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The Info List - Russet Ground Squirrel





The russet ground squirrel ( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
major) is a species of rodent in the family Sciuridae. It is also known as the hibernating large ground squirrel and the large-toothed souslik.[3] It is found in west central Asia where its natural habitat is temperate grassland.

Contents

1 Distribution 2 Morphology 3 Ecology 4 References

Distribution[edit] The russet ground squirrel is found on steppe between the Volga
Volga
and Irtysh
Irtysh
rivers in Russia
Russia
and North Kazakhstan, and to the west of the Volga
Volga
River in the north west part of the Volga
Volga
Hills. It has also been reported from Xinjiang
Xinjiang
but this was probably a misidentification of the rather similar species, Spermophilus
Spermophilus
brevicauda. Its range is expanding to the south and west of its present range. This is believed to be because roads and other developments increase the number of water channels and long grasses. It is now able to cross the Volga
Volga
due to the construction of dams in four different places. These produce areas of static water which retain ice cover for longer, allowing individuals to move to new aeas. It is found at altitudes of up to 600 metres.[4] Morphology[edit] The russet ground squirrel has a stout, low-slung body, short legs and a well-furred tail.[5] The back is dark ochre-brown, barred or mottled with light ochre. The top of the head and nose bridge are silvery-grayish. On the cheeks and above the eyes are rufous patches. The tail appears reddish from below and the tip is pale. The body length is up to 340 millimetres (13 in) and the tail length, up to 105 millimetres (4.1 in). The weight is about 500 grams (1.1 lb).[3] Ecology[edit] The russet ground squirrel lives on plains, sub-mountain steppes and semi-deserts. It is found along river valleys, at the edges of forests, on the slopes of ravines, on road sides, pastures and uncultivated lands. It excavates permanent burrows about a metre in depth with a vertical entrance and a total passage length of about two metres. Temporary burrows are not so deep, have slanting entrance passages and are more simply constructed. This species is diurnal, older animals being most active in the mornings and evenings while the young are active most of the day. Winter hibernation lasts for about six and a half to eight and a half months. The date of emergence depends on spring conditions and may vary by up to twenty five days. The diet consists of the green parts of plants, roots, bulbs, grass seed, cereals and other agricultural crops. Reproduction takes place in the summer with pregnancy lasting approximately 23 days and the brood size averaging seven to eight young. These grow rapidly and are fully grown in two and a half months.[3] The population is subject to periodic fluctuations with population surges being followed by population troughs. During the latter, single individuals may be found occupying burrows previously inhabited by large colonies. The main factors that determine mortality include exceptionally cold weather during the hibernation period, the late arrival of spring, human disturbance, predators and outbreaks of disease.[3][4] References[edit]

^ Tsytsulina, K.; Formozov, N. & Sheftel, B, (2008). "Spermophilus major". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 8 January 2009. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World ^ a b c d AgroAtlas ^ a b IUCN Red List ^ ARKive

v t e

Living species of tribe Marmotini (ground squirrels)

Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Chordata  Class: Mammalia  Order: Rodentia  Suborder: Sciuromorpha  Family: Sciuridae  Subfamily: Xerinae

Ammospermophilus (antelope squirrels)

Harris's antelope squirrel
Harris's antelope squirrel
(A. harrisii)  Espíritu Santo antelope squirrel (A. insularis)  Texas antelope squirrel
Texas antelope squirrel
(A. interpres)  White-tailed antelope squirrel
White-tailed antelope squirrel
(A. leucurus)  San Joaquin antelope squirrel
San Joaquin antelope squirrel
(A. nelsoni)

Callospermophilus (golden-mantled ground squirrels)

Golden-mantled ground squirrel
Golden-mantled ground squirrel
(C. lateralis)  Sierra Madre ground squirrel
Sierra Madre ground squirrel
(C. madrensis)  Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel
Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel
(C. saturatus)

Cynomys (prairie dogs)

Gunnison's prairie dog
Gunnison's prairie dog
(C. gunnisoni)  White-tailed prairie dog
White-tailed prairie dog
(C. leucurus)  Black-tailed prairie dog
Black-tailed prairie dog
(C. ludovicianus)  Mexican prairie dog
Mexican prairie dog
(C. mexicanus)  Utah prairie dog
Utah prairie dog
(C. parvidens)

Eutamias

Siberian chipmunk
Siberian chipmunk
(E. sibiricus)

Ictidomys (little ground squirrels)

Mexican ground squirrel
Mexican ground squirrel
(I. mexicanus)  I. parvidens  Thirteen-lined ground squirrel
Thirteen-lined ground squirrel
(I. tridecemlineatus)

Marmota (marmots)

Subgenus Marmota: Gray marmot
Gray marmot
(M. baibacina) 

Bobak marmot
Bobak marmot
(M. bobak)  Alaska marmot
Alaska marmot
(M. broweri)  Black-capped marmot
Black-capped marmot
(M. camtschatica)  Long-tailed marmot
Long-tailed marmot
(M. caudata)  Himalayan marmot
Himalayan marmot
(M. himalayana)  Alpine marmot
Alpine marmot
(M. marmota)  Menzbier's marmot
Menzbier's marmot
(M. menzbieri)  Groundhog
Groundhog
or woodchuck (M. monax)  Tarbagan marmot
Tarbagan marmot
(M. sibirica) Subgenus Petromarmota: Hoary marmot
Hoary marmot
(M. caligata)  Yellow-bellied marmot
Yellow-bellied marmot
(M. flaviventris)  Olympic marmot
Olympic marmot
(M. olympus)  Vancouver Island marmot
Vancouver Island marmot
(M. vancouverensis)

Neotamias (western chipmunks)

Alpine chipmunk
Alpine chipmunk
(N. alpinus)  Yellow-pine chipmunk
Yellow-pine chipmunk
(N. amoenus)  Buller's chipmunk
Buller's chipmunk
(N. bulleri)  Gray-footed chipmunk
Gray-footed chipmunk
(N. canipes)  Gray-collared chipmunk
Gray-collared chipmunk
(N. cinereicollis)  Cliff chipmunk
Cliff chipmunk
(N. dorsalis)  Durango chipmunk
Durango chipmunk
(N. durangae)  Merriam's chipmunk
Merriam's chipmunk
(N. merriami)  Least chipmunk
Least chipmunk
(N. minimus)  California chipmunk
California chipmunk
(N. obscurus)  Yellow-cheeked chipmunk
Yellow-cheeked chipmunk
(N. ochrogenys)  Palmer's chipmunk
Palmer's chipmunk
(N. palmeri)  Panamint chipmunk
Panamint chipmunk
(N. panamintinus)  Long-eared chipmunk
Long-eared chipmunk
(N. quadrimaculatus)  Colorado chipmunk
Colorado chipmunk
(N. quadrivittatus)  Red-tailed chipmunk
Red-tailed chipmunk
(N. ruficaudus)  Hopi chipmunk
Hopi chipmunk
(N. rufus)  Allen's chipmunk
Allen's chipmunk
(N. senex)  Siskiyou chipmunk
Siskiyou chipmunk
(N. siskiyou)  Sonoma chipmunk
Sonoma chipmunk
(N. sonomae)  Lodgepole chipmunk
Lodgepole chipmunk
(N. speciosus)  Townsend's chipmunk
Townsend's chipmunk
(N. townsendii)  Uinta chipmunk
Uinta chipmunk
(N. umbrinus)

Notocitellus

Tropical ground squirrel
Tropical ground squirrel
(N. adocetus)  Ring-tailed ground squirrel
Ring-tailed ground squirrel
(N. annulatus)

Otospermophilus (rock squirrels)

Baja California rock squirrel
Baja California rock squirrel
(O. atricapillus)  California ground squirrel
California ground squirrel
(O. beecheyi)  Rock squirrel
Rock squirrel
(O. variegatus)

Poliocitellus

Franklin's ground squirrel
Franklin's ground squirrel
(P. franklinii)

Sciurotamias (Asian rock squirrels)

Père David's rock squirrel
Père David's rock squirrel
(S. davidianus)  Forrest's rock squirrel
Forrest's rock squirrel
(S. forresti)

Spermophilus
Spermophilus
sensu stricto (Old World ground squirrels)

Alashan ground squirrel
Alashan ground squirrel
(S. alashanicus)  S. brevicauda  European ground squirrel
European ground squirrel
(S. citellus)  Daurian ground squirrel
Daurian ground squirrel
(S. dauricus)  Red-cheeked ground squirrel
Red-cheeked ground squirrel
(S. erythrogenys)  Yellow ground squirrel
Yellow ground squirrel
(S. fulvus)  Russet ground squirrel
Russet ground squirrel
(S. major)  S. pallicauda  Little ground squirrel
Little ground squirrel
(S. pygmaeus)  S. ralli  S. relictus  Speckled ground squirrel
Speckled ground squirrel
( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
suslicus)  Taurus ground squirrel ( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
taurensis)  Asia Minor ground squirrel
Asia Minor ground squirrel
( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
xanthoprymnus)

Tamias

Eastern chipmunk
Eastern chipmunk
(T. striatus)

Urocitellus (Holarctic ground squirrels)

Uinta ground squirrel
Uinta ground squirrel
(U. armatus)  Belding's ground squirrel
Belding's ground squirrel
(U. beldingi)  Northern Idaho ground squirrel
Northern Idaho ground squirrel
(U. brunneus)  Southern Idaho ground squirrel
Southern Idaho ground squirrel
(U. endemicus)  Merriam's ground squirrel
Merriam's ground squirrel
(U. canus)  Columbian ground squirrel
Columbian ground squirrel
(U. columbianus)  Wyoming ground squirrel
Wyoming ground squirrel
(U. elegans)  Piute ground squirrel
Piute ground squirrel
(U. mollis)  Arctic ground squirrel
Arctic ground squirrel
(U. parryii)  Richardson's ground squirrel
Richardson's ground squirrel
(U. richardsonii)  Townsend's ground squirrel
Townsend's ground squirrel
(U. townsendii)  Washington ground squirrel
Washington ground squirrel
(U. washingtoni)  Long-tailed ground squirrel
Long-tailed ground squirrel
(U. undulatus)

Xerospermophilus (pygmy ground squirrels)

Mohave ground squirrel
Mohave ground squirrel
(X. mohavensis)  Perote ground squirrel
Perote ground squirrel
(X. perotensis)  Spotted ground squirrel
Spotted ground squirrel
(X. spilosoma)  Round-tailed ground squirrel
Round-tailed ground squirrel
(X. tereticaudus)

Category

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1768722 EoL: 313006 Fauna Europaea: 305741 GBIF: 2437320 ITIS: 632451 IUCN: 20486 MSW: 12401044

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