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The RUHR (German pronunciation: , German : Ruhrgebiet), or the RUHR DISTRICT, RUHR REGION, RUHR AREA or RUHR VALLEY, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia , Germany
Germany
. With a population density of 2,800/km² and a population of eight and a half million, it is the largest urban area in Germany, and third-largest in the European Union . It consists of several large, industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr
Ruhr
to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to the north. In the southwest it borders the Bergisches Land . It is considered part of the larger Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region of more than 12 million people, which is among the largest in Europe.

From west to east, the region includes the cities of Duisburg
Duisburg
, Oberhausen
Oberhausen
, Bottrop , Mülheim an der Ruhr
Ruhr
, Essen
Essen
, Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
, Bochum , Herne , Hagen
Hagen
, Dortmund
Dortmund
, and Hamm
Hamm
, as well as parts of the more "rural" districts of Wesel , Recklinghausen
Recklinghausen
, Unna and Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis
Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis
. The most populous cities are Dortmund
Dortmund
(approx. 572,000), Essen
Essen
(approx. 566,000) and Duisburg
Duisburg
(approx. 486,000). The Ruhr
Ruhr
area has no administrative center; each city in the area has its own administration, although there exists the supracommunal "Regionalverband Ruhr
Ruhr
" institution in Essen. Historically, the western Ruhr
Ruhr
towns, such as Duisburg
Duisburg
and Essen, belonged to the historic region of the Rhineland
Rhineland
, whereas the eastern part of the Ruhr, including Gelsenkirchen, Bochum, Dortmund
Dortmund
and Hamm, were part of the region of Westphalia . Since the 19th century, these districts have grown together into a large complex with a vast industrial landscape, inhabited by some 7.3 million people (including Düsseldorf and Wuppertal
Wuppertal
).

For 2010, the Ruhr
Ruhr
region was one of the European Capitals of Culture .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 2 History

* 2.1 Historical development of the term "Ruhr" * 2.2 History of the region

* 3 Climate * 4 Demographics * 5 Culture

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Largest companies

* 7 Transport

* 7.1 Public transport * 7.2 Road transport * 7.3 Air transport

* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Map of the Ruhr
Ruhr

The urban landscape of the Ruhr
Ruhr
extends from the Lower Rhine Basin east to the Westphalian Plain and south to the hills of the Rhenish Massif . Through the centre of the Ruhr
Ruhr
runs a segment of the loess belt that extends across Germany
Germany
from west to east. Historically, this loess belt has underlain some of Germany's richest agricultural regions.

Geologically, the region is defined by coal -bearing layers from the upper Carboniferous period. The coal seams reach the surface in a strip along the River Ruhr
Ruhr
and dip downward from the river to the north. Beneath the River Lippe, the coal seams lie at a depth of 600 to 800 metres (2,000 to 2,600 feet). The thickness of the coal layers ranges from one to three metres (three to ten feet). This geological feature played a decisive role in the development of coal mining in the Ruhr.

According to the Regionalverband Ruhr
Ruhr
(RVR, Ruhr
Ruhr
Regional Association), 37.6% of the region's area is built up. A total of 40.7% of the region's land remains in agricultural use. Forests account for 17.6%, and bodies of water and other types of land use occupy the rest. The inclusion of four mainly rural districts in the otherwise mainly industrial Ruhr
Ruhr
helps to explain the large proportion of agricultural and forested land. In addition, the city boroughs of the Ruhr
Ruhr
region have outlying districts with a rural character.

Seen on a map, the Ruhr
Ruhr
could be considered a single city, since—at least in the north-south dimension—there are no visible breaks between the individual city boroughs. Thus the Ruhr
Ruhr
is described as a polycentric urban area, which shares a similar history of urban and economic development.

Because of its history, the Ruhr
Ruhr
is structured differently from monocentric urban regions such as Berlin
Berlin
and London
London
, which developed through the rapid merger of smaller towns and villages with a growing central city. Instead, the individual city boroughs and urban districts of the Ruhr
Ruhr
grew independently of one another during the Industrial Revolution . The population density of the central Ruhr
Ruhr
is about 2,100 inhabitants per square kilometre (about 5,400 per square mile)—low compared to other German cities.

Between the constituent urban areas are relatively open suburbs and some open land with agricultural fields. In some places, the borders between cities in the central Ruhr
Ruhr
are unrecognizable due to continuous development across them.

Replanting of brownfield land has created new parks and recreation areas. The Emscher Landschaftspark ( Emscher Landscape Park) lies along the River Emscher , formerly virtually an open sewer, parts of which have undergone natural restoration. This park connects strips of parkland running from north to south, which were developed through regional planning in the 1920s, to form a green belt between the Ruhr cities from east to west.

HISTORY

Main article: History of the Ruhr

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERM "RUHR"

This article POSSIBLY CONTAINS ORIGINAL RESEARCH . Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations . Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (May 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

The 1911 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica has only one definition of "Ruhr": "a river of Germany, an important right-bank tributary of the lower Rhine." The use of the term "Ruhr" for the industrial region started in Britain only after World War I, when French and Belgian troops had occupied the Ruhr
Ruhr
district and seized its prime industrial assets in lieu of unpaid reparations in 1923. In 1920, the International Labour Office published a report entitled Coal Production in the Ruhr
Ruhr
District. In 1923, the Canadian Commercial Intelligence Journal, Volume 28, Issue 1013, includes the article, "Exports from the Ruhr
Ruhr
district of Germany". In 1924 the English and American press was still talking of the "French occupation of the Ruhr Valley" or " Ruhr
Ruhr
District". A 62-page publication seems to be responsible for the use of "Ruhr" as a short form of the then more common " Ruhr
Ruhr
District" or " Ruhr
Ruhr
Valley": Ben Tillett, A. Creech-Jones and Samuel Warren's The Ruhr: The Report of a Deputation from the Transport and General Workers Union ( London
London
1923). Yet "The report of a deputation from the Transport and General Workers' Union which spent a fortnight examining the problems in the Ruhr
Ruhr
Valley", published in The Economic Review, Volume 8, 1923, is still using the traditional term. In the same year, "Objections by the United States
United States
to discriminatory regulations on exports from the occupied region of the Ruhr" was published in Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States.

The 1926 Encyclopædia Britannica, in addition to its article on the river Ruhr, has a further article on "RUHR, the name given to a district of Westphalia, Germany." Thus the name "Ruhr" was given to the region (as a short form of " Ruhr
Ruhr
District" or " Ruhr
Ruhr
Valley") only a few years before the publication of this edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Even after World War II, the term "Ruhr" may not have been in general use for the region: it was defined in Documents on American Foreign Relations (1948): "For the purposes of the present Agreement: (i) the expression 'Ruhr' means the areas, as presently constituted, in Land North Rhine–Westphalia, listed in the Annex to this Agreement." However, Lawrence K. Cecil and Philip Hauge Abelson still write in 1967: "In the first place, the average person uses the term 'Ruhr' indiscriminately as the Ruhr
Ruhr
River or the Ruhr district, two entirely different things. The Ruhr
Ruhr
River is only one of half a dozen rivers in the Ruhr
Ruhr
district, in addition to the Rhine. The Rhine itself runs through the heart of the Ruhr
Ruhr
district." According to Merriam Webster's Geographical Dictionary, a standard reference on place names around the world, the name "Ruhr" refers to the river. The name preferred for the region in this dictionary is "Ruhrgebiet", followed by " Ruhr
Ruhr
Valley".

HISTORY OF THE REGION

Gamete of Dortmund, old market square with St. Reinold\'s Church

During the Middle Ages, much of the region that was later called the Ruhrgebiet was situated in the County of Mark , the Duchies of Cleves and Berg and the territories of the bishop of Münster and the archbishop of Cologne . The region included some villages and castles, and was mainly agrarian: its loess soil made it one of the richer parts of western Germany. The free imperial city of Dortmund
Dortmund
was the trading and cultural centre, lying on the Hellweg , an important east-west trading route, that also brought prosperity to the town of Duisburg
Duisburg
. Both towns were members of the Hanseatic League .

The development of the region into an urbanized industrial area started in the late 18th century with the early industrialisation in the nearby Wupper Valley in the Bergisches Land . By around 1820, hundreds of water-powered mills were producing textiles, lumber, shingles and iron in automated processes here. And in even more workshops in the hills, highly skilled workers manufactured knives, tools, weapons and harnesses, using water, coal and charcoal. History has no established name for this phase of the industrial revolution, but one could call it the early waterpowered industrial revolution.

As the machines became bigger and moved from water power to steam power, locally mined coal and charcoal became expensive and there was not enough of it. The Bergische industry ordered more and more coal from the new coal mining area along the Ruhr river
Ruhr river
. Impressive and expensive railways were constructed through the hilly Wupper region, to bring coal, and later steel, in from the Ruhr, and for outward transport of finished products. Zollverein Coal
Coal
Mine Industrial Complex in Essen
Essen
, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001 Zeche Zollern in Dortmund
Dortmund

By 1850, there were almost 300 coal mines in operation in the Ruhr area, in and around the central cities of Duisburg, Essen, Bochum and Dortmund. The coal was exported or processed in coking ovens into coke , used in blast furnaces , producing iron and steel. In this period the name Ruhrgebiet became common. Before the coal deposits along the Ruhr
Ruhr
were exhausted, the mining industry moved northward to the Emscher and finally to the Lippe, drilling ever deeper mines as it went. Locks built at Mülheim on the Ruhr
Ruhr
led to the expansion of Mülheim as a port. With the construction of the Cologne-Minden railway in the late 19th century, several iron works were built within the borders of the present-day city of Oberhausen
Oberhausen
.

The population climbed rapidly. Towns with only 2000 to 5000 people in the early 19th century grew in the following 100 years to over 100,000. Skilled mineworkers were recruited from other regions to the Ruhr's mines and steel mills and unskilled people started to move in. From 1860 onwards there was large-scale migration from Silesia
Silesia
, Pomerania , East Prussia and Posen to the Ruhr. Many of them were Polish speakers and they were treated as second class citizens. In 1899 this led to a revolt in Herne of young Polish workers, who later established a Workers' Union. Skilled workers in the mines were often housed in "miners' colonies", built by the mining firms. By the end of the Prussian Kingdom in 1870, over 3 million people lived in the Ruhrgebiet and the new coal-mining district had become the largest industrial region of Europe.

During World War I the Ruhrgebiet functioned as Germany's central weapon factory. At a big Essen
Essen
company, F. Krupp A.G., the number of employees rose from 40,000 to 120,000 or more, in four years. They were partly women, partly forced labourers.

In March 1921, French and Belgian troops occupied Duisburg, which under the Treaty of Versailles formed part of the demilitarized Rhineland. In January 1923 the whole Ruhrgebiet was occupied as a reprisal after Germany
Germany
failed to fulfill World War I reparation payments as agreed in the Versailles Treaty. The German government responded with "passive resistance", letting workers and civil servants refuse orders and instructions by the occupation forces. Production and transport came to a standstill and the financial consequences contributed to German hyperinflation and ruined public finances in Germany
Germany
and France, as well as several other countries. Passive resistance was called off in late 1923, allowing Germany
Germany
to implement a currency reform and to negotiate the Dawes Plan , which led to the withdrawal of the French and Belgian troops from the Ruhr in 1925. However, the occupation of the Ruhr
Ruhr
caused several direct and indirect consequences on the German economy and government. Due to the lack of production caused by foreign occupation, the German economy lacked the domestic abilities to pay war reparations without intentionally causing inflation. Moreover, the government became increasingly unpopular due to its "passive resistance" to German production. The halt in domestic production made war reparations impossible to pay.

On 7 March 1936, Adolf Hitler took a massive gamble by sending 30,000 troops into the Rhineland
Rhineland
. As Hitler and other Nazis admitted, the French army alone could have destroyed the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
. The French passed the problem to the British, who found that the Germans had the right to "enter their own backyard", and no action was taken. In the League of Nations , the Soviet delegate Maxim Litvinov was the only one who proposed economic sanctions against Germany. According to historian Samuel Mitcham, the Rhineland
Rhineland
crisis was the last chance for the Allies to defeat Hitler while the odds were overwhelmingly on their side. All restraint on German rearmament could now be removed, and was. France's eastern allies (the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, Poland
Poland
, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, Romania
Romania
and Yugoslavia ) concluded that since the French refused to defend their own border, they certainly would not stand up for their allies in the East. Hitler could now continue eroding the alliance system that France
France
had built since 1919. On October 16, 1936, Belgium
Belgium
repudiated the 1921 alliance with France
France
and declared its absolute neutrality. In October 1937, Belgium
Belgium
signed a non-aggression pact with Germany.

WWII RUHR BOMBING OPERATIONS

1943 MARCH: Battle of the Ruhr

1943 MAY: Operation Chastise

1944 OCTOBER: Operation Hurricane

1944 SEPTEMBER: Bombing of German oil facilities during World War II

During World War II, the bombing of the Ruhr
Ruhr
in 1940-44 caused a loss of 30% of plant and equipment (compared to 15–20% for German industry as a whole). A second battle of the Ruhr
Ruhr
(6/7 October 1944–end of 1944) began with an attack on Dortmund
Dortmund
. The devastating bombing raids of Dortmund
Dortmund
at the 12th March 1945 with 1,108 aircraft - 748 Lancasters, 292 Halifaxes, 68 Mosquitos was a record to a single target in the whole the World war II. More than 4,800 tonnage of bombs was dropped through the city centre and the south of the city and destroyed 98% of buildings.

In addition to the strategic bombing of the Ruhr
Ruhr
, in April 1945, the Allies trapped several hundred thousand Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
troops in the Ruhr Pocket . View of the redeveloped Duisburg
Duisburg
Inner Harbour in 2010

After the war, the Level of Industry plans for Germany
Germany
abolished all German munitions factories and civilian industries that could support them and severely restricted civilian industries of military potential. The French Monnet Plan pushed for an internationalization of the area, and the subsequent Ruhr
Ruhr
Agreement was imposed as a condition for the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
.

During the Cold War , the Western allies anticipated that any Red Army thrust into Western Europe would begin in the Fulda Gap and have the Ruhr
Ruhr
as a primary target. Increased German control of the area was limited by the pooling of German coal and steel into the multinational European Coal
Coal
and Steel Community in 1951. The nearby Saar region , containing much of Germany's remaining coal deposits, was handed over to economic administration by France
France
as a protectorate in 1947 and did not politically return to Germany
Germany
until January 1957, with economic reintegration occurring two years later. Parallel to the question of political control of the Ruhr, the Allies tried to decrease German industrial potential by limitations on production and dismantling of factories and steel plants, predominantly in the Ruhr. By 1950, after the virtual completion of the by-then much watered-down "level of industry" plans, equipment had been removed from 706 manufacturing plants in the west, and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6.7 million tons. Dismantling finally ended in 1951. In all, less than 5% of the industrial base was dismantled.

The Ruhr
Ruhr
was at the center of the German economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s, as very rapid economic growth (9% a year) created a heavy demand for coal and steel.

After 1973, Germany
Germany
was hard hit by a worldwide economic crisis, soaring oil prices, and increasing unemployment, which jumped from 300,000 in 1973 to 1.1 million in 1975. The Ruhr
Ruhr
region was hardest hit, as the easy-to-reach coal mines became exhausted, and German coal was no longer competitive. Likewise the Ruhr
Ruhr
steel industry went into sharp decline, as its prices were undercut by lower-cost suppliers such as Japan. The welfare system provided a safety net for the large number of unemployed workers, and many factories reduced their labor force and began to concentrate on high-profit specialty items.

As demand for coal decreased after 1958, the area went through phases of structural crisis (see steel crisis ) and industrial diversification, first developing traditional heavy industry, then moving into service industries and high technology. The air and water pollution of the area are largely a thing of the past although some issues take a long time to solve. In 2005, Essen
Essen
was the official candidate for nomination as European Capital of Culture for 2010.

CLIMATE

The Ruhr
Ruhr
has an oceanic climate in spite of its inland position, with mildening winds from the Atlantic travelling over the lowlands to moderate temperature extremes, in spite of its relatively northerly latitude that sees significant variety in daylight hours. A consequence of the marine influence is a cloudy and wet climate with low sunshine hours. Summers are normally averaging in the low 20's, with winters being somewhat above the freezing point.

CLIMATE DATA FOR ESSEN

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 4.5 (40.1) 5.5 (41.9) 9.1 (48.4) 12.7 (54.9) 17.6 (63.7) 19.9 (67.8) 22.2 (72) 22.3 (72.1) 18.3 (64.9) 13.7 (56.7) 8.2 (46.8) 5.6 (42.1) 13.3 (55.9)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 2.4 (36.3) 2.9 (37.2) 6.0 (42.8) 8.9 (48) 13.4 (56.1) 15.8 (60.4) 18.0 (64.4) 18.0 (64.4) 14.7 (58.5) 10.7 (51.3) 5.9 (42.6) 3.6 (38.5) 10.0 (50)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 0.2 (32.4) 0.3 (32.5) 2.9 (37.2) 5.0 (41) 9.1 (48.4) 11.6 (52.9) 13.7 (56.7) 13.7 (56.7) 11.1 (52) 7.6 (45.7) 3.6 (38.5) 1.6 (34.9) 6.7 (44.1)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 84.5 (3.327) 58.1 (2.287) 78.2 (3.079) 61.0 (2.402) 72.2 (2.843) 92.8 (3.654) 81.2 (3.197) 78.8 (3.102) 78.0 (3.071) 75.1 (2.957) 81.1 (3.193) 93.1 (3.665) 934.1 (36.776)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 14.1 10.5 13.6 11.1 11.1 12.0 10.4 9.9 11.2 10.9 13.6 14.1 142.5

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 83 82 78 75 74 76 78 80 79 81 82 80 79

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 43.4 78.3 102.3 147.0 192.2 183.0 186.0 182.9 135.0 111.6 57.0 40.3 1,459

Source: World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(UN ), Hong Kong Observatory for data of sunshine hours

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: List of cities in Germany
Germany
with more than 100,000 inhabitants

The ten largest cities of the Ruhr: Essen
Essen
is the second largest city of the Ruhr
Ruhr

POS. NAME POP. 2010 AREA (KM²) POP. PER KM² MAP

1 Dortmund
Dortmund
589,283 (2014) 280.37 2,071

2 Essen
Essen
584,782 (2015) 210.38 2,733

3 Duisburg
Duisburg
501,564 232.81 2,154

4 Bochum 385,626 145.43 2,652

5 Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
268,102 104.86 2,557

6 Oberhausen
Oberhausen
218,898 77.04 2,841

7 Hagen
Hagen
196,934 160.36 1,228

8 Hamm
Hamm
184,239 226.24 814

9 Herne 170,992 51.41 3,326

10 Mülheim an der Ruhr
Ruhr
169,917 91.29 1,861

The local dialect of German is commonly called Ruhrdeutsch or Ruhrpottdeutsch, although there is really no uniform dialect that justifies designation as a single dialect. It is rather a working class sociolect with influences from the various dialects found in the area and changing even with the professions of the workers. A major common influence stems from the coal mining tradition of the area. For example, quite a few locals prefer to call the Ruhr
Ruhr
either "Pott", which is a derivate of "Pütt" (pitmen's term for mine; cp. the English "pit"), or "Revier".

During the 19th century the Ruhr
Ruhr
attracted up to 500,000 ethnic Poles , Masurians and Silesians from East Prussia and Silesia
Silesia
in a migration known as Ostflucht (flight from the east). By 1925, the Ruhrgebiet had around 3.8 million inhabitants. Most of the new inhabitants came from Eastern Europe, but immigrants also came from France
France
, Ireland
Ireland
, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It has been claimed that immigrants came to the Ruhr
Ruhr
from over 140 different nations. Almost all their descendants today speak German as a mother tongue, and for various reasons they do not identify with their Polish roots and traditions, often only their Polish family names remaining as a sign of their past.

CULTURE

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The city of Essen
Essen
(representing the Ruhr) was selected as European Capital of Culture for 2010 by the Council of the European Union .

The Industrial Heritage Trail (German : Route der Industriekultur) links tourist attractions related to the European Route of Industrial Heritage in the Ruhr
Ruhr
area.

There are lot of classical music activities. There are special classical music halls like the Bochumer Symphoniker, the Duisburg Mercatorhalle, the Saalbau Essen
Essen
or the Dortmunder Philharmoniker . Each year in spring time, there is the Klavier-Festival Ruhr in the Ruhr
Ruhr
area with 50 to 80 events of classical- and jazz music.

There are also several Museums, which covers art and other genres. For example, the Museum Küppersmühle and the Lehmbruck-Museum at Duisburg, the Museum Folkwang at Essen
Essen
or the German Football Museum and the U-Tower at Dortmund.

ECONOMY

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The economy is largely based on industry and exports.

LARGEST COMPANIES

* Aldi
Aldi
* Douglas Holding * Evonik Industries * Ferrostaal * Franz Haniel & Cie. * Heinrich Deichmann-Schuhe GmbH * Hochtief * Arcandor * Klöckner ">

Thyssen-Krupp *

WILO SE *

Evonik Industries *

Signal Iduna *

EON Ruhrgas

TRANSPORT

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

Public Transport Rhein- Ruhr
Ruhr

All public transport companies in the Ruhr
Ruhr
are run under the umbrella of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr , which provides a uniform ticket system valid for the entire area. The Ruhr
Ruhr
region is well-integrated into the national rail system, the Deutsche Bahn , for both passenger and goods services. The Ruhr
Ruhr
area also contains the longest tram system in the world, with tram and Stadtbahn services from Witten
Witten
to Krefeld . Originally the system was even bigger, it was possible to travel from Unna to Bad Honnef without using railway or bus services.

ROAD TRANSPORT

A40 in Dortmund
Dortmund

The Ruhr
Ruhr
has one of the densest motorway networks in all of Europe, with dozens of Autobahns and similar Schnellstraßen (expressways) crossing the region. The Autobahn
Autobahn
network is built in a grid network, with four east-west (A2 , A40 , A42 , A44 ) and seven north-south (A1 , A3 , A43 , A45 , A52 , A57 , A59 ) routes. The A1, A2 and A3 are mostly used by through traffic, while other autobahns have a more regional function. Both the A44 and the A52 have several missing links, in various stages of planning. Some missing sections are currently not planned to be constructed.

Additional expressways serve as bypasses and local routes, especially around Dortmund
Dortmund
and Bochum. Due to the density of the autobahns and expressways, Bundesstraßen are less important for intercity traffic. The first Autobahns in the Ruhr
Ruhr
opened during the mid-1930s. Due to the density of the network, and the number of alternative routes, traffic volumes are generally lower than other major metropolitan areas in Europe. Traffic congestion is an everyday occurrence, but far less so than in the Randstad in the Netherlands, another polycentric urban area. Most important Autobahns have six lanes, but there are no eight-lane Autobahns in the Ruhr.

AIR TRANSPORT

Located in the East of the Ruhr
Ruhr
is Dortmund
Dortmund
Airport

Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Airport is the intercontinental airport for North Rhine- Westphalia and is within 20 km of most of the Western Ruhr
Ruhr
area. It is served by the Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Flughafen and Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Flughafen Terminal railway stations , with its several parking lots, terminals and stations being connected by the Skytrain .

Dortmund
Dortmund
Airport in the Eastern Ruhr
Ruhr
is a mid-sized airport, offering scheduled flights to domestic and European destinations and its approximately 1.9 million passengers in 2013. Dortmund
Dortmund
Airport is served by an express bus to Dortmund
Dortmund
main station , a shuttle bus to the nearby railway station Holzwickede / Dortmund
Dortmund
Flughafen, a bus connecting to Stadtbahn line U47, as well as a bus to the city of Unna .

SEE ALSO

* Germany
Germany
portal * Energy portal

* Rhine-Ruhr * Metropolitan regions in Germany
Germany
* Occupation of the Ruhr (1923–1924) * Ruhrpolen * Silesian metropolitan area * Upper Silesian Coal
Coal
Basin

NOTES

* ^ Other colloquial names that are used include Ruhrpott, Revier or Kohlenpott.

* "The Heavy Industrial Belt' is commonly, though inaccurately, referred to as the Ruhr. This is a belt of low and level land on the northern edge of the uplands, known as the Sauerland through which flows the Ruhr
Ruhr
from east to west" (Dickinson 1945 , p. 70). * "Few foreigners know that in fact 'the Ruhr' is the name of a 150-mile-long Rhine right-bank tributary which, after meandering through the industrial basin now named after it, enters its parent near Europe's greatest inland port, Duisburg" (GI staff 1966 , p. 30). * "The territory through which the Ruhr
Ruhr
flows is called the Ruhr district" (Osmańczyk -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ metropoleruhr.de * ^ highest: Wengeberg in Breckerfeld , lowest: Xanten
Xanten
* ^ Demographia: World Urban Areas. Retrieved 31 July 2016. * ^ Samuel Shepard Jones and Denys Peter Myers, Documents on American Foreign Relations, Volume 10 (1948), p. 125: "Part IX: Definitions Article 29". * ^ Lawrence K. Cecil and Philip Hauge Abelson, Water Reuse (American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1967), p. 122. * ^ Prof. Dr. Klaus Tenfelde. ""Das Ruhrgebiet! Von der Steinzeit bis zur Kulturhauptsatdt 2010" part 2". Retrieved 2001-11-20. * ^ Friedrich Harkort , "Die Eisenbahn von Minden nach Köln", Brune, Hagen
Hagen
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REFERENCES

* Botting, Douglas (1985), From the Ruins of the Reich: Germany 1945–1949, New York: Crown Publishing, ISBN 0-517-55865-3 * Dickinson, Robert E. (1945), The Regions of Germany, 7, London: Routledge, p. 70 * French Directorate for Economic Affairs (8 September 1945), Memorandum on the separation of the German industrial regions * Gareau, Frederick H. (June 1961), "Morgenthau's Plan for Industrial Disarmament in Germany", Western Political Quarterly, 14 (2): 517–53, JSTOR 443604 * GI staff (1966), German International, 10, p. 30 * Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan; Mango, Anthony (2003), Encyclopedia of the United Nations
United Nations
and International Agreements: A to F, p. 1970 * Lane, Kathryn (2001), Germany: The Land, p. 24 * Levine, Alan J (1992), "Second Battle of the Ruhr", The Strategic Bombing of Germany: 1940-1945 (illustrated ed.), Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 172–174, ISBN 9780275943196 * Yoder, Amos (July 1955), "The Ruhr
Ruhr
Authority and the German Problem", Review of Politics, 17 (3): 345–358, JSTOR 1404797 , doi :10.1017/s0034670500014261

FURTHER READING

* Kift, Roy, Tour the Ruhr: The English language guide (3rd ed., 2008) (ISBN 3-88474-815-7 ) Klartext Verlag, Essen * Berndt, Christian. Corporate Germany
Germany
Between Globalization and Regional Place Dependence: