatening to split the Don and Volunteer Armies. Fierce fighting took place at the key rail junction of Kastornoye, which was taken on 15 November; Kursk
Kursk
was retaken two days later.[56]

American troops in Vladivostok
Vladivostok
during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(August 1918)

The high tide of the White movement
White movement
against the Soviets had been reached in September 1919. By this time Denikin's forces were dangerously overextended. The White front had no depth or stability—it had become a series of patrols with occasional columns of slowly advancing troops without reserves. Lacking ammunition, artillery and fresh reinforcements, Denikin's army was decisively defeated in a series of battles in October and November 1919. The Red Army recaptured Kiev
Kiev
on 17 December and the defeated Cossacks
Cossacks
fled back towards the Black Sea. While the White armies were being routed in the center and the east, they had succeeded in driving Nestor Makhno's anarchist Black Army (formally known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine) out of part of southern Ukraine
Ukraine
and the Crimea. Despite this setback, Moscow was loath to aid Makhno and the Black Army and refused to provide arms to anarchist forces in Ukraine. The main body of White forces, the Volunteers and the Don Army, pulled back towards the Don, to Rostov. The smaller body ( Kiev
Kiev
and Odessa
Odessa
troops) withdrew to Odessa
Odessa
and the Crimea, which it had managed to protect from the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
during the winter of 1919–1920. Central Asia
Central Asia
1919[edit] By February 1919 the British government had pulled its military forces out of Central Asia.[57] Despite this success for the Red Army, the White Army’s assaults in European Russia
Russia
and other areas broke communication between Moscow and Tashkent. For a time Central Asia
Central Asia
was completely cut off from Red Army
Red Army
forces in Siberia.[58] Although this communication failure weakened the Red Army, the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
continued their efforts to gain support for the Bolshevik Party in Central Asia by holding a second regional conference in March. During this conference a regional bureau of Muslim organizations of the Russian Bolshevik Party was formed. The Bolshevik Party continued to try to gain support among the native population by giving them the impression of better representation for the Central Asian population and throughout the end of the year were able to maintain harmony with the Central Asian people.[59] Communication difficulties with Red Army
Red Army
forces in Siberia
Siberia
and European Russia
Russia
ceased to be a problem by mid-November 1919. Due to Red Army
Red Army
successes north of Central Asia, communication with Moscow was re-established and the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
were able to claim victory over the White Army in Turkestan.[58] South Russia, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Kronstadt 1920–21[edit]

Victims of the Russian famine of 1921

By the beginning of 1920 the main body of the Armed Forces of South Russia
Russia
was rapidly retreating towards the Don, to Rostov. Denikin hoped to hold the crossings of the Don, then rest and reform his troops, but the White Army was not able to hold the Don area and at the end of February 1920, started a retreat across Kuban
Kuban
towards Novorossiysk. Slipshod evacuation of Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk
proved to be a dark event for the White Army. About 40,000 men were evacuated by Russian and Allied ships from Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk
to the Crimea, without horses or any heavy equipment, while about 20,000 men were left behind and either dispersed or captured by the Red Army. Following the disastrous Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk
evacuation, Denikin
Denikin
stepped down and the military council elected Wrangel as the new Commander-in-Chief of the White Army. He was able to restore order to the dispirited troops and reshape an army that could fight as a regular force again. This remained an organized force in the Crimea
Crimea
throughout 1920. After Moscow's Bolshevik government signed a military and political alliance with Nestor Makhno
Nestor Makhno
and the Ukrainian anarchists, the Black Army attacked and defeated several regiments of Wrangel's troops in southern Ukraine, forcing him to retreat before he could capture that year's grain harvest.[60] Stymied in his efforts to consolidate his hold, Wrangel then attacked north in an attempt to take advantage of recent Red Army
Red Army
defeats at the close of the Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
of 1919–1920. This offensive was eventually halted by the Red Army, and Wrangel's troops were forced to retreat to the Crimea
Crimea
in November 1920 pursued by both the Red and Black cavalry and infantry. Wrangel and the remains of his army were evacuated from the Crimea
Crimea
to Constantinople
Constantinople
on 14 November 1920. Thus ended the struggle of Reds and Whites in Southern Russia.

Red Army
Red Army
troops attack Kronstadt sailors in March 1921

After the defeat of Wrangel, the Red Army
Red Army
immediately repudiated its 1920 treaty of alliance with Nestor Makhno
Nestor Makhno
and attacked the anarchist Black Army; the campaign to liquidate Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists began with an attempted assassination of Makhno by Cheka agents. Angered by continued repression by the Bolshevik Communist government and its liberal use of the Cheka
Cheka
to put down anarchist elements, a naval mutiny erupted at Kronstadt, followed by peasant revolts. Red Army
Red Army
attacks on the anarchist forces and their sympathizers increased in ferocity throughout 1921. Siberia
Siberia
and the Far East 1920–22[edit] Main article: Far Eastern Front in the Russian Civil War In Siberia, Adm. Kolchak's army had disintegrated. He himself gave up command after the loss of Omsk
Omsk
and designated Gen. Grigory Semyonov as the new leader of the White Army in Siberia. Not long after this Kolchak was arrested by the disaffected Czechoslovak Corps as he traveled towards Irkutsk
Irkutsk
without the protection of the army, and turned over to the socialist Political Centre in Irkutsk. Six days later this regime was replaced by a Bolshevik-dominated Military-Revolutionary Committee. On 6–7 February Kolchak and his prime minister Victor Pepelyaev were shot and their bodies thrown through the ice of the frozen Angara River, just before the arrival of the White Army in the area.[61] Remnants of Kolchak's army reached Transbaikalia
Transbaikalia
and joined Semyonov's troops, forming the Far Eastern army. With the support of the Japanese army it was able to hold Chita, but after withdrawal of Japanese soldiers from Transbaikalia, Semenov's position became untenable, and in November 1920 he was driven by the Red Army
Red Army
from Transbaikalia
Transbaikalia
and took refuge in China. The Japanese, who had plans to annex the Amur Krai, finally pulled their troops out as Bolshevik forces gradually asserted control over the Russian Far East. On 25 October 1922 Vladivostok
Vladivostok
fell to the Red Army, and the Provisional Priamur Government was extinguished. Aftermath[edit] Ensuing rebellion[edit] In central Asia Red Army
Red Army
troops continued to face resistance into 1923, where basmachi (armed bands of Islamic guerrillas) had formed to fight the Bolshevik takeover. The Soviets engaged non-Russian peoples in Central Asia, like Magaza Masanchi, commander of the Dungan Cavalry Regiment, to fight against the Basmachis. The Communist Party did not completely dismantle this group until 1934.[62] Gen. Anatoly Pepelyayev
Anatoly Pepelyayev
continued armed resistance in the Ayano-Maysky District until June 1923. The regions of Kamchatka
Kamchatka
and Northern Sakhalin
Sakhalin
remained under Japanese occupation until their treaty with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1925, when their forces were finally withdrawn. Casualties[edit]

Victims of the Red Terror
Red Terror
in Crimea, 1918

Street children
Street children
during the Russian Civil War

The results of the civil war were momentous. Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated the total number of men killed in action in the Civil War and Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
as 300,000 (125,000 in the Red Army, 175,500 White armies and Poles) and the total number of military personnel dead from disease (on both sides) as 450,000.[63] During the Red Terror, estimates of Cheka
Cheka
executions range from 12,733 to 1.7 million. William Henry Chamberlin
William Henry Chamberlin
suspected that there were about 50,000.[64] Evan Mawdsley suspected that there were more than 12,733, and less than 200,000.[65] Some sources claimed at least 250,000 summary executions of "enemies of the people" with estimates reaching above a million.[66][67][68][69] More modest estimates put the numbers executed by the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
between December 1917 and February 1922 at around 28,000 per year, with roughly 10,000 executions during the Red Terror.[70] Some 300,000–500,000 Cossacks
Cossacks
were killed or deported during decossackization, out of a population of around three million.[71] An estimated 100,000 Jews were killed in Ukraine, mostly by the White Army.[72] Punitive organs of the All Great Don Cossack
Cossack
Host sentenced 25,000 people to death between May 1918 and January 1919.[73] Kolchak's government shot 25,000 people in Ekaterinburg
Ekaterinburg
province alone.[74] "White terror" has killed about 300,000 people in total.[75] At the end of the Civil War the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. The droughts of 1920 and 1921, as well as the 1921 famine, worsened the disaster still further. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3,000,000 dying of typhus alone in 1920. Millions more also died of widespread starvation, wholesale massacres by both sides and pogroms against Jews in Ukraine
Ukraine
and southern Russia. By 1922 there were at least 7,000,000 street children in Russia
Russia
as a result of nearly ten years of devastation from the Great War and the civil war.[76]

Refugees on flatcars

Another one to two million people, known as the White émigrés, fled Russia, many with Gen. Wrangel—some through the Far East, others west into the newly independent Baltic countries. These émigrés included a large percentage of the educated and skilled population of Russia. The Russian economy was devastated by the war, with factories and bridges destroyed, cattle and raw materials pillaged, mines flooded and machines damaged. The industrial production value descended to one-seventh of the value of 1913 and agriculture to one-third. According to Pravda, "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger. The railways barely crawl. The houses are crumbling. The towns are full of refuse. Epidemics spread and death strikes—industry is ruined."[citation needed] It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20% of the pre-World War level, and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. For example, cotton production fell to 5%, and iron to 2%, of pre-war levels. War Communism
War Communism
saved the Soviet government during the Civil War, but much of the Russian economy had ground to a standstill. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. By 1921 cultivated land had shrunk to 62% of the pre-war area, and the harvest yield was only about 37% of normal. The number of horses declined from 35 million in 1916 to 24 million in 1920 and cattle from 58 to 37 million. The exchange rate with the US dollar declined from two rubles in 1914 to 1,200 in 1920. With the end of the war the Communist Party no longer faced an acute military threat to its existence and power. However, the perceived threat of another intervention, combined with the failure of socialist revolutions in other countries—most notably the German Revolution—contributed to the continued militarization of Soviet society. Although Russia
Russia
experienced extremely rapid[77] economic growth in the 1930s, the combined effect of World War I
World War I
and the Civil War left a lasting scar on Russian society and had permanent effects on the development of the Soviet Union. British historian Orlando Figes has contended that the root of the Whites' defeat was their inability to dispel the popular image that they were dually associated with Tsarist Russia
Russia
and supportive of a Tsarist restoration.[78] Brief Timeline[edit]

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1920 Nikolayevsk incident:Yakov Triapitsyn massacred most of the inhabitants of the town of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
in the Russian Far East.

25 October 1917— Alexander Kerensky
Alexander Kerensky
and his supporters flee Petrograd. 5 January 1918—The Red Guard breaks up a meeting of the Constituent Assembly on Lenin's orders. 28 January 1918—Trotsky sets up the Red army. March 1918— Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
move the Russian capital to Moscow from Petrograd
Petrograd
for protection and better communications, as it is in the center of their territory. 14 October 1919—Gen. Denikin's army reaches Orel 300 km from Moscow. 22 October 1919—White forces reach the outskirts of Petrograd. Trotsky organizes a counterattack. Early November 1919—Western allies pull the plug on support for the Whites. Troops begin to desert. 7 February 1920—Kolchak is executed by the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
after being handed over by the Czech Legion. April 1920—Poles are driven back into Poland
Poland
by the Bolsheviks 19 March 1921—Kronstadt uprising crushed 25 October 1922— Provisional Priamurye Government
Provisional Priamurye Government
dissolved. 16 June 1923— Yakut revolt put down, ending the last White resistance in Russia. 1934— Basmachi
Basmachi
Revolt finally put down.

In fiction[edit] Literature[edit]

The Road to Calvary (1922–41) by Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy Chapaev
Chapaev
(1923) by Dmitri Furmanov The Iron Flood (1924) by Alexander Serafimovich Red Cavalry (1926) by Isaac Babel The Rout (1927) by Alexander Fadeyev How the Steel Was Tempered (1934) by Nikolai Ostrovsky Optimistic Tragedy (1934) by Vsevolod Vishnevsky And Quiet Flows the Don
And Quiet Flows the Don
(1928–1940) by Mikhail Sholokhov The Don Flows Home to the Sea (1940) by Mikhail Sholokhov Doctor Zhivago (1957) by Boris Pasternak The White Guard
The White Guard
(1966) by Mikhail Bulgakov Byzantium Endures
Byzantium Endures
(1981) by Michael Moorcock Chevengur (novel) (ru) (written in 1927, first published in 1988 in the USSR) by Andrei Platonov. Fall of Giants
Fall of Giants
(2010) by Ken Follett A Splendid Little War (2012) by Derek Robinson (novelist)

Film[edit]

Arsenal (1928) Storm Over Asia
Storm Over Asia
(1928) Chapaev
Chapaev
(1934) Thirteen (1936), directed by Mikhail Romm We Are from Kronstadt (1936), directed by Yefim Dzigan Knight Without Armour
Knight Without Armour
(1937) The Year 1919 (1938), directed by Ilya Trauberg The Baltic Marines (1939), directed by A. Faintsimmer Shchors (1939), directed by Dovzhenko Pavel Korchagin (1956), directed by A. Alov and V. Naumov The Forty-First (1956), directed by Grigori Chukhrai And Quiet Flows the Don
And Quiet Flows the Don
(1958), directed by Sergei Gerasimov The Wind (1958), directed by A. Alov and V. Naumov Doctor Zhivago (1965), directed by David Lean The Elusive Avengers
The Elusive Avengers
(1966) The Red and the White (1967) The Flight (1970), directed by A. Alov and V. Naumov Nicholas and Alexandra
Nicholas and Alexandra
(1971) directed by Franklin Schaffner
Franklin Schaffner
briefly mentioned Reds (1981), directed by Warren Beatty Corto Maltese
Corto Maltese
in Siberia
Siberia
(2002) Admiral (2008) Sunstroke (2014), directed by Nikita Mikhalkov

See also[edit]

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal

Revolutionary Mass Festivals Timeline of the Russian Civil War

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Mawdsley, pp. 3, 230 ^ Последние бои на Дальнем Востоке. М., Центрполиграф, 2005. ^ a b Bullock 2008, p. 7: "Peripheral regions of the former Russian Empire
Russian Empire
that had broken away to form new nations had to fight for independence: Finland, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia and Azerbaijan." ^ Krivosheev 1997, p. 7. ^ Krivosheev 1997, p. 9–10. ^ Mawdsley 2007, pp. 3, 230. ^ Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online 2012 ^ Mawdsley 2007, p. 287. ^ Calder 1976, p. 166: "[...] the Russian army disintegrated after the failure of the Galician offensive in July 1917." ^ Read 1996, p. 237: By 1920 77% of the Red Army's enlisted ranks comprised peasant conscripts. ^ Williams, Beryl, The Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
1917–1921, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. (1987), ISBN 978-0-631-15083-1, ISBN 0-631-15083-8: Typically, men of conscriptible age (17 to 40 years old) in a village would vanish when Red Army
Red Army
draft-units approached. The taking of hostages and a few summary executions usually brought the men back. ^ a b Figes 1997, p. 656:"To mobilize the peasants Kolchak's army resorted increasingly to terror. There was no effective local administration to enforce the conscription in any other way, and in any case the Whites' world-view ruled out the need to persuade the peasants." ^ a b Overy 2004, p. 446: By the end of the civil war, one-third of all Red Army
Red Army
officers were ex-Tsarist voenspetsy" ^ a b Williams, Beryl, The Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
1917–1921, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. (1987), ISBN 978-0-631-15083-1, ISBN 0-631-15083-8 ^ Thompson 1996, p. 159. ^ Cover Story: Churchill's Greatness. Archived 2006-10-04 at the Wayback Machine. Interview with Jeffrey Wallin. (The Churchill Centre) ^ Каледин, Алексей Максимович. A biography of Kaledin
Kaledin
(in Russian) ^ Wheeler 1964, p. 103. ^ The Czech Legion ^ Mawdsley 2007, p. 27. ^ Coates & Coates 1951, p. 72. ^ Wheeler 1964, p. 104. ^ Coates & Coates 1951, p. 70. ^ Coates & Coates 1951, pp. 68–69. ^ Coates & Coates 1951, p. 74. ^ Allworth 1967, p. 226. ^ Mawdsley 2007, p. 35. ^ Figes 1997, p. 258:quotes such comments from the peasant soldiers during the first weeks of the war: We have talked it over among ourselves; if the Germans want payment, it would be better to pay ten rubles a head than to kill people. Or: Is it not all the same what Tsar we live under? It cannot be worse under the German one. Or: Let them go and fight themselves. Wait a while, we will settle accounts with you. Or: 'What devil has brought this war on us? We are butting into other people's business.' ^ Lenin ^ Figes 1997, p. 416"As Brusilov saw it, the soldiers were so obsessed with the idea of peace that they would have been prepared to support the Tsar himself, so long as he promised to bring the war to an end." ^ Figes 1997, p. 419:"It was partly a case of the usual military failings: units had been sent into battle without machine-guns; untrained soldiers had been ordered to engage in complex manoeuvres using hand grenades and ended up throwing them without first pulling the pins." ^ Figes 1997, p. 412:"This new civic patriotism did not extend beyond the urban middle classes, although the leaders of the Provisional Government deluded themselves that it did." ^ Mawdsley 2007, p. 42. ^ a b Smith & Tucker 2014, pp. 554–555. ^ Mawdsley 2007, p. 29. ^ Mawdsley 2007, p. 28. ^ Mawdsley 2007, pp. 62–8. ^ Muldoon, Amy. "Workers' Organizations in the Russian Revolution". International Socialist Review. Retrieved 20 February 2018.  ^ Haupt & Marie 1974, p. 222. ^ Chamberlin 1987, p. 31: Frequently the deserters' families were taken hostage to force a surrender; a portion were customarily executed, as an example to the others. ^ Daniels 1993, p. 70: The Cheka
Cheka
special investigations forces were also charged with the detection of sabotage and counter-revolutionary activity by Red Army
Red Army
soldiers and commanders. ^ Volkogonov, Dmitriĭ Antonovich (1996). Trotsky: The Eternal Revolutionary. Simon and Schuster. p. 175. ISBN 1416576649.  ^ Volkogonov 1996, p. 180: By December 1918 Trotsky had ordered the formation of special detachments to serve as blocking units throughout the Red Army. ^ Rakowska-Harmstone 1970, p. 19. ^ Coates & Coates 1951, p. 75. ^ Allworth 1967, p. 232. ^ Baltic War of Liberation Encyclopædia Britannica ^ "Generalkommando VI Reservekorps". Axis History.  ^ Williams, Beryl, The Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
1917–1921, Blackwell Publishing (1987), ISBN 978-0-631-15083-1, ISBN 0-631-15083-8 ^ Rosenthal 2006, p. 516. ^ "Bolsheviki Grain Near Petrograd". New York Tribune. Washington, DC. Library of Congress. 15 November 1919. p. 4. Retrieved 10 September 2010.  ^ Distinguished Service Order
Distinguished Service Order
citation for Bruce in the 1920 London Gazette[dead link] ^ a b Kinvig 2006, p. 225. ^ Liddell Hart, Basil. "The Tanks: The History Of The Royal Tank Regiment And Its Predecessors, Heavy Branch Machine-Gun Corps, Tank Corps And Royal Tank Corps, 1914–1945. Vol I". Cassell: 1959, p. 211. ^ Kenez 1977, p. 44. ^ Kenez 1977, p. 218. ^ Allworth 1967, p. 231. ^ a b Coates & Coates 1951, p. 76. ^ Allworth 1967, pp. 232–233. ^ Berland, Pierre, Mhakno, Le Temps, 28 August 1934: In addition to supplying White Army forces and their sympathizers with food, a successful seizure of the 1920 Ukrainian grain harvest would have had a devastating effect on food supplies to Bolshevik-held cities, while depriving both Red Army
Red Army
and Ukrainian Black Army troops of their usual bread rations. ^ Mawdsley 2007, pp. 319–21. ^ Wheeler 1964, p. 107. ^ Urlanis B. Wars and Population. Moscow, Progress publishers, 1971. ^ Chamberlin 1987, p. 75. ^ Mawdsley 2007, p. 286. ^ Stewart-Smith, D.G. "The Defeat of Communism". London: Ludgate Press Ltd., 1964. ^ Rummel, Rudolph, "Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917" (1990). ^ Andrew & Mitrokhin 1999, p. 28. ^ Overy 2004, p. 180. ^ Ryan 2012, pp. 2, 114. ^ Gellately 2007, pp. 70–71. ^ Kenez, Peter; Pipe, Richard; Pipes, Richard (1991). "The Prosecution of Soviet History: A Critique of Richard Pipes' The Russian Revolution". Russian Review. 50 (3): 345–51. doi:10.2307/131078. JSTOR 131078.  ^ Holquist 2002, p. 164. ^ Колчаковщина (in Russian). RU: Cult Info. Archived from the original on 2005-05-10.  ^ Эрлихман, Вадим (2004). Потери народонаселения в XX веке. Издательский дом «Русская панорама». ISBN 5931651071.  ^ And Now My Soul Is Hardened: Abandoned Children in Soviet Russia, 1918–1930, Thomas J. Hegarty, Canadian Slavonic Papers ^ "Transformation and Terror". Country Studies. Retrieved 20 February 2018.  ^ Figes 1997, p. 681: "At the root of the Whites' defeat was a failure of politics. They proved to be both unable and unwilling to frame policies capable of getting the mass of the population on their side. Their movement was based, in Wrangel's phrase, on "the cruel sword of vengeance"; their only idea was to put the clock back to the "happy days" before 1917; and they failed to see the need to adapt themselves to the realities of the revolution."

Bibliography[edit]

Allworth, Edward (1967). Central Asia: A Century of Russian Rule. New York: Columbia University Press. OCLC 396652.  Andrew, Christopher; Mitrokhin, Vasili (1999). The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 9780465003129.  Bullock, David (2008). The Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
1918–22. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-271-4.  Calder, Kenneth J. (1976). Britain and the Origins of the New Europe 1914-1918. International Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521208970. Retrieved 2017-10-06.  Chamberlin, William Henry (1987). The Russian Revolution, Volume II: 1918-1921: From the Civil War to the Consolidation of Power. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400858705 – via Project MUSE. (Subscription required (help)).  Coates, W. P.; Coates, Zelda K. (1951). Soviets in Central Asia. New York: Philosophical Library. OCLC 1533874.  Daniels, Robert V. (1993). A Documentary History of Communism in Russia: From Lenin to Gorbachev. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. ISBN 978-0-87451-616-6.  Figes, Orlando (1997). A People's Tragedy: A History of the Russian Revolution. New York: Viking. ISBN 9780670859160.  Gellately, Robert (2007). Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. New York: Knopf. ISBN 1-4000-4005-1.  Haupt, Georges & Marie, Jean-Jacques (1974). Makers of the Russian revolution. London: George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 9780801408090.  Holquist, Peter (2002). Making War, Forging Revolution: Russia's Continuum of Crisis, 1914–1921. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00907-X.  Kenez, Peter (1977). Civil War in South Russia, 1919–1920: The Defeat of the Whites. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520033467.  Kinvig, Clifford (2006). Churchill's Crusade: The British Invasion of Russia, 1918–1920. London: Hambledon Continuum. ISBN 9781847250216.  Krivosheev, G. F. (1997). Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4.  Mawdsley, Evan (2007). The Russian Civil War. New York: Pegasus Books. ISBN 9781681770093.  Overy, Richard (2004). The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-02030-4.  Rakowska-Harmstone, Teresa (1970). Russia
Russia
and Nationalism in Central Asia: The Case of Tadzhikistan. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. ISBN 9780801810213.  Read, Christopher (1996). From Tsar to Soviets. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195212419.  Rosenthal, Reigo (2006). Loodearmee [Northwestern Army] (in Estonian). Tallinn: Argo. ISBN 9949-415-45-4.  Ryan, James (2012). Lenin's Terror: The Ideological Origins of Early Soviet State Violence. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-81568-1.  Smith, David A.; Tucker, Spencer C. (2014). "Faustschlag, Operation". World War I: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 554–555. ISBN 9781851099658.  Thompson, John M. (1996). A Vision Unfulfilled. Russia
Russia
and the Soviet Union in the Twentieth Century. Lexington, MA. ISBN 9780669282917.  Volkogonov, Dmitri (1996). Trotsky: The Eternal Revolutionary. Translated and edited by Harold Shukman. London: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 9780002552721.  Wheeler, Geoffrey (1964). The Modern History of Soviet Central Asia. New York: Frederick A. Praeger. OCLC 865924756. 

Further reading[edit]

Acton, Edward, V. et al. eds. Critical companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914-1921 (Indiana UP, 1997). Brovkin, Vladimir N. . Behind the Front Lines of the Civil War: Political Parties and Social Movements in Russia, 1918–1922. (Princeton UP, 1994). ISBN 0-691-03278-5 Dupuy, T.N. The Encyclopedia of Military History (many editions) Harper & Row Publishers. Ford, Chris. "Reconsidering the Ukrainian Revolution 1917–1921: The Dialectics of National Liberation and Social Emancipation." Debatte 15.3 (2007): 279-306. Peter Kenez. Civil War in South Russia, 1918: The First Year of the Volunteer Army
Volunteer Army
(U of California Press, 1971). Lincoln, W. Bruce. Red victory: A history of the Russian Civil War (1989). Marples, David R. Lenin's Revolution: Russia, 1917-1921 (Routledge, 2014). Smele, Jonathan. The 'Russian' Civil Wars, 1916-1926: Ten Years That Shook the World (Oxford UP, 2016). Smele, Jonathan D. Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, 1916-1926 (2 Vol. Rowman & Littlefield, 2015). Stewart, George. The White Armies of Russia: A Chronicle of Counter-Revolution and Allied Intervention. Stone, David R. "The Russian Civil War, 1917–1921," in The Military History of the Soviet Union. Swain, Geoffrey. The Origins of the Russian Civil War. Bailey F. M. "Mission to Tashkent" Jonathan Cape 1946. Teague-Jones Reginand "The Spy who disappeared" Gollance 1990 (UK)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Civil war of Russia.

Sumpf, Alexandre: Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
, in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War. Mawdsley, Evan: International Responses to the Russian Civil War (Russian Empire) , in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War. Read, Christopher: Revolutions (Russian Empire) , in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War. Peeling, Siobhan: War Communism
War Communism
, in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War. Beyrau, Dietrich: Post-war Societies (Russian Empire) , in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War. Brudek, Paweł: Revolutions (East Central Europe) , in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War. Melancon, Michael S.: Social Conflict and Control, Protest and Repression (Russian Empire) , in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War. Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
and Civil War archive at libcom.org/library "BBC History of the Russian Revolution" (3 February 2007) "Russian Civil War" (Spartacus History, downloaded 3 January 2006) " Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
1918–1920" (On War website, downloaded 4 January 2006) "Civil War of 1917 – 1922 at Encyclopedia of Russian History (3 February 2007) " Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
Polities" (World Statesmen.org, downloaded 16 February 2007)

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v t e

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20th century

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