This article discusses the phonological system of standard Russian
based on the
hard (твёрдый [ˈtvʲɵrdɨj] (help·info)) or plain soft (мягкий [ˈmʲæxʲkʲɪj]) or palatalized
Russian also distinguishes hard consonants from soft (palatalized)
consonants and from a soft consonant followed by /j/ or a hard
consonant followed by /j/ (though the last is uncommon: /C Cʲ Cʲj
Cj/), and preserves palatalized consonants that are followed by
another consonant more often than other
1.1.1 Front vowels 1.1.2 Back vowels 1.1.3 Unstressed vowels
18.104.22.168 Vowel mergers 22.214.171.124 Other changes 126.96.36.199 Phonemic analysis
2 Consonants 3 Phonological processes
3.1 Final devoicing 3.2 Voicing 3.3 Palatalization
3.3.1 Assimilative palatalization
3.4 Consonant clusters 3.5 Supplementary notes
4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 Further reading
Front Central Back
Close i (ɨ) u
Russian has five or six vowels in stressed syllables, /i, u, e, o, a/
and in some analyses /ɨ/, but in most cases these vowels have merged
to only two to four vowels when unstressed: /i, u, a/ (or /ɨ, u, a/)
after hard consonants and /i, u/ after soft ones.
A long-standing dispute among linguists is whether Russian has five
vowel phonemes or six; that is, scholars disagree as to whether [ɨ]
constitutes an allophone of /i/ or if there is an independent phoneme
/ɨ/. The five-vowel analysis, taken up by the
Russian vowel chart by Jones & Trofimov (1923:55)
The six-vowel view, held by the Saint-Petersburg (Leningrad) phonology school, points to several phenomena to make its case:
Native Russian speakers' ability to articulate [ɨ] in isolation: for example, in the names of the letters ⟨и⟩ and ⟨ы⟩. Rare instances of word-initial [ɨ], including the minimal pair икать 'to produce the sound и' and ыкать 'to produce the sound ы'), as well as borrowed names and toponyms, like Ыб [ɨp] (help·info), the name of a river and several villages in the Komi Republic. Morphological alternations like готов [ɡɐˈtof] ('ready' predicate, m.) and готовить [ɡɐˈtovʲɪtʲ] ('to get ready' trans.) between palatalized and non-palatalized consonants.
The most popular view among linguists (and that taken up in this
article) is that of the
A quick index of vowel pronunciation
Phoneme Letter (typically) Position Stressed Reduced
/a/ а (C)V [ä] [ə], [ɐ]
я CʲVC [ä] [ɪ]
/e/ э VC [ɛ]
е CʲVC [ɛ̝]
э, е† CVC [ɛ] [ɨ̞]
/i/ и (Cʲ)V [i] [ɪ]
/ɨ/ ы, и (C)V [ɨ] [ɨ̞]
/o/ о (C)V [o̞ ~ ɔ] [ə], [ɐ]
ё* CʲV [ɵ] [ɪ]
/u/ у (C)V [u] [ʊ]
CʲVCʲ [ʉ] [ʉ̞]
* Reduced ⟨ё⟩ is written as ⟨е⟩. † ⟨е⟩ is used in most loans (except if word-initial) or after ц, ш, ж.
Russian vowels are subject to considerable allophony, subject to both
stress and the palatalization of neighboring consonants. In most
unstressed positions, in fact, only three phonemes are distinguished
after hard consonants, and only two after soft consonants. Unstressed
/o/ and /a/ have merged to /a/ (a phenomenon known as Russian:
а́канье, tr. ákan'je); unstressed /i/ and /e/ have merged to
/i/ (Russian: и́канье, tr. íkan'je); and all four unstressed
vowels have merged after soft consonants, except in absolute final
position in a word. None of these mergers are represented in writing.
When a preceding consonant is hard, /i/ is retracted to [ɨ]. Formant
studies in Padgett (2001) demonstrate that [ɨ] is better
characterized as slightly diphthongized from the velarization of the
preceding consonant, implying that a phonological pattern of using
velarization to enhance perceptual distinctiveness between hard and
soft consonants is strongest before /i/. When unstressed, /i/ becomes
near-close; that is, [ɨ̞] following a hard consonant and [ɪ] in
most other environments. Between soft consonants, both stressed and
unstressed /i/ are raised, as in пить
[pʲi̝tʲ] (help·info) ('to drink') and
маленький [ˈmalʲɪ̝nʲkʲɪj] ('small'). When
preceded and followed by coronal or dorsal consonants, [ɨ] is fronted
to [ɨ̟]. After a cluster of a labial and /l/, [ɨ] is retracted,
as in плыть [pɫɨ̠tʲ] ('to float'); it is also slightly
diphthongized to [ɯ̟ɨ̟].
In native words, /e/ only follows unpaired (i.e. the retroflexes and
/t͡s/) and soft consonants. After soft consonants (but not before),
it is a mid vowel [ɛ̝] (hereafter represented without the diacritic
for simplicity), while a following soft consonant raises it to
close-mid [e]. Another allophone, an open-mid [ɛ] occurs
word-initially and between hard consonants. Preceding hard
consonants retract /e/ to [ɛ̠] and [e̠] so that жест
('gesture') and цель ('target') are pronounced [ʐɛ̠st]
and [t͡se̠lʲ] respectively.
In words borrowed from other languages, /e/ rarely follows soft
consonants; this foreign pronunciation often persists in Russian for
many years until the word is more fully adopted into Russian. For
instance, шофёр (from French chauffeur) was pronounced
[ʂoˈfɛr] in the early twentieth century, but is now
pronounced [ʂɐˈfʲɵr]. On the other hand, the pronunciations
of words such as отель [ɐˈtɛlʲ] ('hotel') retain the
hard consonants despite a long presence in the language.
Between soft consonants, /a/ becomes [æ], as in пять
[pʲætʲ] (help·info) ('five'). When not following a soft
consonant, /a/ is retracted to [ɑ̟] before /l/ as in палка
For most speakers, /o/ is a mid vowel [o̞], but it can be more open
[ɔ] for some speakers. Following a soft consonant, /o/ is
centralized and raised to [ɵ] as in тётя [ˈtʲɵtʲə]
As with the other back vowels, /u/ is centralized to [ʉ] between soft
consonants, as in чуть [t͡ɕʉtʲ] ('narrowly'). When
unstressed, /u/ becomes near-close; central [ʉ̞] between soft
consonants, centralized back [ʊ] in other positions.
/o/ has merged with /a/: for instance, валы́ 'bulwarks' and волы́ 'oxen' are both pronounced /vaˈlɨ/, phonetically [vɐˈɫɨ]. /e/ has merged with /i/ (or /i/ and /ɨ/ if /ɨ/ is considered a phoneme): for instance, лиса́ (lisá) 'fox' and леса́ 'forests' are both pronounced /lʲiˈsa/, phonetically [lʲɪˈsa].[example needed] /a o[clarification needed]/ have merged with /i/ after soft consonants: for instance, ме́сяц (mésjats) 'month' is pronounced /ˈmʲesʲit͡s/, phonetically [ˈmʲesʲɪt͡s].
The merger of unstressed /e/ and /i/ in particular is less universal
in the pretonic (pre-accented) position than that of unstressed /o/
and /a/. For example, speakers of some rural dialects as well as the
"Old Petersburgian" pronunciation may have the latter but not the
former merger, distinguishing between лиса́ [lʲɪˈsa] and
леса́ [lʲɘˈsa], but not between валы́ and волы́
(both [vɐˈɫɨ]). The distinction in some loanwords between
unstressed /e/ and /i/, or /o/ and /a/ is codified in some
pronunciation dictionaries (Avanesov (1985:663), Zarva (1993:15)), for
example, фо́рте [ˈfortɛ] and ве́то [ˈvʲeto].
Unstressed /e/ is sometimes preserved word-finally, for example in
second-person plural or formal verb forms with the ending -те, such
as де́лаете ("you do") /ˈdʲeɫajitʲe/ (phonetically
As a result, in most unstressed positions, only three vowel phonemes
are distinguished after hard consonants (/u/, /a ~ o/, and /e ~ i/),
and only two after soft consonants (/u/ and /a ~ o ~ e ~ i/). For the
[ɐ] (sometimes transcribed as [ʌ]; the former is phonetically
correct for the standard
In the syllable immediately before the stress, when a hard consonant precedes: паро́м [pɐˈrom] (help·info) ('ferry'), трава́ [trɐˈva] ('grass'). In absolute word-initial position. In hiatus, when the vowel occurs twice without a consonant between; this is written ⟨aa⟩, ⟨ao⟩, ⟨oa⟩, or ⟨oo⟩: сообража́ть [sɐ.ɐbrɐˈʐatʲ] ('to use common sense, to reason').
[ə] appears elsewhere, when a hard consonant precedes: о́блако [ˈobɫəkə] ('cloud'). When a soft consonant or /j/ precedes, both /o/ and /a/ merge with /i/ and are pronounced as [ɪ]. Example: язы́к [jɪˈzɨk] 'tongue'). /o/ is written as ⟨e⟩ in these positions.
This merger also tends to occur after formerly soft consonants now pronounced hard (/ʐ/, /ʂ/, /t͡s/), where the pronunciation [ɨ̞] (which after /t͡s/ can be even lower [ɘ]) occurs. This always occurs when the spelling uses the soft vowel variants, e.g. жена́ [ʐɨ̞ˈna] (help·info) ('wife'), with underlying /o/. However, it also occurs in a few word roots where the spelling writes a hard /a/. Examples:
жал- 'regret': e.g. жале́ть [ʐɨˈlʲetʲ] ('to regret'), к сожалéнию [ksəʐɨˈlʲenʲɪju] ('unfortunately'). ло́шадь 'horse', e.g. лошаде́й, [ɫəʂɨˈdʲej] (pl. gen. and acc.). -дцать- in numbers: e.g. двадцати́ [dvət͡sɨˈtʲi] ('twenty [gen., dat., prep.]'), тридцатью́ [trʲɪt͡sɨˈtʲju] ('thirty [instr.]'). ржано́й [rʐɨˈnoj] ('rye [adj. m. nom.]'). жасми́н [ʐɨˈsmʲin] ('jasmine').
These processes occur even across word boundaries as in под морем [pɐd‿ˈmorʲɪm] ('under the sea').
The pronunciation of unstressed /e ~ i/ is [ɪ] after soft consonants and /j/, and word-initially (эта́п [ɪˈtap] ('stage')), but [ɨ̞] after hard consonants (дыша́ть [dɨ̞ˈʂatʲ] ('to breathe')). There are a number of exceptions to the above vowel-reduction rules:
Vowels may not merge in foreign borrowings, particularly with unusual or recently borrowed words such as ра́дио, [ˈradʲɪ.o] (help·info) 'radio'. In such words, unstressed /a/ may be pronounced as [ɐ], regardless of context; unstressed /e/ does not merge with /i/ in initial position or after vowels, so word pairs like эмигра́нт and иммигра́нт, or эмити́ровать and имити́ровать, differ in pronunciation. Across certain word-final inflections, the reductions do not completely apply. For example, after soft or unpaired consonants, unstressed /a/, /e/ and /i/ of a final syllable may be distinguished from each other. For example, жи́тели [ˈʐɨtʲɪlʲɪ] ('residents') contrasts with both (о) жи́теле [(o) ˈʐɨtʲɪlʲɛ] ('[about] a resident') and жи́теля [ˈʐɨtʲɪlʲə] ('of a resident'). If the first vowel of ⟨oa⟩, or ⟨oo⟩ belongs to the conjunctions но ('but') or то ('then'), it is not reduced, even when unstressed.
Other changes Unstressed /u/ is generally pronounced as a lax (or near-close) [ʊ], e.g. мужчи́на [mʊˈɕːinə] (help·info) ('man'). Between soft consonants, it becomes centralized to [ʉ̞], as in юти́ться [jʉ̞ˈtʲit͡sə] ('to huddle'). Note a spelling irregularity in /s/ of the reflexive suffix -ся: with a preceding -т- in third-person present and a -ть- in infinitive, it is pronounced as [t͡sə], i.e. hard instead of with its soft counterpart, since [t͡s], normally spelled with ⟨ц⟩, is traditionally always hard. In other forms both pronunciations [sə] and [sʲə] alternate for a speaker with some usual form-dependent preferences: in the outdated dialects, reflexive imperative verbs (such as бо́йся, lit. "be afraid yourself") may be pronounced with [sə] instead of modern (and phonetically consistent) [sʲə]. In weakly stressed positions, vowels may become voiceless between two voiceless consonants: вы́ставка [ˈvɨstə̥fkə] ('exhibition'), потому́ что [pə̥tɐˈmu ʂtə] ('because'). This may also happen in cases where only the following consonant is voiceless: че́реп [ˈt͡ɕerʲɪ̥p] ('skull'). Phonemic analysis Because of mergers of different phonemes in unstressed position, the assignment of a particular phone to a phoneme requires phonological analysis. There have been different approaches to this problem:
The Saint Petersburg phonology school assigns allophones to particular
phonemes. For example, any [ɐ] is considered as a realization of /a/.
Diphthongs Russian diphthongs all end in a non-syllabic [i̯], an allophone of /j/ and the only semivowel in Russian. In all contexts other than after a vowel, /j/ is considered an approximant consonant. Phonological descriptions of /j/ may also classify it as a consonant even in the coda. In such descriptions, Russian has no diphthongs. The first part of diphthongs are subject to the same allophony as their constituent vowels. Examples of words with diphthongs: яйцо́ [jɪjˈt͡so] (help·info) ('egg'), ей [jej] ('her' dat.), де́йственный [ˈdʲejstvʲɪnnɨj] ('effective'). /ij/, written ⟨-ий⟩ or ⟨-ый⟩, is a common inflexional affix of adjectives, participles, and nouns, where it is often unstressed; at normal conversational speed, such unstressed endings may be monophthongized to [ɪ̟]. Consonants ⟨ʲ⟩ denotes palatalization, meaning the center of the tongue is raised during and after the articulation of the consonant. Phonemes that have at different times been disputed are enclosed in parentheses.
Labial Dental, Alveolar Post- alveolar Palatal Velar
hard soft hard soft hard soft hard soft
Nasal m mʲ n nʲ
Stop voiced b bʲ d dʲ
voiceless p pʲ t tʲ
Fricative f fʲ s sʲ ʂ ɕː x (xʲ)
voiced v vʲ z zʲ ʐ (ʑː) (ɣ)
Most consonant phonemes come in hard–soft pairs, except for always-hard /t͡s, ʂ, ʐ/ and always-soft /t͡ɕ, ɕː, j/ and formerly /ʑː/. There is a marked tendency of Russian hard consonants to be velarized, though this is a subject of some academic dispute. Velarization is clearest before the front vowels /e/ and /i/.
/ʐ/ and /ʂ/ are always hard in native words (even if spelling
contains a "softening" letter after them, as in жена, шёлк,
жить, мышь, жюри, парашют etc.), and for most
speakers also in foreign proper names, mostly of French or Lithuanian
origin (e.g. Гёльджюк [ˈɡʲɵlʲdʐʊk], Жён Африк
[ˈʐon ɐˈfrʲik], Жюль Верн [ˈʐulʲ ˈvɛrn],
Герхард Шюрер [ˈɡʲɛrxərt ˈʂurɨr], Шяуляй,
Шяшувис). Long phonemes /ʑː/ and /ɕː/ do not pattern in
the same ways that other hard–soft pairs do.
/t͡s/ is generally listed among the always-hard consonants, however
certain foreign proper names, including those of Ukrainian, Polish,
Lithuanian, or German origin (e.g. Цюрупа, Пацюк,
Цявловский, Цюрих), as well as loanwords (e.g.,
хуацяо, from Chinese) contain a soft [t͡sʲ]. The
phonemicity of a soft /t͡sʲ/ is supported by neologisms that come
from native word-building processes (e.g. фрицёнок,
шпицята). However, according to Yanushevskaya
& Bunčić (2015), /t͡s/ really is always hard, and realizing it
as palatalized [t͡sʲ] is considered "emphatically non-standard", and
occurs only in some regional accents.
/t͡ɕ/ and /j/ are always soft.
/ɕː/ is also always soft. A formerly common pronunciation of
/ɕ/+/t͡ɕ/ indicates the sound may be two underlying phonemes:
/ʂ/ and /t͡ɕ/, thus /ɕː/ can be considered as a marginal phoneme.
In today's most widespread pronunciation, [ɕt͡ɕ] appears (instead
of [ɕː]) for orthographical -зч-/-сч- where ч- starts the root
of a word, and -з/-с belongs to a preposition or a "clearly
distinguishable" prefix (e.g. без часо́в
[bʲɪɕt͡ɕɪˈsof] (help·info), 'without a clock';
расчерти́ть [rəɕt͡ɕɪrˈtʲitʲ], 'to rule'); in
all other cases /ɕː/ is used (щётка [ˈɕːɵtkə],
гру́зчик [ˈɡruɕːɪk], перепи́счик
[pʲɪrʲɪˈpʲiɕːɪk], сча́стье [ˈɕːæsʲtʲjə],
мужчи́на [mʊˈɕːinə], исщипа́ть
[ɪɕːɪˈpatʲ], расщепи́ть [rəɕːɪˈpʲitʲ] etc.)
The marginal phoneme /ʑː/ is used only by speakers of the
/ʂ/ and /ʐ/ are somewhat concave apical postalveolar. They may be described as retroflex, e.g. by Hamann (2004), but this is to indicate that they are not laminal nor palatalized; not to say that they are subapical. Hard /t, d, n/ are laminal denti-alveolar [t̪, d̪, n̪]; unlike in many other languages, /n/ does not become velar [ŋ] before velar consonants. Hard /ɫ/ has been variously described as pharyngealized apical alveolar [l̺ˤ] and velarized laminal denti-alveolar [l̪ˠ]. Hard /r/ is postalveolar, typically a trill [r̠]. Soft /rʲ/ is an apical dental tap [ɾ̪ʲ] or, less often, an apical dental trill [r̪ʲ]. Soft /tʲ, dʲ, nʲ/ are laminal alveolar [t̻ʲsʲ, d̻ʲzʲ, n̻ʲ]; as indicated in the transcription, in case of the first two the tongue is raised enough to produce slight frication. Soft /lʲ/ is either laminal alveolar [l̻ʲ] or laminal denti-alveolar [l̪ʲ]. /t͡s, s, sʲ, z, zʲ/ are dental [t̪͡s̪, s̪, s̪ʲ, z̪, z̪ʲ], i.e. dentalized laminal alveolar. They are pronounced with the blade of the tongue very close to the upper front teeth, with the tip of the tongue resting behind lower front teeth. A marginal phoneme /ɣ/ occurs instead of /ɡ/ in certain interjections: ага́, ого́, угу́, эге, о-го-го́, э-ге-ге, гоп. (Thus, there exists a minimal pair of homographs: ага́ [ɐˈɣa] (help·info) 'aha!' vs ага́ [ɐˈɡa] 'agha'). The same sound [ɣ] can be found in бухга́лтер (spelled ⟨хг⟩, though in цейхга́уз, ⟨хг⟩ is [x]), optionally in га́битус and in a few other loanwords. Also optionally (and less frequently than a century ago) [ɣ] can be used instead of [ɡ] in certain religious words (a phenomenon influenced by Church Slavonic pronunciation): Бо́га, Бо́гу... (declension forms of Бог 'God'), Госпо́дь 'Lord' (especially in the exclamation Го́споди! 'Oh Lord!'), благо́й 'good'. Some linguists (like I. G. Dobrodomov and his school) postulate the existence of a phonemic glottal stop /ʔ/. This marginal phoneme can be found, for example, in the word не́-а [ˈnʲeʔə] (help·info). Claimed minimal pairs for this phoneme include су́женный [ˈsʔuʐɨnɨj] 'narrowed' (a participle from су́зить 'to narrow', with prefix с- and root -уз-, cf. у́зкий 'narrow') vs су́женый [ˈsuʐɨnɨj] 'betrothed' (originally a participle from суди́ть 'to judge', now an adjective; the root is суд 'court') and с А́ней [ˈsʔanʲɪj] 'with Ann' vs Са́ней [ˈsanʲɪj] '(by) Alex'.
There is some dispute over the phonemicity of soft velar consonants. Typically, the soft–hard distinction is allophonic for velar consonants: they become soft before front vowels, as in коро́ткий [kɐˈrotkʲɪj] ('short'), unless there is a word boundary, in which case they are hard (e.g. к Ива́ну [k‿ɨˈvanu] 'to Ivan'). Hard variants occur everywhere else. Exceptions are represented mostly by:
Soft: гёзы, гюрза́, гяу́р, секью́рити, кекс, кяри́з, са́нкхья, хянга́; Hard: кок-сагы́з, гэ́льский, акы́н, кэб (кеб), хэ́ппенинг.
Proper nouns of foreign origin:
Soft: Алигье́ри, Гёте, Гю́нтер, Гянджа́, Джокьяка́рта, Кёнигсберг, Кюраса́о, Кя́хта, Хью́стон, Хёндэ, Хю́бнер, Пюхяя́рви; Hard: Мангышла́к, Гэ́ри, Кызылку́м, Кэмп-Дэ́вид, Архы́з, Хуанхэ́.
The rare native examples are fairly new, as most them were coined in the last century:
Soft: forms of the verb ткать 'weave' (ткёшь, ткёт etc., and derivatives like соткёшься); догёнок/догята, герцогёнок/герцогята; and adverbial participles of the type берегя, стерегя, стригя, жгя, пекя, секя, ткя (it is disputed whether these are part of the standard language or just informal colloquialisms); Hard: the name гэ of letter ⟨г⟩, acronyms and derived words (кагебешник, днепрогэсовский), a few interjections (гы, кыш, хэй), some onomatopoeic words (гыгыкать), and colloquial forms of certain patronyms: Олегыч, Маркыч, Аристархыч (where -ыч is a contraction of standard language's patronymical suffix -ович rather than a continuation of ancient -ич).
In the mid-twentieth century, a small number of reductionist approaches made by structuralists put forth that palatalized consonants occur as the result of a phonological processes involving /j/ (or palatalization as a phoneme in itself), so that there were no underlying palatalized consonants. Despite such proposals, linguists have long agreed that the underlying structure of Russian is closer to that of its acoustic properties, namely that soft consonants are separate phonemes in their own right. Phonological processes Final devoicing Voiced consonants (/b/, /bʲ/, /d/, /dʲ/ /ɡ/, /v/, /vʲ/, /z/, /zʲ/, /ʐ/, and /ʑː/) are devoiced word-finally unless the next word begins with a voiced obstruent. /ɡ/, in addition to becoming voiceless, also lenites to [x] in some words, such as бог [ˈbox]. Voicing Russian features general regressive assimilation of voicing and palatalization. In longer clusters, this means that multiple consonants may be soft despite their underlyingly (and orthographically) being hard. The process of voicing assimilation applies across word-boundaries when there is no pause between words. Within a morpheme, voicing is not distinctive before obstruents (except for /v/, and /vʲ/ when followed by a vowel or sonorant). The voicing or devoicing is determined by that of the final obstruent in the sequence: просьба [ˈprozʲbə] (help·info) ('request'), водка [ˈvotkə] ('vodka'). In foreign borrowings, this isn't always the case for /f(ʲ)/, as in Адольф Гитлер [ɐˈdolʲf ˈɡʲitlʲɪr] ('Adolf Hitler') and граф болеет ('the count is ill'). /v/ and /vʲ/ are unusual in that they seem transparent to voicing assimilation; in the syllable onset, both voiced and voiceless consonants may appear before /v(ʲ)/:
тварь [tvarʲ]) ('the creature') два [dva] ('two') световой [s(ʲ)vʲɪtɐˈvoj] ('of light') звезда [z(ʲ)vʲɪˈzda] ('star')
When /v(ʲ)/ precedes and follows obstruents, the voicing of the cluster is governed by that of the final segment (per the rule above) so that voiceless obstruents that precede /v(ʲ)/ are voiced if /v(ʲ)/ is followed by a voiced obstruent (e.g. к вдове [ɡvdɐˈvʲɛ] 'to the widow') while a voiceless obstruent will devoice all segments (e.g. без впуска [bʲɪs ˈfpuskə] 'without an admission'). /t͡ɕ/, /t͡s/, and /x/ have voiced allophones ([d͡ʑ], [d͡z] and [ɣ]) before voiced obstruents, as in дочь бы [ˈdod͡ʑ bɨ] ('a daughter would') and плацдарм [pɫɐd͡zˈdarm] ('bridge-head'). Other than /mʲ/ and /nʲ/, nasals and liquids devoice between voiceless consonants or a voiceless consonant and a pause: контрфорс [ˌkontr̥ˈfors]) ('buttress'). Palatalization Before /j/, paired consonants are normally soft as in пью [pʲju] (help·info) 'I drink' and пьеса [ˈpʲjɛsə] 'theatrical play'. However the last consonant of prefixes and parts of compound words generally remains hard in the standard language: отъезд [ɐˈtjest] 'departure', Минюст [ˌmʲiˈnjust] 'Min[istry of] Just[ice]'; and only when prefix ends in /s/ or /z/, there exists an optional softening: съездить [ˈs(ʲ)jezʲdʲɪtʲ] ('to travel'). Paired consonants preceding /e/ are also soft; although there are exceptions from loanwords, alternations across morpheme boundaries are the norm. The following examples show some of the morphological alternations between a hard consonant and its soft counterpart:
дом 'house' (nom)
до́ме 'house' (prep)
крова́веть 'to become bloody'
отве́тить 'to answer'
(я) несу́ 'I carry'
(он, она, оно) несёт 'carries'
прямо́й '(is) straight'
вори́шка 'little thief (diminutive)'
написа́л 'he wrote'
написа́ли 'they wrote'
горбу́нья 'female hunchback'
высо́к '(is) high'
Velar consonants are soft when preceding /i/; within words, this means
that velar consonants are never followed by [ɨ].
Before hard dental consonants, /r/, labial and dental consonants are
hard: орла [ɐrˈɫa] ('eagle' gen. sg).
Paired consonants preceding another consonant often inherit softness
from it. This phenomenon in literary language has complicated and
evolving rules with many exceptions, depending on what these
consonants are, in what morphemic position they meet and to what style
of speech the word belongs. In old
Before soft dental consonants, /lʲ/ and often soft labial consonants, dental consonants (other than /t͡s/) are soft. /x/ is assimilated to the palatalization of the following velar consonant: лёгких [ˈlʲɵxʲkʲɪx] (help·info)) ('lungs' gen. pl.). Palatalization assimilation of labial consonants before labial consonants is in free variation with nonassimilation, that is бомбить ('to bomb') is either [bɐmˈbʲitʲ] or [bɐmʲˈbʲitʲ] depending on the individual speaker. When hard /n/ precedes its soft equivalent, it is also soft and likely to form a single long sound (see gemination). This is slightly less common across affix boundaries.
In addition to this, dental fricatives conform to the place of articulation (not just the palatalization) of following postalveolars: с частью [ˈɕːæsʲtʲju]) ('with a part'). In careful speech, this does not occur across word boundaries. Russian has the rare feature of nasals not typically being assimilated in place of articulation. Both /n/ and /nʲ/ appear before retroflex consonants: деньжонки [dʲɪnʲˈʐonkʲɪ]) ('money' (scornful)) and ханжой [xɐnˈʐoj]) ('sanctimonious one' instr.). In the same context, other coronal consonants are always hard. Consonant clusters As a Slavic language, Russian has fewer phonotactic restrictions on consonants than many other languages, allowing for clusters that would be difficult for English speakers; this is especially so at the beginning of a syllable, where Russian speakers make no sonority distinctions between fricatives and stops. These reduced restrictions begin at the morphological level; outside of two morphemes that contain clusters of four consonants: встрет-/встреч- 'meet' ([ˈfstrʲetʲ/ˈfstrʲet͡ɕ]), and чёрств-/черств- 'stale' ([ˈt͡ɕɵrstv]), native Russian morphemes have a maximum consonant cluster size of three:
Russian IPA/Audio Translation
For speakers who pronounce [ɕt͡ɕ] instead of [ɕː], words like общий ('common') also constitute clusters of this type.
Russian IPA/Audio Translation
If /j/ is considered a consonant in the coda position, then words like айва́ ('quince') contain semivowel+consonant clusters. Affixation also creates consonant clusters. Some prefixes, the best known being вз-/вс- ([vz-]/[fs-]), produce long word-initial clusters when they attach to a morpheme beginning with consonant(s) (e.g. fs+ pɨʂkə → вспы́шка [ˈfspɨʂkə] 'flash'). However, the four-consonant limitation persists in the syllable onset. Clusters of three or more consonants are frequently simplified, usually through syncope of one of them, especially in casual pronunciation. Various cases of relaxed pronunciation in Russian can be seen here. All word-initial four-consonant clusters begin with [vz] or [fs], followed by a stop (or, in the case of [x], a fricative), and a liquid:
Russian IPA/Audio Translation
(ему) взбрело (в голову)
'(he) took it (into his head)'
'to jump up'
'to begin to smolder'
Because prepositions in Russian act like clitics, the syntactic phrase composed of a preposition (most notably, the three that consist of just a single consonant: к, с, and в) and a following word constitutes a phonological word that acts like a single grammatical word. For example, the phrase с друзья́ми ('with friends') is pronounced [zdrʊˈzʲjæmʲɪ]. In the syllable coda, suffixes that contain no vowels may increase the final consonant cluster of a syllable (e.g. Ноя́брьск 'city of Noyabrsk' noˈjabrʲ+ sk → [nɐˈjabrʲsk]), theoretically up to seven consonants: *мо́нстрств [ˈmonstrstf] ('of monsterships'). There is usually an audible release between these consecutive consonants at word boundaries, the major exception being clusters of homorganic consonants. Consonant cluster simplification in Russian includes degemination, syncope, dissimilation, and weak vowel insertion. For example, /sɕː/ is pronounced [ɕː], as in расще́лина ('cleft'). There are also a few isolated patterns of apparent cluster reduction (as evidenced by the mismatch between pronunciation and orthography) arguably the result of historical simplifications. For example, dental stops are dropped between a dental continuant and a dental nasal or lateral: ле́стный [ˈlʲesnɨj] 'flattering'. Other examples include:
/vstv/ > [stv] чу́вство 'feeling'
[ˈtɕustvə] (not [ˈtɕʉfstvə])
/lnt͡s/ > [nt͡s] со́лнце 'sun'
[ˈsont͡sə] (not [ˈsoɫnt͡sə])
/rdt͡s/ > [rt͡s] се́рдце 'heart'
[ˈsʲert͡sə] (not [ˈsʲertt͡sə])
/rdt͡ɕ/ > [rt͡ɕ] сердчи́шко 'heart' (diminutive)
/ndsk/ > [nsk] шотла́ндский 'Scottish'
[ʂɐtˈɫanskʲɪj] (not [ʂɐtˈɫantskʲɪj])
/stsk/ > [sk] маркси́стский 'Marxist'
The simplifications of consonant clusters are done selectively; bookish-style words and proper nouns are typically pronounced with all consonants even if they fit the pattern. For example, the word голла́ндка is pronounced in a simplified manner [ɡɐˈɫankə] for the meaning of 'Dutch oven' (a popular type of oven in Russia) and in a full form [ɡɐˈɫantkə] for 'Dutch woman' (a more exotic meaning). In certain cases, this syncope produces homophones, e.g. ко́стный ('bony') and ко́сный ('rigid'), both are pronounced [ˈkosnɨj]. Another method of dealing with consonant clusters is inserting an epenthetic vowel (both in spelling and in pronunciation), ⟨о⟩, after most prepositions and prefixes that normally end in a consonant. This includes both historically motivated usage and cases of its modern extrapolations. There are no strict limits when the epenthetic ⟨о⟩ is obligatory, optional, or prohibited. One of the most typical cases of the epenthetic ⟨о⟩ is between a morpheme-final consonant and a cluster starting with the same or similar consonant (e.g. со среды́ 'from Wednesday' s+ srʲɪˈdɨ → [səsrʲɪˈdɨ], not *с среды; ототру́ 'I'll scrub' ot+ ˈtru → [ɐtɐˈtru], not *оттру). Supplementary notes There are numerous ways in which Russian spelling does not match pronunciation. The historical transformation of /ɡ/ into /v/ in genitive case endings and the word for 'him' is not reflected in the modern Russian orthography: the pronoun его [jɪˈvo] 'his/him', and the adjectival declension suffixes -ого and -его. Orthographic г represents /x/ in a handful of word roots: легк-/лёгк-/легч- 'easy' and мягк-/мягч- 'soft'. There are a handful of words in which consonants which have long since ceased to be pronounced even in careful pronunciation are still spelled, e.g., the 'l' in солнце [ˈsont͡sə] ('sun'). /n/ and /nʲ/ are the only consonants that can be geminated within morpheme boundaries. Such gemination does not occur in loanwords. Between any vowel and /i/ (excluding instances across affix boundaries but including unstressed vowels that have merged with /i/), /j/ may be dropped: аист [ˈa.ɪst] ('stork') and делает [ˈdʲɛɫəɪt] ('does'). (Halle (1959) cites заезжать and other instances of intervening prefix and preposition boundaries as exceptions to this tendency.) Stress in Russian may fall on any syllable and words can contrast based just on stress (e.g. мука [ˈmukə] 'ordeal, pain, anguish' vs. [mʊˈka] 'flour, meal, farina'); stress shifts can even occur within an inflexional paradigm: до́ма [ˈdomə] ('house' gen. sg.) vs дома́ [dɐˈma] ('houses'). The place of the stress in a word is determined by the interplay between the morphemes it contains, as some morphemes have underlying stress, while others do not. However, other than some compound words, such as морозоустойчивый [mɐˌrozəʊˈstojtɕɪvɨj] ('frost-resistant') only one syllable is stressed in a word. /ɨ/ velarizes hard consonants: ты [tˠɨ] (help·info) ('you' sing.). /o/ and /u/ velarize and labialize hard consonants and labialize soft consonants: бок [bˠʷok] ('side'), нёс [nʲʷɵs] ('(he) carried'). Between a hard consonant and /o/, a slight [w] offglide occurs, most noticeably after labial, labio-dental and velar consonants (e.g. мок, 'side' [mˠwok]). Similarly, a weak palatal offglide may occur between certain soft consonants and back vowels (e.g. ляжка 'thigh' [ˈlʲjaʂkə]). See also
Help:IPA/Russian Russian alphabet Russian orthography
Reforms of Russian orthography
History of the Russian language
^ See, for example, Ozhegov (1953:10); Barkhudarov, Protchenko &
Skvortsova (1987:9); Chew (2003:61). The traditional name of ⟨ы⟩,
еры [jɪˈrɨ] yery; since 1961 this name has been replaced from
the Russian school practice (compare the 7th and 8th editions of the
standard textbook of Russian for 5th and 6th grades: Barkhudarov &
Kryuchkov (1960:4), and Barkhudarov & Kryuchkov (1961:20).
^ a b Chew 2003, p. 61.
^ Chew 2003, p. 62.
^ See, for example, Shcherba (1950:15); Matijchenko (1950:40–41);
Zemsky, Kryuchkov & Svetlayev (1971:63); Kuznetsov & Ryzhakov
^ Thus, /ɨ/ is pronounced something like [ɤ̯ɪ], with the first
part sounding as an on-glide Padgett (2003b:321)
^ Jones & Ward 1969, pp. 37-38.
^ Jones & Ward 1969, p. 31.
^ a b Jones & Ward 1969, p. 33.
^ Jones & Ward 1969, pp. 41-44.
^ Jones & Ward 1969, p. 193.
^ Halle 1959, p. 63.
^ As in Igor Severyanin's poem, Сегодня не приду . . .
^ a b Jones & Ward 1969, p. 50.
^ Jones & Ward 1969, p. 56.
^ Jones & Ward 1969, p. 62.
^ Crosswhite 2000, p. 167.
^ Jones & Ward 1969, pp. 67-69.
^ Crosswhite 2000, p. 112.
^ /o/ has merged with /i/ if words such as тепло́ /tʲiˈpɫo/
'heat' are analyzed as having the same morphophonemes as related words
such as тёплый /ˈtʲopɫij/ 'warm', meaning that both of them
have the stem tʲopl-. Alternatively, they can be analyzed as having
two different morphophonemes, o and e: tʲopɫ- vs. tʲepɫ-.
In that analysis, o does not occur in тепло́, so o does not
merge with i. Historically, the o developed from e: see History
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морфология. Для 5-го и 6-го классов
средней школы (7th ed.), Moscow
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русского языка, ч. 1. Фонетика и
морфология. Для 5-го и 6-го классов
средней школы (8th ed.), Moscow
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III: Grammatical categories and the lexicon. (2nd ed.), London:
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of Slavic and East European Languages, 6 (2): 125–129,
doi:10.2307/3086096, JSTOR 3086096
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(PDF), University of Rochester Working Papers in the Language
Sciences, 1 (1): 107–172
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редуцированных гласных" [Guttural obstruent role
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