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The Ruhr
Ruhr
(German pronunciation: [ˈʁuːɐ̯], German: Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr
Ruhr
district, Ruhr
Ruhr
region, Ruhr
Ruhr
area or Ruhr
Ruhr
valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.[a] With a population density of 2,800/km² and a population of over 5 million (2011),[3] it is the largest urban area in Germany, and third-largest in the European Union.[4] It consists of several large, industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr
Ruhr
to the south, Rhine
Rhine
to the west, and Lippe to the north. In the southwest it borders the Bergisches Land. It is considered part of the larger Rhine-Ruhr
Rhine-Ruhr
metropolitan region of more than 12 million people, which is among the largest in Europe. From west to east, the region includes the cities of Duisburg, Oberhausen, Bottrop, Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr, Essen, Gelsenkirchen, Bochum, Herne, Hagen, Dortmund, and Hamm, as well as parts of the more "rural" districts of Wesel, Recklinghausen, Unna
Unna
and Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis. The most populous cities are Dortmund
Dortmund
(approx. 600,000), Essen
Essen
(approx. 590,000) and Duisburg
Duisburg
(approx. 500,000). The Ruhr
Ruhr
area has no administrative center; each city in the area has its own administration, although there exists the supracommunal "Regionalverband Ruhr" institution in Essen. Historically, the western Ruhr
Ruhr
towns, such as Duisburg
Duisburg
and Essen, belonged to the historic region of the Rhineland, whereas the eastern part of the Ruhr, including Gelsenkirchen, Bochum, Dortmund
Dortmund
and Hamm, were part of the region of Westphalia. Since the 19th century, these districts have grown together into a large complex with a vast industrial landscape, inhabited by some 7.3 million people (including Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
and Wuppertal). For 2010, the Ruhr
Ruhr
region was one of the European Capitals of Culture.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Etymology

3 Climate 4 Demographics 5 Culture 6 Education

6.1 Universities

6.1.1 UA Ruhr

6.2 University of Applied Sciences and Arts

6.2.1 Bochum 6.2.2 Bottrop 6.2.3 Dortmund 6.2.4 Duisburg 6.2.5 Essen 6.2.6 Gelsenkirchen 6.2.7 Hagen 6.2.8 Hamm 6.2.9 Kamp-Lintfort 6.2.10 Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr 6.2.11 Unna

7 Transport

7.1 Public transport 7.2 Road transport 7.3 Air transport

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Geography[edit]

Map of the Ruhr

The urban landscape of the Ruhr
Ruhr
extends from the Lower Rhine
Rhine
Basin east to the Westphalian Plain and south to the hills of the Rhenish Massif. Through the centre of the Ruhr
Ruhr
runs a segment of the loess belt that extends across Germany
Germany
from west to east. Historically, this loess belt has underlain some of Germany's richest agricultural regions. Geologically, the region is defined by coal-bearing layers from the upper Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period. The coal seams reach the surface in a strip along the River Ruhr
Ruhr
and dip downward from the river to the north. Beneath the River Lippe, the coal seams lie at a depth of 600 to 800 metres (2,000 to 2,600 feet). The thickness of the coal layers ranges from one to three metres (three to ten feet). This geological feature played a decisive role in the development of coal mining in the Ruhr. According to the Regionalverband Ruhr
Ruhr
(RVR, Ruhr
Ruhr
Regional Association), 37.6% of the region's area is built up. A total of 40.7% of the region's land remains in agricultural use. Forests account for 17.6%, and bodies of water and other types of land use occupy the rest. The inclusion of four mainly rural districts in the otherwise mainly industrial Ruhr
Ruhr
helps to explain the large proportion of agricultural and forested land. In addition, the city boroughs of the Ruhr
Ruhr
region have outlying districts with a rural character. Seen on a map, the Ruhr
Ruhr
could be considered a single city, since—at least in the north-south dimension—there are no visible breaks between the individual city boroughs. Thus the Ruhr
Ruhr
is described as a polycentric urban area, which shares a similar history of urban and economic development. Because of its history, the Ruhr
Ruhr
is structured differently from monocentric urban regions such as Berlin
Berlin
and London, which developed through the rapid merger of smaller towns and villages with a growing central city. Instead, the individual city boroughs and urban districts of the Ruhr
Ruhr
grew independently of one another during the Industrial Revolution. The population density of the central Ruhr
Ruhr
is about 2,100 inhabitants per square kilometre (about 5,400 per square mile)—low compared to other German cities. Between the constituent urban areas are relatively open suburbs and some open land with agricultural fields. In some places, the borders between cities in the central Ruhr
Ruhr
are unrecognizable due to continuous development across them. Replanting of brownfield land has created new parks and recreation areas. The Emscher
Emscher
Landschaftspark ( Emscher
Emscher
Landscape Park) lies along the River Emscher, formerly virtually an open sewer, parts of which have undergone natural restoration. This park connects strips of parkland running from north to south, which were developed through regional planning in the 1920s, to form a green belt between the Ruhr cities from east to west. History[edit] Main article: History of the Ruhr

Gamete of Dortmund, old market square with St. Reinold's Church

During the Middle Ages, much of the region that was later called the Ruhrgebiet was situated in the County of Mark, the Duchies of Cleves and Berg and the territories of the bishop of Münster and the archbishop of Cologne. The region included some villages and castles, and was mainly agrarian: its loess soil made it one of the richer parts of western Germany. The free imperial city of Dortmund
Dortmund
was the trading and cultural centre, lying on the Hellweg, an important east-west trading route, that also brought prosperity to the town of Duisburg. Both towns were members of the Hanseatic League. The development of the region into an urbanized industrial area started in the late 18th century with the early industrialisation in the nearby Wupper
Wupper
Valley in the Bergisches Land. By around 1820, hundreds of water-powered mills were producing textiles, lumber, shingles and iron in automated processes here. And in even more workshops in the hills, highly skilled workers manufactured knives, tools, weapons and harnesses, using water, coal and charcoal. History has no established name for this phase of the industrial revolution, but one could call it the early water-powered industrial revolution. As the machines became bigger and moved from water power to steam power, locally mined coal and charcoal became expensive and there was not enough of it. The Bergische industry ordered more and more coal from the new coal mining area along the Ruhr
Ruhr
river.[5] Impressive and expensive railways were constructed through the hilly Wupper
Wupper
region, to bring coal, and later steel, in from the Ruhr, and for outward transport of finished products.[6]

Zollverein Coal
Coal
Mine Industrial Complex in Essen, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001

Zeche Zollern
Zeche Zollern
in Dortmund

By 1850, there were almost 300 coal mines in operation in the Ruhr area, in and around the central cities of Duisburg, Essen, Bochum
Bochum
and Dortmund. The coal was exported or processed in coking ovens into coke, used in blast furnaces, producing iron and steel. In this period the name Ruhrgebiet became common. Before the coal deposits along the Ruhr
Ruhr
were exhausted, the mining industry moved northward to the Emscher
Emscher
and finally to the Lippe, drilling ever deeper mines as it went. Locks built at Mülheim
Mülheim
on the Ruhr
Ruhr
led to the expansion of Mülheim
Mülheim
as a port. With the construction of the Cologne-Minden railway in the late 19th century, several iron works were built within the borders of the present-day city of Oberhausen. The population climbed rapidly. Towns with only 2000 to 5000 people in the early 19th century grew in the following 100 years to over 100,000. Skilled mineworkers were recruited from other regions to the Ruhr's mines and steel mills and unskilled people started to move in. From 1860 onwards there was large-scale migration from Silesia, Pomerania, East Prussia
East Prussia
and Posen to the Ruhr. Many of them were Polish speakers and they were treated as second class citizens. In 1899 this led to a revolt in Herne of young Polish workers, who later established a Workers' Union. Skilled workers in the mines were often housed in "miners' colonies", built by the mining firms. By the end of the Prussian Kingdom
Prussian Kingdom
in 1870, over 3 million people lived in the Ruhrgebiet and the new coal-mining district had become the largest industrial region of Europe.[7] During World War I the Ruhrgebiet functioned as Germany's central weapon factory. At a big Essen
Essen
company, F. Krupp A.G., the number of employees rose from 40,000 to 120,000 or more, in four years. They were partly women, partly forced labourers.[citation needed] The January Uprising in 1919 became popular among the working class in the Ruhr, and the region quickly turned communist. But when the uprising was snuffed out by the Freikorp, everything seemed to be fine until the Kapp government then fought the Weimar government, until the Weimar government came out victorious, but during that time, a return to an autocratic state was seen as the only way forward. But large parts of the working class went out on strike, but in the Ruhr, striking workers successfully managed to take government buildings, a shock to the rest of Germany. An armed revolt was then instigated, and the Red Guard then installed a branch in the Ruhr. Then the people there declared the Ruhr
Ruhr
an independent, socialist republic, but the Freikorp
Freikorp
came back into the scene and put down the movement. In March 1921, French and Belgian troops occupied Duisburg, which under the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
formed part of the demilitarized Rhineland. In January 1923 the whole Ruhrgebiet was occupied as a reprisal after Germany
Germany
failed to fulfill World War I reparation payments as agreed in the Versailles Treaty. The German government responded with "passive resistance", letting workers and civil servants refuse orders and instructions by the occupation forces. Production and transport came to a standstill and the financial consequences contributed to German hyperinflation and ruined public finances in Germany
Germany
and France, as well as several other countries. Passive resistance was called off in late 1923, allowing Germany
Germany
to implement a currency reform and to negotiate the Dawes Plan, which led to the withdrawal of the French and Belgian troops from the Ruhr
Ruhr
in 1925. However, the occupation of the Ruhr
Ruhr
caused several direct and indirect consequences on the German economy and government. Due to the lack of production caused by foreign occupation, the German economy lacked the domestic abilities to pay war reparations without intentionally causing inflation. Moreover, the government became increasingly unpopular due to its "passive resistance" to German production. The halt in domestic production made war reparations impossible to pay. On 7 March 1936,[8] Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
took a massive gamble by sending 30,000 troops into the Rhineland. As Hitler and other Nazis admitted, the French army alone could have destroyed the Wehrmacht.[9] The French passed the problem to the British, who found that the Germans had the right to "enter their own backyard", and no action was taken.[10] In the League of Nations, the Soviet delegate Maxim Litvinov was the only one who proposed economic sanctions against Germany.[8][11] According to historian Samuel Mitcham, the Rhineland crisis was the last chance for the Allies to defeat Hitler while the odds were overwhelmingly on their side. All restraint on German rearmament could now be removed, and was. France's eastern allies (the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania
Romania
and Yugoslavia) concluded that since the French refused to defend their own border, they certainly would not stand up for their allies in the East. Hitler could now continue eroding the alliance system that France
France
had built since 1919.[12] On October 16, 1936, Belgium
Belgium
repudiated the 1921 alliance with France
France
and declared its absolute neutrality.[13] In October 1937, Belgium
Belgium
signed a non-aggression pact with Germany.[14]

WWII Ruhr
Ruhr
Bombing Operations

1943 March: Battle of the Ruhr

1943 May: Operation Chastise

1944 October: Operation Hurricane

1944 September: Bombing of German oil facilities during World War II

During World War II, the bombing of the Ruhr
Ruhr
in 1940–1944 caused a loss of 30% of plant and equipment (compared to 15–20% for German industry as a whole).[15] A second battle of the Ruhr
Ruhr
(6/7 October 1944 – end of 1944) began with an attack on Dortmund. The devastating bombing raids of Dortmund
Dortmund
on 12 March 1945 with 1,108 aircraft – 748 Lancasters, 292 Halifaxes, 68 Mosquitos – was a record to a single target in the whole of World War II. More than 4,800 tons of bombs were dropped through the city centre and the south of the city.[16] [17] In addition to the strategic bombing of the Ruhr, in April 1945, the Allies trapped several hundred thousand Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
troops in the Ruhr
Ruhr
Pocket.

View of the redeveloped Duisburg
Duisburg
Inner Harbour in 2010

After the war, the Level of Industry plans for Germany
Germany
abolished all German munitions factories and civilian industries that could support them and severely restricted civilian industries of military potential. The French Monnet Plan
Monnet Plan
pushed for an internationalization of the area,[18] and the subsequent Ruhr
Ruhr
Agreement was imposed as a condition for the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany.[19] During the Cold War, the Western allies anticipated that any Red Army thrust into Western Europe
Western Europe
would begin in the Fulda Gap
Fulda Gap
and have the Ruhr
Ruhr
as a primary target. Increased German control of the area was limited by the pooling of German coal and steel into the multinational European Coal
Coal
and Steel Community in 1951. The nearby Saar region, containing much of Germany's remaining coal deposits, was handed over to economic administration by France
France
as a protectorate in 1947 and did not politically return to Germany
Germany
until January 1957, with economic reintegration occurring two years later. Parallel to the question of political control of the Ruhr, the Allies tried to decrease German industrial potential by limitations on production and dismantling of factories and steel plants, predominantly in the Ruhr. By 1950, after the virtual completion of the by-then much watered-down "level of industry" plans, equipment had been removed from 706 manufacturing plants in the west, and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6.7 million tons.[20] Dismantling finally ended in 1951. In all, less than 5% of the industrial base was dismantled.[21] The Ruhr
Ruhr
was at the center of the German economic miracle Wirtschaftswunder
Wirtschaftswunder
of the 1950s and 1960s, as very rapid economic growth (9% a year) created a heavy demand for coal and steel. After 1973, Germany
Germany
was hard hit by a worldwide economic crisis, soaring oil prices, and increasing unemployment, which jumped from 300,000 in 1973 to 1.1 million in 1975. The Ruhr
Ruhr
region was hardest hit, as the easy-to-reach coal mines became exhausted, and German coal was no longer competitive. Likewise the Ruhr
Ruhr
steel industry went into sharp decline, as its prices were undercut by lower-cost suppliers such as Japan. The welfare system provided a safety net for the large number of unemployed workers, and many factories reduced their labor force and began to concentrate on high-profit specialty items.[22][23] As demand for coal decreased after 1958, the area went through phases of structural crisis (see steel crisis) and industrial diversification, first developing traditional heavy industry, then moving into service industries and high technology. The air and water pollution of the area are largely a thing of the past although some issues take a long time to solve.[24][25] In 2005, Essen[26] was the official candidate for nomination as European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
for 2010 Etymology[edit]

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The 1911 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica has only one definition of "Ruhr": "a river of Germany, an important right-bank tributary of the lower Rhine." The use of the term "Ruhr" for the industrial region started in Britain only after World War I, when French and Belgian troops had occupied the Ruhr
Ruhr
district and seized its prime industrial assets in lieu of unpaid reparations in 1923. In 1920, the International Labour Office
International Labour Office
published a report entitled Coal Production in the Ruhr
Ruhr
District. In 1923, the Canadian Commercial Intelligence Journal, Volume 28, Issue 1013, includes the article, "Exports from the Ruhr
Ruhr
district of Germany". In 1924 the English and American press was still talking of the "French occupation of the Ruhr Valley" or " Ruhr
Ruhr
District". A 62-page publication seems to be responsible for the use of "Ruhr" as a short form of the then more common " Ruhr
Ruhr
District" or " Ruhr
Ruhr
Valley": Ben Tillett, A. Creech-Jones and Samuel Warren's The Ruhr: The Report of a Deputation from the Transport and General Workers Union ( London
London
1923). Yet "The report of a deputation from the Transport and General Workers' Union which spent a fortnight examining the problems in the Ruhr
Ruhr
Valley", published in The Economic Review, Volume 8, 1923, is still using the traditional term. In the same year, "Objections by the United States
United States
to discriminatory regulations on exports from the occupied region of the Ruhr" was published in Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States. The 1926 Encyclopædia Britannica, in addition to its article on the river Ruhr, has a further article on "RUHR, the name given to a district of Westphalia, Germany." Thus the name "Ruhr" was given to the region (as a short form of " Ruhr
Ruhr
District" or " Ruhr
Ruhr
Valley") only a few years before the publication of this edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Even after World War II, the term "Ruhr" may not have been in general use for the region: it was defined in Documents on American Foreign Relations (1948): "For the purposes of the present Agreement: (i) the expression 'Ruhr' means the areas, as presently constituted, in Land North Rhine–Westphalia, listed in the Annex to this Agreement."[27] However, Lawrence K. Cecil and Philip Hauge Abelson still write in 1967: "In the first place, the average person uses the term 'Ruhr' indiscriminately as the Ruhr
Ruhr
River or the Ruhr
Ruhr
district, two entirely different things. The Ruhr
Ruhr
River is only one of half a dozen rivers in the Ruhr
Ruhr
district, in addition to the Rhine. The Rhine
Rhine
itself runs through the heart of the Ruhr district."[28] According to Merriam Webster's Geographical Dictionary, a standard reference on place names around the world, the name "Ruhr" refers to the river. The name preferred for the region in this dictionary is "Ruhrgebiet", followed by " Ruhr
Ruhr
Valley". Climate[edit] See also: Rhine-Ruhr
Rhine-Ruhr
§ Climate The Ruhr
Ruhr
has an oceanic climate in spite of its inland position, with mildening winds from the Atlantic travelling over the lowlands to moderate temperature extremes, in spite of its relatively northerly latitude that sees significant variety in daylight hours. A consequence of the marine influence is a cloudy and wet climate with low sunshine hours. Summers are normally averaging in the low 20's, with winters being somewhat above the freezing point.

Climate data for Essen

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 4.5 (40.1) 5.5 (41.9) 9.1 (48.4) 12.7 (54.9) 17.6 (63.7) 19.9 (67.8) 22.2 (72) 22.3 (72.1) 18.3 (64.9) 13.7 (56.7) 8.2 (46.8) 5.6 (42.1) 13.3 (55.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 2.4 (36.3) 2.9 (37.2) 6.0 (42.8) 8.9 (48) 13.4 (56.1) 15.8 (60.4) 18.0 (64.4) 18.0 (64.4) 14.7 (58.5) 10.7 (51.3) 5.9 (42.6) 3.6 (38.5) 10.0 (50)

Average low °C (°F) 0.2 (32.4) 0.3 (32.5) 2.9 (37.2) 5.0 (41) 9.1 (48.4) 11.6 (52.9) 13.7 (56.7) 13.7 (56.7) 11.1 (52) 7.6 (45.7) 3.6 (38.5) 1.6 (34.9) 6.7 (44.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 84.5 (3.327) 58.1 (2.287) 78.2 (3.079) 61.0 (2.402) 72.2 (2.843) 92.8 (3.654) 81.2 (3.197) 78.8 (3.102) 78.0 (3.071) 75.1 (2.957) 81.1 (3.193) 93.1 (3.665) 934.1 (36.776)

Average precipitation days 14.1 10.5 13.6 11.1 11.1 12.0 10.4 9.9 11.2 10.9 13.6 14.1 142.5

Average relative humidity (%) 83 82 78 75 74 76 78 80 79 81 82 80 79

Mean monthly sunshine hours 43.4 78.3 102.3 147.0 192.2 183.0 186.0 182.9 135.0 111.6 57.0 40.3 1,459

Source: World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(UN),[29] Hong Kong Observatory[30] for data of sunshine hours

Demographics[edit] See also: List of cities in Germany
Germany
with more than 100,000 inhabitants The ten largest cities of the Ruhr:

Dortmund
Dortmund
is the largest city of the Ruhr

Essen
Essen
is the second largest city of the Ruhr

Pos. Name Pop. 2010 Area (km²) Pop. per km² map

1 Dortmund 589,283 (2014)[31] 280.37 2,071

2 Essen 584,782 (2015)[32] 210.38 2,733

3 Duisburg 501,564 232.81 2,154

4 Bochum 385,626 145.43 2,652

5 Gelsenkirchen 268,102 104.86 2,557

6 Oberhausen 218,898 77.04 2,841

7 Hagen 196,934 160.36 1,228

8 Hamm 184,239 226.24 814

9 Herne 170,992 51.41 3,326

10 Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr 169,917 91.29 1,861

The local dialect of German is commonly called Ruhrdeutsch or Ruhrpottdeutsch, although there is really no uniform dialect that justifies designation as a single dialect. It is rather a working class sociolect with influences from the various dialects found in the area and changing even with the professions of the workers. A major common influence stems from the coal mining tradition of the area. For example, quite a few locals prefer to call the Ruhr
Ruhr
either "Pott", which is a derivate of "Pütt" (pitmen's term for mine; cp. the English "pit"), or "Revier". During the 19th century the Ruhr
Ruhr
attracted up to 500,000 ethnic Poles, Masurians and Silesians
Silesians
from East Prussia
East Prussia
and Silesia
Silesia
in a migration known as Ostflucht (flight from the east). By 1925, the Ruhrgebiet had around 3.8 million inhabitants. Most of the new inhabitants came from Eastern Europe, but immigrants also came from France, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. It has been claimed that immigrants came to the Ruhr from over 140 different nations. Almost all their descendants today speak German as a mother tongue, and for various reasons they do not identify with their Polish roots and traditions, often only their Polish family names remaining as a sign of their past. Culture[edit]

Opera Dortmund

Grillo-Theater
Grillo-Theater
Essen

Ostwall Museum at U-Tower Dortmund

The Industrial Heritage Trail
The Industrial Heritage Trail
(German: Route der Industriekultur) links tourist attractions related to the European Route of Industrial Heritage in the Ruhr
Ruhr
area. Ruhr
Ruhr
is known for its numerous cultural institutions, many of which enjoy international reputation. Ruhr
Ruhr
has three major opera houses and more than 10 theaters and stages.

Schauspielhaus Bochum Opernhaus Dortmund Theater Dortmund German Opera on the Rhine
Rhine
at Duisburg Theater Essen Grillo-Theater
Grillo-Theater
at Essen

There are special classical music halls like the Bochumer Symphoniker, the Duisburg
Duisburg
Mercatorhalle, the Saalbau Essen
Essen
or the Dortmunder Philharmoniker. Each year in spring time, there is the Klavier-Festival Ruhr
Klavier-Festival Ruhr
in the Ruhr
Ruhr
area with 50 to 80 events of classical and jazz music. With more than 50 museums, Ruhr
Ruhr
has one of the largest variety of museums in Europe.

German Mining Museum
German Mining Museum
at Bochum German Football Museum
German Football Museum
at Dortmund Museum of Art and Cultural History at Dortmund Ostwall Museum at Dortmund Natural history museum
Natural history museum
at Dortmund Museum Folkwang
Museum Folkwang
at Essen Essen
Essen
Cathedral Treasury at Essen Museum Küppersmühle
Museum Küppersmühle
at Duisburg Lehmbruck-Museum
Lehmbruck-Museum
at Duisburg Hagen
Hagen
Open-air Museum at Hagen

Industrial Museum

Zollern II/IV Colliery
Zollern II/IV Colliery
at Dortmund German Inland Waterways Museum
German Inland Waterways Museum
at Duisburg Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord
Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord
at Duisburg Zollverein Coal
Coal
Mine Industrial Complex at Essen Gasometer Oberhausen
Oberhausen
at Oberhausen

The city of Essen
Essen
(representing the Ruhr) was selected as European Capital of Culture for 2010 by the Council of the European Union. Education[edit] The Ruhr
Ruhr
region has with 22 universities and colleges and more than 250,000 [33] students, the highest density of further education establishments anywhere in Germany. These include five universities alone in the cities of Bochum, Duisburg, Dortmund, Essen
Essen
and Witten. In addition, Folkwang University of the Arts
Folkwang University of the Arts
is an internationally acclaimed art college with its base in the Ruhr
Ruhr
region. Furthermore, the universities are not the only places in the Ruhr
Ruhr
region where academic qualifications can be obtained. There are 17 different universities of applied sciences which offer students to have the opportunity to undertake practice-relevant and qualified studies in various subjects, such as economics, logistics, administration or management[34]. Universities[edit] The Ruhr
Ruhr
area has 6 major universities in 5 cities with about 120.000 students.

Ruhr
Ruhr
University Bochum University of Duisburg-Essen Technical University of Dortmund Folkwang University of the Arts Witten/Herdecke University

UA Ruhr[edit] The three largest universities ( Ruhr
Ruhr
University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, and the University of Duisburg-Essen) opened an alliance called "UA Ruhr". Students enrolled at one of the UA Ruhr
Ruhr
universities can attend lectures and seminars at all three institutions without having to pay a visiting student fee. Consequently, they have many options to specialize in and to explore their chosen disciplines in depth. The UA Ruhr
Ruhr
has three liaison offices for interested students in New York City, Moscow
Moscow
and São Paulo. University of Applied Sciences and Arts[edit] Bochum[edit]

Bochum
Bochum
University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule Bochum, formerly Fachhochschule Bochum) Georg Agricola University of Applied Sciences (TH Georg Agricola) Protestant University of Applied Sciences, Rheinland-Westphalia-Lippe (Evangelische FH Rheinland-Westfalen-Lippe) Bochum
Bochum
Acting School (Schauspielschule Bochum) College of the Federal Social Security, Department of Social Insurance for Seafarers (Fachhochschule des Bundes der Sozialversicherung, Abteilung Knappschaft-Bahn-See) University of Health Sciences (Hochschule für Gesundheit)

Bottrop[edit]

Hochschule Ruhr
Ruhr
West

Dortmund[edit]

Fachhochschule Dortmund:

FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management, Standort Dortmund (Academy for management)

Fachhochschule für öffentliche Verwaltung Nordrhein-Westfalen (Academy for public administration) International School of Management (Private academy focussing on management and economics) IT-Center Dortmund
Dortmund
(Private college)

Duisburg[edit]

FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie und Management (Academy for management) Fachhochschule für öffentliche Verwaltung (Academy for public administration)

Essen[edit]

FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie und Management Hochschule für bildende Künste Orchesterzentrum NRW

Gelsenkirchen[edit]

Westfälische Hochschule Fachhochschule für öffentliche Verwaltung NRW (Academy for public administration)

Hagen[edit]

University of Hagen FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie und Management Fachhochschule für öffentliche Verwaltung (Academy for public administration) South Westphalia
Westphalia
University of Applied Sciences

Hamm[edit]

SRH Hochschule für Logistik und Wirtschaft Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt

Kamp-Lintfort[edit]

Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences

Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr[edit]

Hochschule Ruhr
Ruhr
West Fachhochschule für öffentliche Verwaltung NRW (Academy for public administration)

Unna[edit]

Hochschule Campus Unna

Transport[edit] Public transport[edit] All public transport companies in the Ruhr
Ruhr
region are run under the umbrella of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr, which provides a uniform ticket system valid for the entire area. The Ruhr
Ruhr
region is well-integrated into the national rail system, the Deutsche Bahn, for both passenger and goods services, each city in the region has at least one or more train stations. The bigger central stations have hourly direct connections to the bigger European cities as Amsterdam, Brussels, Paris, Vienna
Vienna
or Zürich. The Ruhr
Ruhr
area also contains the longest tram system in the world, with tram and Stadtbahn services from Witten
Witten
to Krefeld. Originally the system was even bigger, it was possible to travel from Unna
Unna
to Bad Honnef without using railway or bus services. Road transport[edit] The Ruhr
Ruhr
has one of the densest motorway networks in all of Europe, with dozens of Autobahns and similar Schnellstraßen (expressways) crossing the region. The Autobahn
Autobahn
network is built in a grid network, with four east-west (A2, A40, A42, A44) and seven north-south (A1, A3, A43, A45, A52, A57, A59) routes. The A1, A2 and A3 are mostly used by through traffic, while the other autobahns have a more regional function. Both the A44 and the A52 have several missing links, in various stages of planning. Some missing sections are currently in construction or planned to be constructed in the near future. Additional expressways serve as bypasses and local routes, especially around Dortmund
Dortmund
and Bochum. Due to the density of the autobahns and expressways, Bundesstraßen are less important for intercity traffic. The first Autobahns in the Ruhr
Ruhr
opened during the mid-1930s. Due to the density of the network, and the number of alternative routes, traffic volumes are generally lower than other major metropolitan areas in Europe. Traffic congestion is an everyday occurrence, but far less so than in the Randstad
Randstad
in the Netherlands, another polycentric urban area. Most important Autobahns have six lanes, but there are no eight-lane Autobahns in the Ruhr. Air transport[edit] Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Airport is the intercontinental airport for North Rhine- Westphalia
Westphalia
and is within 20 km of most of the Western Ruhr area. It is served by the Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Flughafen and Düsseldorf Flughafen Terminal railway stations, with its several parking lots, terminals and stations being connected by the Skytrain. Dortmund
Dortmund
Airport in the Eastern Ruhr
Ruhr
is a mid-sized airport, offering scheduled flights to domestic and European destinations and its approximately 1.9 million passengers in 2013. Dortmund
Dortmund
Airport is served by an express bus to Dortmund
Dortmund
main station, a shuttle bus to the nearby railway station Holzwickede/ Dortmund
Dortmund
Flughafen, a bus connecting to Stadtbahn line U47, as well as a bus to the city of Unna.

Public Transport Rhein-Ruhr

Bundesautobahn 52
Bundesautobahn 52
in Mülheim

A40 in Dortmund

Located in the East of the Ruhr
Ruhr
is Dortmund
Dortmund
Airport

See also[edit]

North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
portal Germany
Germany
portal Energy portal

Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan regions in Germany Occupation of the Ruhr
Occupation of the Ruhr
(1923–1924) Ruhrpolen Silesian metropolitan area Upper Silesian Coal
Coal
Basin

Notes[edit]

^ Other colloquial names that are used include Ruhrpott, Revier or Kohlenpott.

"The Heavy Industrial Belt' is commonly, though inaccurately, referred to as the Ruhr. This is a belt of low and level land on the northern edge of the uplands, known as the Sauerland through which flows the Ruhr
Ruhr
from east to west" (Dickinson 1945, p. 70). "Few foreigners know that in fact 'the Ruhr' is the name of a 150-mile-long Rhine
Rhine
right-bank tributary which, after meandering through the industrial basin now named after it, enters its parent near Europe's greatest inland port, Duisburg" (GI staff 1966, p. 30). "The territory through which the Ruhr
Ruhr
flows is called the Ruhr district" (Osmańczyk & Mango, p. 1970). "Many industries were built in the Ruhr
Ruhr
region, where both iron ore and coal were found" (Lane 2001, p. 24).

^ metropoleruhr.de ^ highest: Wengeberg in Breckerfeld, lowest: Xanten ^ Ruhr, Regionalverband (2018-01-09). "Zensus 2011". www.metropoleruhr.de (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-05.  ^ Demographia: World Urban Areas. Retrieved 31 July 2016. ^ Prof. Dr. Klaus Tenfelde. ""Das Ruhrgebiet! Von der Steinzeit bis zur Kulturhauptsatdt 2010" part 2". Retrieved 2001-11-20.  ^ Friedrich Harkort, "Die Eisenbahn von Minden nach Köln", Brune, Hagen
Hagen
1833 ^ Prof. Dr. Klaus Tenfelde. ""Das Ruhrgebiet! Von der Steinzeit bis zur Kulturhauptsatdt 2010" part 3". Retrieved 2001-11-20.  ^ a b R.W. Davies (2014). The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia Volume 6: The Years of Progress: The Soviet Economy, 1934-1936. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 275.  ^ William L. Shirer, Ron Rosenbaum (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany. Simon & Schuster. p. 293.  ^ A.J.P. Taylor (2001). English History 1914-1945. Oxford University Press. p. 386.  ^ A.J.P. Taylor (2001). English History 1914-1945. Oxford University Press. p. 386.  ^ Samuel W. Mitcham (2008). The Rise of the Wehrmacht: Vol. 1. Praeger. pp. 66–67.  ^ Samuel W. Mitcham (2008). The Rise of the Wehrmacht, Volume 1. Praeger. p. 66.  ^ German-Belgian Pact Concluded, October 13, 1937 ^ Botting (1985), p. 125 ^ https://www.backtonormandy.org/component/mtree/air-force-operations/airplanes-in-actions/lancaster/16345-raf-bomber-command-748-lancasters-carried-out-a-large-attack-on-dorthmund-on-1112th-of-march-1945.html ^ Levine 1992, p. 173. ^ French Directorate for Economic Affairs, Memorandum on the separation of the German industrial regions, 8 September 1945 ^ Yoder (1955), pp. 345–358 ^ Gareau (1961), pp. 517–534 ^ John Ardagh, Germany
Germany
and the Germans (1987) p 84 ^ Ardagh, Germany
Germany
and the Germans (1987) pp 74–82 ^ Christian Berndt, " Ruhr
Ruhr
Firms between Dynamic Change and Structural Persistence. Globalization, the 'German Model' and Regional Place-Dependence", Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers New Series, Vol. 23, No. 3 (1998), pp. 331–352 in JSTOR ^ De Ridder K. et al., 2008. Simulating the impact of urban sprawl on air quality and population exposure in the German Ruhr
Ruhr
area. Part I: Reproducing the base state. Atmospheric Environment 42,7059–7069 ^ De Ridder K et al., 2008. Simulating the impact of urban sprawl on air quality and population exposure in the German Ruhr
Ruhr
area. Part II: Development and evaluation of an urban growth scenario. Atmospheric Environment 42,7070–7077 ^ http://en.kulturhauptstadt-europas.de/start.php " Essen
Essen
for the Ruhrgebiet" Archived September 15, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Samuel Shepard Jones and Denys Peter Myers, Documents on American Foreign Relations, Volume 10 (1948), p. 125: "Part IX: Definitions Article 29". ^ Lawrence K. Cecil and Philip Hauge Abelson, Water Reuse (American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1967), p. 122. ^ "Weather Information for Essen".  ^ "Climatological Information for Essen, Germany" – Hong Kong Observatory ^ http://www.dortmund.de/de/leben_in_dortmund/nachrichtenportal/alle_nachrichten/nachricht.jsp?nid=336872. Retrieved 2016-01-29.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ https://www.essen.de/rathaus/statistik/Statistik_Bevoelkerung.de.html. Retrieved 2016-01-29.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Ruhr, Regionalverband (2017-09-28). "Studierende". www.metropoleruhr.de (in German). Retrieved 2017-10-02.  ^ "Studying in the Ruhr
Ruhr
region: 22 universities and colleges - welcome.ruhr". www.welcome.ruhr. Retrieved 2017-10-02. 

References[edit]

Botting, Douglas (1985), From the Ruins of the Reich: Germany 1945–1949, New York: Crown Publishing, ISBN 0-517-55865-3  Dickinson, Robert E. (1945), The Regions of Germany, 7, London: Routledge, p. 70  French Directorate for Economic Affairs (8 September 1945), Memorandum on the separation of the German industrial regions  Gareau, Frederick H. (June 1961), "Morgenthau's Plan for Industrial Disarmament in Germany", Western Political Quarterly, 14 (2): 517–53, JSTOR 443604  GI staff (1966), German International, 10, p. 30  Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan; Mango, Anthony (2003), Encyclopedia of the United Nations
United Nations
and International Agreements: A to F, p. 1970  Lane, Kathryn (2001), Germany: The Land, p. 24  Levine, Alan J (1992), "Second Battle of the Ruhr", The Strategic Bombing of Germany: 1940-1945 (illustrated ed.), Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 172–174, ISBN 9780275943196  Yoder, Amos (July 1955), "The Ruhr
Ruhr
Authority and the German Problem", Review of Politics, 17 (3): 345–358, doi:10.1017/s0034670500014261, JSTOR 1404797 

Further reading[edit]

Kift, Roy, Tour the Ruhr: The English language guide (3rd ed., 2008) (ISBN 3-88474-815-7) Klartext Verlag, Essen Berndt, Christian. Corporate Germany
Germany
Between Globalization and Regional Place Dependence: Business Restructuring in the Ruhr
Ruhr
Area (2001) Crew, David. Town in the Ruhr: A Social History of Bochum, 1860–1914 (1979) (ISBN 0231043007) Fischer, Conan. The Ruhr
Ruhr
Crisis, 1923–1924 (2003) Gillingham, John. " Ruhr
Ruhr
Coal
Coal
Miners and Hitler's War", Journal of Social History Vol. 15, No. 4 (Summer, 1982), pp. 637–653 in JSTOR* Chauncy D. Harris, "The Ruhr
Ruhr
Coal-mining District", Geographical Review, 36 (1946), 194–221. Gillingham, John. Industry and Politics in the Third Reich: Ruhr
Ruhr
Coal, Hitler, and Europe (1985) (ISBN 0231062605) Pounds, Norman J. G. The Ruhr: A Study in Historical and Economic Geography (1952) online Pierenkemper, Toni. "Entrepreneurs in Heavy Industry: Upper Silesia and the Westphalian Ruhr
Ruhr
Region, 1852 to 1913", Business History Review Vol. 53, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 65–78 in JSTOR Royal Jae Schmidt. Versailles and the Ruhr: Seedbed of World War II (1968) Spencer, Elaine Glovka. "Employer Response to Unionism: Ruhr
Ruhr
Coal Industrialists before 1914" Journal of Modern History Vol. 48, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 397–412 in JSTOR Spencer, Elaine Glovka. Management and Labor in Imperial Germany: Ruhr Industrialists as Employers, 1896–1914. Rutgers University Press. (1984) online Todd, Edmund N. "Industry, State, and Electrical Technology in the Ruhr
Ruhr
Circa 1900", Osiris 2nd Series, Vol. 5, (1989), pp. 242–259 in JSTOR

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ruhrgebiet.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ruhr.

Look up Ruhrgebiet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikinews has related news: Themenportal_Ruhrgebiet

Ruhr
Ruhr
Tourism Post-Surrender Program for Germany
Germany
(Sept. 1944) Ruhr
Ruhr
Delegation of the United States
United States
of America, Council of Foreign Ministers American Embassy Moscow, March 24, 1947 Draft, The President's Economic Mission to Germany
Germany
and Austria, Report 3, March, 1947; OF 950B: Economic Mission as to Food…; Truman Papers. France, Germany
Germany
and the Struggle for the War-making Natural Resources of the Rhineland
Rhineland
Describes the contest for the Ruhr
Ruhr
and Saar over the centuries. Ruhrgebietsbilder: Photos about the Ruhr

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