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Hasan (died September 976), better known by his laqab as Rukn al-Dawla (Persian: رکن‌الدوله دیلمی), was the first Buyid
Buyid
amir of northern and central Iran
Iran
(c. 935-976). He was the son of Buya.

Contents

1 Struggle for power 2 Senior ruler of the Buyid
Buyid
state

2.1 First invasion of Azerbaijan and aftermath 2.2 Clash with the ghazis, the second invasion of Azerbaijan and aftermath 2.3 Rebellion, family issues and death

3 Death and legacy 4 References 5 Sources

Struggle for power[edit]

Map of northern Iran

Hasan was the son of Buya, a Dailamite
Dailamite
fisherman from Lahijan,[1] who left his Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
faith and converted to Islam.[2] Ahmad had an older brother named 'Ali and a younger brother named Ahmad. He also had a sister named Kama.[3] In around 928, Hasan's brother 'Ali joined the services of Makan, who was the Samanid
Samanid
governor of Ray. 'Ali then managed to gain military positions for Hasan and their other brother Ahmad. At the time, Hasan was about thirty years old. When Makan
Makan
attacked his Samanid
Samanid
overlords and was subsequently defeated by the Ziyarid
Ziyarid
prince Mardavij, the brothers transferred their allegiance to the latter. In the following years, 'Ali repudiated his subservience to Mardavij and, after some time, managed to create an empire in Fars. During this time, Hasan distinguished himself in the battles over that province. Mardavij, however, marched south and forced 'Ali to recognize his authority in around 934. Hasan was sent to Madavij's court as a hostage. The death of Mardavij
Mardavij
in 935 allowed Hasan to escape, and also provided an opportunity for the Buyids to expand into central Iran. 'Ali therefore sent Hasan to take Isfahan. The Ziyarids, now under Vushmgir, were busy dealing with the Samanids, allowing the Buyid
Buyid
to easily take the city. This success did not last, however. Internal disruptions, combined with an invasion by Vushmgir, forced Hasan to abandon Isfahan to the Ziyarids three years later.[4] In 940, he appointed Abu 'l-Fadl ibn al-'Amid
Abu 'l-Fadl ibn al-'Amid
as his vizier. Although he did not receive much support from 'Ali, Hasan continued to be involved in central Iran. In 940 he recaptured Isfahan, then defeated Vushmgir
Vushmgir
in battle and occupied Ray, which had been taken by the Samanids, in 943. Meanwhile, in 945 Hasan's brother Ahmad had managed to capture Baghdad, occupying the Abbasid Caliphate. The caliph al-Mustakfi gave Ahmad the honorific title of "Mu'izz al-Dawla", while Ali' received the title of "'Imad al-Dawla". Hasan himself was bestowed with the title "Rukn al-Dawla". That same year, 945, saw Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
expelled from all of central Iran
Iran
by Ibn Muhtaj, the governor of Samanid
Samanid
Khurasan. Only in 946 or 947 was he able to make his return to Ray. He was, however, able to expand his territory after doing so, stripping Vushmgir
Vushmgir
of Gurgan
Gurgan
and Tabaristan.[5] Some time later, Abu Mansur Muhammad, a former Samanid general who had rebelled against them, took refuge in Ray, and was honored by Rukn al-Dawla, who, along with his brothers, greatly awarded him with riches.[6] Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
shortly sent Abu Mansur to Damghan
Damghan
in order to protect Ray from an Samanid
Samanid
invasion. In 948 or 949, the Sallarid
Sallarid
ruler of Azerbaijan, al-Marzuban, became angry over a diplomatic insult sent to him by Mu'izz al-Dawla. He sought revenge against the Buyids by attempting to seize Ray from Rukn al-Dawla. The amir, however, convinced al-Marzuban by diplomatic measures to delay his expedition until his brothers sent him additional armies; he then sent an army under Abu Mansur which defeated al-Marzuban near Qazvin
Qazvin
and imprisoned him.[7] Senior ruler of the Buyid
Buyid
state[edit] In around 948 ' Imad al-Dawla
Imad al-Dawla
named Rukn al-Dawla's eldest son, Fana Khusrau ('Adud al-Dawla) as his successor. In September 949 he died, and Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
claimed the title of senior amir for himself. He traveled to Shiraz and stayed there for at least nine months in order to secure his son's succession there, despite the fact that the Samanids were threatening his own possessions. Mu'izz al-Dawla, meanwhile, accepted Rukn al-Dawla's position of senior amir and also sent troops to Shiraz to assist 'Adud al-Dawla. With his substantial territories in central Iran, as well as pledges to respect his authority by both Mu'izz al-Dawla
Mu'izz al-Dawla
and 'Adud al-Dawla, Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
was now the most powerful ruler in the Buyid
Buyid
empire. The center of power therefore shifted from Shiraz to Ray. As a consequence of this, Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
was able to request troops from the other Buyid rulers. His own position was not secure; during his time in Shiraz the governor of Samanid
Samanid
Khurasan seized Jibal
Jibal
for a time. First invasion of Azerbaijan and aftermath[edit]

Map of Azerbaijan and Caucasus.

In 949, Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
sent Abu Mansur to Azerbaijan with orders to take control of the province. Marzuban's brother and the Sallarid ruler of Dailam, Wahsudan, shortly sent an army under the Kurdish general Daisam, but the latter was forced to retreat to Arran. Furthermore, the vizier of Daisam, Ibn Mahmud, betrayed him and joined Abu Mansur, who managed to successfully conquer Azerbaijan, and was shortly appointed as the governor of the region by Rukn al-Dawla. Ibn Mahmud was shortly appointed by Abu Mansur as his personal minister.[8] However, an unnamed secretary of Abu Mansur, who had greatly helped him during his conquest of Azerbaijan, felt insulted that he had chosen Ibn Mahmud as his minister instead of him, and shortly raised an army, and joined Daisam. Meanwhile, Abu Mansur, who was not used to the environment of Azerbaijan, left the region with Ibn Mahmud, and returned to Ray.[9] Thus ending the short-lived Buyid
Buyid
rule over Azerbaijan. In 952 or 953 al-Marzuban escaped, and after some fighting retook control of Azerbaijan. By 955, Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
made peace with him, and married his daughter. The fight between the Buyids and the Ziyarids, along with their Samanid
Samanid
overlords over Gurgan
Gurgan
and Tabaristan
Tabaristan
also continued until 955, with control of the provinces switching hands several times. Rukn al-Dawla was forced to sign a treaty with the Samanids, in which he promised to respect the independence of the Ziyarids in exchange for peace. The peace did not last long, however; in 958 Vushmgir
Vushmgir
occupied Ray for a short time, while in 960 Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
briefly gained control of Gurgan. In 962, the Buyid
Buyid
managed to take both Gurgan
Gurgan
and Tabaristan
Tabaristan
for a short time. Clash with the ghazis, the second invasion of Azerbaijan and aftermath[edit] In 966, a large group ghazis from Khorasan, plundered Jibal, and also managed to wound Rukn al-Dawla's vizier Abu 'l-Fadl. The ghazis shortly marched towards an important Buyid
Buyid
library in Ray, which was, however, saved by Abu 'l-Fadl's chief librarian Ibn Miskawayh.[10] Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
shortly sent an army under his nephew Ali ibn Kama which managed to repel the ghazis.[11] The next year, under the orders of Rukn al-Dawla, Abu 'l-Fadl conquered Azerbaijan, and restored Rukn al-Dawla's son-in-law the Sallarid
Sallarid
Ibrahim I ibn Marzuban I
Ibrahim I ibn Marzuban I
as the ruler of the region. Abu 'l-Fadl shortly urged Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
to depose Ibrahim and impose direct Buyid
Buyid
control on the region. Rukn al-Dawla, however, declined his advice.[12] In 970, Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
sent Abu 'l-Fadl on an expedition against the Kurdish ruler Hasanwayh, but died before he managed to deal with the latter, and was shortly succeeded as vizier by his son Abu'l-Fath ibn al-'Amid,[13] who shortly managed to deal with Hasanwayh.[11] During the same period, Rukn al-Dawla's fighting with his rivals began to work in his favor, and he was able to sign a less humiliating treaty with the Samanids in 971 or 972, though he continued to pay tribute. Rebellion, family issues and death[edit]

The Buyid
Buyid
amirates in ca. 970

In 974 Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
sent 'Adud al-Dawla
'Adud al-Dawla
to suppress a large revolt against 'Izz al-Dawla, who had succeeded Mu'izz al-Dawla
Mu'izz al-Dawla
in Iraq
Iraq
in 967. 'Izz al-Dawla
'Izz al-Dawla
had also recognized Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
as senior amir, but he and 'Adud al-Dawla
'Adud al-Dawla
had a dislike of each other. 'Adud al-Dawla successfully destroyed the rebellion, but ended up deposing his cousin as well and proclaimed himself the ruler of Iraq. Rukn al-Dawla, however, vehemently protested this, claiming that the line of Mu'izz al-Dawla could not be removed from power. 'Adud al-Dawla's offer to his father to pay tribute for his possession of Iraq
Iraq
was rejected, and he reluctantly reinstated 'Izz al-Dawla
'Izz al-Dawla
and returned to Fars. 'Adud al-Dawla
'Adud al-Dawla
began to grow concerned that his father would deny him the succession as senior amir. Although he had never been explicitly designated as successor, it was assumed that as the eldest son that the position would be his upon Rukn al-Dawla's death. The fiasco in Iraq, however, cooled the relationship between the two. At this point, Abu'l-Fath attempted to reconcile them by arranging a meeting in Isfahan in January of 976. The meeting proved to be a success, at least for 'Adud al-Dawla. Rukn al-Dawla may have been pressured to give in to his son's demands; in any case he agreed to name 'Adud al-Dawla
'Adud al-Dawla
as his successor to the senior amirate. All he asked for in exchange was that Ray would go to his second son, Fakhr al-Dawla, while Hamadan
Hamadan
would go to a third son, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla. Both sons would recognize 'Adud al-Dawla
'Adud al-Dawla
as senior amir. The issue of Iraq
Iraq
was not discussed. Death and legacy[edit] Only a few months later, Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
died. He was succeeded by his two younger sons in Ray and Hamadan, while 'Adud al-Dawla
'Adud al-Dawla
claimed the senior amirate. 'Izz al-Dawla, however, refused to recognize this, paving the way for conflict between the two sides.[14] Rukn al-Dawla's campaigns in central Iran
Iran
were done almost entirely without the support of 'Imad al-Dawla. As a result of this, Rukn al-Dawla was in nearly all aspects independent of his brother. His coins bear only his name after that of the caliph's, and he was considered by contemporary sources to be an independent ruler. For the remainder of the Buyid
Buyid
presence in central Iran, the amirs there were either independent of the rest of the empire, or were the senior amirs that ruled the empire. The failure of ' Imad al-Dawla
Imad al-Dawla
to extend his authority over the Buyids of central Iran
Iran
was later to present problems for the Buyid
Buyid
state, as the descendants of both brothers each considered themselves to be the best candidate for the senior amirate. This led to multiple independent rulers, destroying the unity of the Buyid
Buyid
state and allowing for internal dissent. In terms of a capital, Isfahan at first served Rukn al-Dawla's his city of choice, and continued to be a favorite even after Ray was captured and the court was moved there. His successors would continue to use Ray as the capital. Like the other Buyids, Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
was a Shi'ite. While he recognized the authority of the caliph of his coins and allowed the caliph's name to be said in the Friday prayers, in all other aspects he ruled as a Shi'ite. On the other hand, he was no fanatic; he recognized that the Sunni
Sunni
citizens of his empire must be protected in order to prevent internal discord. References[edit]

^ Wolfgang & Madelung 1995, pp. 342–347. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 274. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 244. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 257. ^ Madelung 1975, p. 214. ^ Amedroz & Margoliouth 1921, p. 121. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 234. ^ Amedroz & Margoliouth 1921, pp. 141-142. ^ Amedroz & Margoliouth 1921, p. 157. ^ Bosworth 2002. ^ a b Zetterstéen 1987, p. 360. ^ Madelung 1975, p. 236. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 269. ^ Ch. Bürgel & R. Mottahedeh 1988, pp. 265-269.

Sources[edit]

Bosworth, C. E. (1975). " Iran
Iran
under the Buyids". In Frye, R. N. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 250–305. ISBN 0-521-20093-8.  Nagel, Tilman (1990). "BUYIDS". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. IV, Fasc. 6. London u.a.: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 578–586.  Madelung, W. (1975). "The Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran". In Frye, R.N. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 198–249. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6.  Ch. Bürgel; R. Mottahedeh (1988). "ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ ŠOJĀʾ FANNĀ ḴOSROW". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 3. London u.a.: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 265–269.  Amedroz, Henry F.; Margoliouth, David S., eds. (1921). The Eclipse of the ‘Abbasid Caliphate. Original Chronicles of the Fourth Islamic Century, Vol. V: The concluding portion of The Experiences of Nations by Miskawaihi, Vol. II: Reigns of Muttaqi, Mustakfi, Muzi and Ta'i. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.  Wilferd Madelung, Wolfgang Felix, (1995). "DEYLAMITES". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. BII, Fasc. 4. pp. 342–347. 

Preceded by None Buyid
Buyid
Amir (in Ray) 943– September 976 Succeeded by Fakhr al-Dawla

Preceded by None Buyid
Buyid
Amir (in Hamadan) ?– September 976 Succeeded by Mu'ayyad al-Dawla

v t e

Buyid
Buyid
dynasty

In Fars (934–1062)

Imad al-Dawla 'Adud al-Dawla Sharaf al-Dawla Samsam al-Dawla Baha' al-Dawla Sultan al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun

In Kerman (940–1048)

Mu'izz al-Dawla 'Adud al-Dawla Sharaf al-Dawla Samsam al-Dawla Baha' al-Dawla Qawam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar

In Rey (943–1029)

Rukn al-Dawla Fakhr al-Dawla Mu'ayyad al-Dawla Fakhr al-Dawla Majd al-Dawla

In Iraq
Iraq
(945–1055)

Mu'izz al-Dawla Izz al-Dawla 'Adud al-Dawla Samsam al-Dawla Sharaf al-Dawla Baha' al-Dawla Sultan al-Dawla Musharrif al-Dawla Jalal al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Al-Malik al-Rahim

In Oman
Oman
(966–1048)

Mu'izz al-Dawla 'Adud al-Dawla Samsam al-Dawla Baha' al-Dawla Sultan al-Dawla Abu Kalijar

In Hamadan
Hamadan
(976–1024), Gorgan
Gorgan
and Tabaristan
Tabaristan
(980–997)

Mu'ayyad al-Dawla Fakhr al-Dawla Shams al-Dawla Sama' al-Dawla

In Jazira (978-989)

'Adud al-Dawla Samsam al-Dawla Sharaf al-Dawla Baha' al-Dawla

Minor domains

Diya' al-Dawla
Diya' al-Dawla
(Basra, 980s) Taj al-Dawla

.