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The Info List - Runway Safety



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RUNWAY SAFETY is concerned with reducing harm that could occur on an aircraft runway . Safety means avoiding incorrect presence (incursion ) of aircraft, inappropriate exits (excursion) and use of the wrong runway due to confusion. The runway condition is a runway's current status due to meteorological conditions and air safety.

CONTENTS

* 1 Definitions of runway accidents

* 1.1 Runway
Runway
incursion * 1.2 Runway
Runway
excursion * 1.3 Confusion

* 2 Monitoring of runway safety * 3 Meteorological conditions * 4 See also * 5 References

DEFINITIONS OF RUNWAY ACCIDENTS

Several terms fall under the flight safety topic of runway safety, including incursion, excursion, and confusion. Terms such as runway event or runway accident are used for such incidents.

RUNWAY INCURSION

Runway
Runway
incursion involves an aircraft, and a second aircraft, vehicle, or person. It is defined by ICAO
ICAO
and the U.S. FAA
FAA
as "Any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take off of aircraft."

RUNWAY EXCURSION

Runway
Runway
excursion is an incident involving only a single aircraft, where it makes an inappropriate exit from the runway. This can happen because of pilot error, poor weather, or a fault with the aircraft.

"Overrun" is a type of excursion where the aircraft is unable to stop before the end of the runway. An example is Air India
India
Express Flight 812 in Mangalore
Mangalore
, India
India
in 2010. Further examples can be found in the overruns category . Runway
Runway
excursion is the most frequent type of landing accident, slightly ahead of runway incursion. For runway accidents recorded between 1995 and 2007, 96% were of the 'excursion' type.

CONFUSION

Runway
Runway
confusion is when a single aircraft makes "the unintentional use of the wrong runway, or a taxiway , for landing or take-off". Notable examples of a runway confusion incidents include Singapore Airlines Flight 006 and Comair Flight 5191 .

MONITORING OF RUNWAY SAFETY

The U.S. FAA
FAA
publishes an annual report on runway safety issues, available from the FAA
FAA
website. New systems designed to improve runway safety, such as Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS) and Runway
Runway
Awareness and Advisory System (RAAS), are discussed in the report. AMASS narrowly prevented a serious collision in the 2007 San Francisco International Airport runway incursion .

In the 1990s the U.S. FAA
FAA
conducted a study about a civilian version of 3D military thrust vectoring to prevent jetliner catastrophes

Some instruments for runway safety include ILS , LLWAS , Microwave landing system , Transponder landing system
Transponder landing system
, as well as Runway Awareness and Advisory System .

METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

The "runway condition" is a runway's current status in relation to current meteorological conditions and air safety.

* Dry: the surface of the runway is clear of water, snow or ice. * Damp: change of color on the surface due to moisture. * Wet: the surface of the runway is soaked but there are no significant patches of standing water. * Water patches: patches of standing water are visible. * Flooded: there is extensive standing water.

According to the JAR definition, a runway with water patches or that is flooded is considered to be contaminated.

SEE ALSO

Runway
Runway
safety area

REFERENCES

* ^ FAA
FAA
Runway
Runway
Safety webpage, Retrieved 2008-12-14. * ^ A B FAA
FAA
Runway
Runway
Safety, Retrieved 2009-04-02 * ^ FAA
FAA
- Runway
Runway
excursion * ^ A B " Runway
Runway
excursion Flight Safety Foundation" FlightGlobal.com, Retrieved 2008-12-14. * ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2008/03/14/222239/comment-safety-excursions.html "Safety Excursions", FlightGlobal.com, Retrieved 2008-12-15. * ^ Various runway safety reports * ^ Runway
Runway
Safety Statistics * ^ “Multiaxis Thrust Vectoring Flight Control Vs Catastrophic Failure Prevention”, Reports to U.S. Dept. of Transportation/FAA, Technical Center, ACD-210, FAA