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The Rurik
Rurik
dynasty, or Rurikids (Russian: Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Ukrainian: Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Belarusian: Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian[1] prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod
Novgorod
around the year AD 862.[2] The Rurikids were the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
(after 882), as well as the successor principalities of Galicia-Volhynia
Galicia-Volhynia
(after 1199), Chernigov, Vladimir-Suzdal, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and the founders of the Tsardom of Russia. They ruled until 1610 and the Time of Troubles, following which they were succeeded by the Romanovs. They are one of Europe's oldest royal houses, with numerous existing cadet branches. As a ruling dynasty, the Rurik
Rurik
dynasty held its own in some part of Russia for a total of twenty-one generations in male-line succession, from Rurik
Rurik
(died 879) to Vasili IV of Russia
Vasili IV of Russia
(died 1612), a period of more than 700 years.

Contents

1 Origins 2 History

2.1 Descendants of Sviatoslav II of Kiev 2.2 Descendants of Vsevolod I of Kiev

3 Trade 4 Skirmish with Byzantium 5 Legacy 6 Branches 7 Family tree ( Rurik
Rurik
through Vladimir) 8 Main line (from Vladimir to Yaroslav) 9 Vladimir's Czech wives 10 Vladimir's other wives 11 From Vladimir the great to Yuri I Long-arm 12 Yuri the Long-arm onwards 13 Family tree of members 14 Gallery 15 See also 16 References

Origins[edit]

Millennium of Russia
Millennium of Russia
monument in Novgorod
Novgorod
with Rurik
Rurik
at the center and Vladimir the Great
Vladimir the Great
at the left and Dmitry Donskoy
Dmitry Donskoy
at the right (both Rurikids)

The Rurikid dynasty was founded in 862 by Rurik, a Varangian
Varangian
prince. Folk history tells of the Finnic and Slavic tribes in the area calling on "'the Varangians
Varangians
[i.e. Scandinavians], to the Rus' … The Chud, the Slovenes, the Krivichi and the Ves said "Our land is vast and abundant, but there is no order in it. Come and reign as princes and have authority over us!"' Three brothers came with 'their kin' and 'all the Rus' in response to this invitation. Rurik
Rurik
set up rule in Novgorod, giving more provincial towns to his brothers. There is some ambiguity even in the Primary Chronicle
Primary Chronicle
about the specifics of the story, "hence their paradoxical statement 'the people of Novgorod
Novgorod
are of Varangian
Varangian
stock, for formerly they were Slovenes.'" However, archaeological evidence such as "Frankish swords, a sword chape and a tortoiseshell brooch" in the area suggest that there was, in fact, a Scandinavian population during the tenth century at the latest.[3] History[edit] Rurik
Rurik
and his brothers founded a state that later historians called Kievan Rus′. By the middle of the twelfth century, Kievan Rus′ had dissolved into independent principalities, each ruled by a different branch of the Rurik
Rurik
dynasty. The dynasty followed agnatic seniority and the izgoi principle. The Rurik
Rurik
dynasty underwent a major schism after the death of Yaroslav the Wise
Yaroslav the Wise
in 1054, dividing into three branches on the basis of descent from three successive ruling Grand Princes: Izyaslav (1024–1078), Svyatoslav (1027–1076), and Vsevolod (1030–1093). In addition, a line of Polotsk princes assimilated themselves with the princes of Lithuania. In the 10th century the Council of Liubech made some amendments to a succession rule and divided Ruthenia
Ruthenia
into several autonomous principalities that had equal rights to obtain the Kiev
Kiev
throne. Vsevolod's line eventually became better known as the Monomakhovichi and was the predominant one. The line of Svyatoslav later became known as Olegovychi and often laid claim to the lands of Chernihiv
Chernihiv
and Severia. The Izyaslavychi who ruled Turov and Volhynia
Volhynia
were eventually replaced by a Monomakhovychi branch.

Monument to Vladimir the Great
Vladimir the Great
in Kiev

Prince Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
defeats the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
at the Battle of the Ice in 1242 (20th century work)

Principalities
Principalities
of Kievan Rus', ruled by Rurikid princes, 1220-1240

"The Rurikid dynasty… attempted to impose on their highly diverse polity the integrative concept of russkaia zemlia ("the Rus′ land") and the unifying notion of a "Rus′ people". But "Kievan Rus′ was never really a unified polity. It was a loosely bound, ill-defined, and heterogeneous conglomeration of lands and cities inhabited by tribes and populous groups whose loyalties were primarily territorial." This caused the Rurik
Rurik
dynasty to effectively dissolve into several sub-dynasties ruling smaller states in the 10th and 11th centuries. These were the Olgoviches of Severia who ruled in Chernigov, Yuryeviches who controlled Vladimir-Suzdal, and Romanoviches in Galicia-Volhynia.[4] [5] Descendants of Sviatoslav II of Kiev[edit] The Olgoviches descended from Oleg I of Chernigov, a son of Sviatoslav II of Kiev
Kiev
and grandson of Yaroslav the Wise. They continued to rule until the early 14th century when they were torn apart by the emerging Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
and Grand Duchy of Moscow. The line continued through Oleg's son Vsevolod II of Kiev, grandson Sviatoslav III of Kiev, great-grandson Vsevolod IV of Kiev
Kiev
and great-great grandson Michael of Chernigov, from whose sons the extant lines of the Olegoviches are descended, including the Massalsky, Gorchakov, Baryatinsky, Volkonsky and Obolensky, including Repnin. Descendants of Vsevolod I of Kiev[edit] Vsevolod I of Kiev
Kiev
was the father of Vladimir II Monomakh, giving rise to the name Monomakh for his progeny. Two of Vladimir II's sons were Mstislav I of Kiev
Kiev
and Yuri Dolgorukiy. The Romanoviches (Izyaslavichi of Volhynia)were the line of Roman the Great, descended from Mstislav I of Kiev
Kiev
through his son Iziaslav II of Kiev
Kiev
and his grandson Mstislav II of Kiev, father of Roman the Great. The older Monomakhovychi line that ruled Principality of Volhynia, they were eventually crowned kings of Galicia and Volhynia and ruled until 1323. Romanovychi displaced the older line of Izyaslavychi from Turov and Volhynia
Volhynia
as well as Rostyslavychi from Galicia. The last were two brothers of Romanovychi, Andrew and Lev II, who ruled jointly and were slain trying to repel Mongol
Mongol
incursions. The Polish king, Władysław I the Elbow-high, in his letter to the Pope wrote with regret: "The two last Ruthenian kings, that had been firm shields for Poland from the Tatars, left this world and after their death Poland is directly under Tatar threat." Losing their leadership role, Rurikids, however, continued to play a vital role in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
and the later Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Most notably, the Ostrogski family
Ostrogski family
held the title of Grand Hetman of Lithuania
Lithuania
and strove to preserve the Ruthenian language and Eastern Orthodoxy
Eastern Orthodoxy
in this part of Europe. It is thought that the Drutsk and related princely families may also descend from Roman the Great. The Rostislaviches were the line of Rostislav I of Kiev, another son of Mstislav I of Kiev, who was Prince of Smolensk
Prince of Smolensk
and a progenitor of the lines descending from the princes of Smolensk and Yaroslavl. The Yuryeviches were founded by Yuriy Dolgorukiy, the founder of Moscow
Moscow
and spread vastly in the north-east. Yuri's son Vsevolod the Big Nest was Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal, a precursor state to the Grand Principality of Moscow
Principality of Moscow
and thus of the Russian Empire. Vsevolod's son Konstantin of Rostov was Prince of Rostov
Prince of Rostov
and the progenitor of various "Rostov" princely lines. Another son, Ivan Vsevolodich, was Prince of Starodub
Starodub
and progenitor of a number of extant lines, most notably the Gagarin line. Vsevolod's son Yaroslav II of Vladimir
Yaroslav II of Vladimir
was the father of Alexander Nevsky, whose son Daniel of Moscow
Daniel of Moscow
sired the ruling house of Moscow until the end of the 16th century. Beginning with the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the Muscovite branch used the title "Tsar of All Russia" and ruled over the Tsardom of Russia. The death in 1598 of Tsar Feodor I ended the rule of the Rurik dynasty. The dynasty was briefly revived in the person of Vasili IV of Russia, a descendant of Shuyskiy line of the Rurik
Rurik
dynasty, but he died without issue. The unstable period known as the Time of Troubles succeeded Feodor's death and lasted until 1613. In that year, Mikhail I ascended the throne, founding the Romanov dynasty that would rule until 1762 and as Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov until the revolutions of 1917. Tsar Mikhail's first wife Maria Dolgorukova was of Rurikid stock but their marriage produced no children. Emperor Peter III in 1762 brought fresh Rurikid blood to the Romanovs: he and his wife Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
both descended from the Rurik
Rurik
dynasty. ( Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
descended from a daughter of Yaroslav I (978–1054) through her maternal grandfather, Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp.[6]) Historian Vasily Tatishchev
Vasily Tatishchev
and filmmaker Jacques Tati
Jacques Tati
also descended from Rurik. Trade[edit] In the early days of the Rurikid dynasty, the Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
mainly traded with other tribes in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Scandinavia. "There was little need for complex social structures to carry out these exchanges in the forests north of the steppes. So long as the entrepreneurs operated in small numbers and kept to the north, they did not catch the attention of observers or writers." The Rus' also had strong trading ties to Byzantium, particularly in the early 900s, as treaties in 911 and 944 indicate. These treaties deal with the treatment of runaway Byzantine slaves and limitations on the amounts of certain commodities such as silk that could be bought from Byzantium. The Rus' used log rafts floated down the Dnieper River
Dnieper River
by Slavic tribes for the transport of goods, particularly slaves to Byzantium.[7] Skirmish with Byzantium[edit] One of the largest military accomplishments of the Rurikid dynasty was the attack on Byzantium
Byzantium
in 960. Pilgrims of the Rus' had been making the journey from Kiev
Kiev
to Constantinople
Constantinople
for many years, and Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, believed that this gave them significant information about the arduous parts of the journey and where travelers were most at risk, as would be pertinent for an invasion. This route took travelers through domain of the Pechenegs, journeying mostly by river. In June 941, the Rus' staged a naval ambush on Byzantine forces, making up for their smaller numbers with small, maneuverable boats. Interestingly, these boats were ill-equipped for the transportation of large quantities of treasure, suggesting that looting was not the goal. The raid was led, according to the Primary Chronicle, by a king called Igor. Three years later, the treaty of 944 stated that all ships approaching Byzantium must be preceded by a letter from the Rurikid prince stating the number of ships and assuring their peaceful intent. This not only indicates fear of another surprise attack, but an increased Kievan presence in the Black Sea.[8] Legacy[edit] Russian and Ukrainian historians have debated for many years about the legacy of the Rurikid dynasty. The Russian view sees the Principality of Moscow
Moscow
as the sole heir to the Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
civilization, this view is "resting largely on religious-ecclesiastical and historical-ideological claims". This view started in Moscow
Moscow
between the 1330s and the late 1850s. The Ukrainian view was formulated somewhat later between the 1840s and the end of the 1930s and views the Ukrainian descendants of the Rurikid dynasty as its only true successors. The Soviet theory "allotted equal rights to the Kievan inheritance to the Three Slavic peoples, that is the Russians, the Ukrainians, and the Belorussians."[9] Branches[edit]

Izyaslavichi of Polotsk, princes of Polotsk Rostislavichi of Halych, princes of Halych Izyaslavichi of Turov, princes of Turiv and Volhynia Olgovichi, princes of Chernihiv Monomakhovichi, princes of Pereyaslav

Izyaslavichi of Monomakh, princes of Volhynia, kings of Rus (senior branch) Yurievichi, princes of Vladimir-Suzdal, Grand Princes of Moscow (junior branch) Rostislavichi, princes of Smolensk (middle branch)

Family tree ( Rurik
Rurik
through Vladimir)[edit] Main article: Rurik
Rurik
rulers family tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rurik

 

Efanda of Novgorod

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Igor of Kiev

 

Olga of Kiev

 

 

Malk Lubchanin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Predslava

 

Sviatoslav I

 

Malusha

 

 

 

 

 

Rogvolod

 

Dobrynya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oleg

 

Yaropolk I

 

Greek nun

 

Anna Porphyrogenita

 

Vladimir the Great

 

Rogneda of Polotsk

 

Konstantin Dobrynich

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

daughter of Bolesław I Chrobry

 

Sviatopolk I

 

 

 

 

 

Theofana

 

8 issues (see below)

 

 

 

Dobrynich line

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Main line (from Vladimir to Yaroslav)[edit]

Olof Skötkonung

 

Estrid of the Obotrites

 

Rogneda of Polotsk

 

Vladimir the Great

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adela

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saint Anna

 

Yaroslav the Wise

 

Izyaslav of Polotsk

 

Mstislav

 

Vsevolod

 

Premislava

 

Mstislava

 

Predslava

 

Mstislav of Chernigov

 

Boris

 

Gleb

 

Stanislav

 

Sudislav

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 children

 

 

 

Polotsk line

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eustaphius

 

 

Vladimir's Czech wives[edit]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Olava

 

Vladimir the Great

 

Malfrida

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vysheslav

 

Sviatoslav

 

Vladimir's other wives[edit]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

granddaughter of Otto the Great

 

Vladimir the Great

 

unknown mistress

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Casimir I

 

Maria Dobroniega

 

Margrave Bernard

 

out-of-wedlock daughter

 

Pozvizd

 

 

 

 

From Vladimir the great to Yuri I Long-arm[edit]

Vladimir the Great Yaroslav the Wise, son of Vladimir the Great Vsevolod I of Kiev, son of Yaroslav the Wise Vladimir II Monomakh, son of Vsevolod I of Kiev Yuri I "Dolgorukiy", i.e. Yuri I Long-arm The lineage from Yuri I Long-arm onwards is given in the table below

Yuri the Long-arm onwards[edit] Main articles: Grand Prince of Kiev, Grand Prince of Vladimir, List of rulers of Galicia and Volhynia, List of Ukrainian rulers, and List of Russian rulers The following image shows the descent of the leading (historically most powerful branch) of the Rurikids, being the descendants of Vladimir II Monomakh
Vladimir II Monomakh
through his sixth son Yuri Dolgorukiy
Yuri Dolgorukiy
(known as "Yuri I" and "Yuri Long-arm"): Family tree of members[edit]

Gallery[edit]

The coat of Arms of the Romanov dynasty
Romanov dynasty
(who were not descendants through male line of the House of Rurik)

Gagarin family
Gagarin family
/ Khilkoff
Khilkoff
Coat of Arms

The Obolensky Repnin
Repnin
coat of arms is composed of the emblems of Kiev
Kiev
and Chernigov.

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of the Dolgoruky
Dolgoruky
family

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of the Gorchakov
Gorchakov
family

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of the Ostrogski family

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of the Shuyski
Shuyski
family

See also[edit]

Rulers of Kievan Rus' Shum Gora Grand Prince of Tver Knyaz

References[edit]

^ Rurik
Rurik
(Norse leader) Britannica Online Encyclopedia ^ Rurik
Rurik
Dynasty
Dynasty
(medieval Russian rulers) Britannica Online Encyclopedia ^ Franklin, Simon, and Jonathan Shepherd. The Emergence of Rus 750–1200. Harlow, Essex: Longman Group, Ltd., 1996. pp. 38–39 ^ Pelenski, Jaroslaw Pelenski. The Contest for the Legacy of Kievan Rus′. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. p. 4 ^ Raffensperger, Christian, and Norman W. Ingham, " Rurik
Rurik
and the First Rurikids," The American Genealogist, 82 (2007), 1–13, 111–19. ^ "Byloe Rossii" [Ancestry of Catherine II the Great, Russian Empress 1729–1796: Descent from Rurik
Rurik
(c. 835–879), Prince of Novgorod] (in Russian). The Past of Russia. Retrieved 2014-05-07.  ^ Franklin, Simon, and Jonathan Shepherd. The Emergence of Rus 750–1200. Harlow, Essex: Longman Group, Ltd., 1996. pp. 27–8; 127 ^ Franklin, Simon, and Jonathan Shepherd. The Emergence of Rus 750–1200. Harlow, Essex: Longman Group, Ltd., 1996. pp. 112–119 ^ Pelenski, Jaroslaw Pelenski. The Contest for the Legacy of Kievan Rus'. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. p. 2

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Liechtenstein

Poland

Piast Přemyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski

After partitions:

Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Kingdom of Poland Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzoller

.