It is most famous as one of the earliest centers of Chinese communist activity. After being forced out of Jinggangshan in the late 1920s by the Kuomintang, the Communists fled here, taking advantage of Ruijin's relative isolation in the rugged mountains along Jiangxi's border with Fujian. In 1931, under Mao Zedong's leadership, the Chinese Soviet Republic was established here, with Ruijin serving as its de facto capital. By 1934, they had again been surrounded by Chiang Kai-shek's forces. It is from here that the famed "Long March" began.