RUBUS CHAMAEMORUS is a rhizomatous herb native to cool temperate ,
alpine , arctic tundra and boreal forest , producing amber-colored
edible fruit similar to the raspberry or blackberry . English common
names include CLOUDBERRY, BAKEAPPLE (in
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador ),
KNOTBERRY and KNOUTBERRY (in England), AQPIK or LOW-BUSH SALMONBERRY
Alaska - not to be confused with true salmonberry, Rubus
spectabilis ), and AVERIN or EVRON (in
* 1 Description
* 2 Distribution and ecology
* 3 Cultivation
* 4 Uses
* 4.1 Alcoholic drinks
* 5 Nutrients and phytochemicals
* 6 Cultural references
* 7 Harvesting on public property
* 8 References
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links
Rubus species, the cloudberry is dioecious , and fruit
production by a female plant requires pollination from a male plant.
The cloudberry grows to 10–25 cm (4–10 in) high. The leaves
alternate between having 5 and 7 soft, handlike lobes on straight,
branchless stalks. After pollination, the white (sometimes
reddish-tipped) flowers form raspberry-sized aggregate fruits which
are more plentiful in wooded rather than sun-exposed habitats.
Consisting of between 5 and 25 drupelets , each fruit is initially
pale red, ripening into an amber color in early autumn.
DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY
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Cloudberries are a circumpolar boreal plant, occurring naturally
Northern Hemisphere from 78°N, south to about 55°N,
and are scattered south to 44°N mainly in mountainous areas and
moorlands . In Europe, they grow in the
Nordic countries , Baltic
states and particularly in
Poland . They occur across northern Russia
east towards the
Pacific Ocean as far south as
Japan . Due to
peatland drainage and peat exploitation, they are considered
endangered and are under legal protection in Germany's
Elbe valleys, and at isolated sites in the English
Scottish Highlands . A single, fragile site exists in the Sperrin
Northern Ireland .
In North America, cloudberries grow wild across
Greenland , most of
Alaska , northern
New Hampshire , Maine
and New York .
Wide distribution occurs due to the excretion of the indigestible
seeds by birds and mammals. Further distribution arises through its
rhizomes which are up to 10 m long and grow about 10–15 cm below the
soil surface, developing extensive and dense berry patches. Cuttings
of these taken in May or August are successful in producing a genetic
clone of the parent plant. The cloudberry grows in bogs , marshes .
wet meadows , tundra and altitudes of 1,400 metres (4,600 ft) above
sea level in Norway, requiring acidic ground (between 3.5 and 5 pH).
Cloudberry leaves are food for caterpillars of several Lepidoptera
species. The moth
Coleophora thulea has no other known food plants.
See also List of
Lepidoptera that feed on
Despite great demand as a delicacy (particularly in
Finland) the cloudberry is not widely cultivated and is primarily a
wild plant. Wholesale prices vary widely based on the size of the
yearly harvest, but cloudberries have gone for as much as €10/kg (in
Since the middle of the 1990s, however, the species has formed part
of a multinational research project. The Norwegian government, in
cooperation with Finnish, Swedish and Scottish counterparts, has
vigorously pursued the aim of enabling commercial production of
various wild berries (
Norway imports 200 - 300 tonnes of cloudberries
per year from Finland). Beginning in 2002, selected cultivars have
been available to farmers, notably "Apolto" (male), "Fjellgull"
(female) and "Fjordgull" (female). The cloudberry can be cultivated in
Arctic areas where few other crops are possible, for example along the
northern coast of
Unripe cloudberry Cloudberry jam
The ripe fruits are golden-yellow, soft and juicy, and are rich in
vitamin C . When eaten fresh, cloudberries have a distinctive tart
taste. When over-ripe, they have a creamy texture somewhat like yogurt
and a sweetened flavour. They are often made into jams , juices ,
tarts, and liqueurs. In Finland, the berries are eaten with heated
"leipäjuusto " (a local cheese; the name translates to
"bread-cheese"), as well as cream and sugar . In Sweden, cloudberries
(sv. hjortron) and cloudberry jam are used as a topping for ice cream,
pancakes, and waffles. In Norway, they are often mixed with whipped
cream and sugar to be served as a dessert called "
(cloudberry cream), as a jam or as an ingredient in homemade ice
cream. Cloudberry yoghurt—molte-/multeyoughurt—is a supermarket
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador , Canada, cloudberries are used to make
"bakeapple pie" or jam.
Arctic Yup\'ik mix the berries with seal oil,
reindeer or caribou fat (which is diced and made fluffy with seal oil)
and sugar to make "
Eskimo ice cream" or
Akutaq . The recipes vary by
region. Along the Yukon and
Kuskokwim River areas, white fish (pike )
along with shortening and sugar are used. The berries are an important
traditional food resource for the Yup'ik.
Due to its high vitamin C content, the berry is valued both by
Nordic seafarers and Northern indigenous peoples . Its polyphenol
content, including flavonoid compounds such as ellagic acid , appears
to naturally preserve food preparations of the berries. Cloudberries
can be preserved in their own juice without added sugar, if stored
Nordic countries , traditional liqueurs such as Lakkalikööri
(Finland) are made of cloudberry, having a strong taste and high sugar
content. Cloudberry is used as a flavouring for making akvavit . In
Quebec , a cloudberry liqueur known as chicoutai
(aboriginal name) is made.
NUTRIENTS AND PHYTOCHEMICALS
Cloudberries are rich in vitamin C and ellagic acid, citric acid ,
malic acid , α-tocopherol , anthocyanins and the provitamin A
carotenoid , β-carotene in contents which differ across regions of
Finland due to sunlight exposure, rainfall or temperature. The
ellagitannins lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6 are also present.
Genotype of cloudberry variants may also affect polyphenol
composition, particularly for ellagitannins, sanguiin H-6,
anthocyanins and quercetin .
Polyphenol extracts from cloudberries have improved storage
properties when microencapsulated using maltodextrin DE5-8. At least
14 volatile compounds, including vanillin , account for the aroma of
The cloudberry appears on the Finnish version of the 2 euro coin .
The name of the hill "Beinn nan Oighreag" in Breadalbane in the
Scottish Highlands means "Hill of the Cloudberries" in Scottish Gaelic
HARVESTING ON PUBLIC PROPERTY
In some northern European countries such as
Norway , a common use
policy to non-wood forest products allows anyone to pick cloudberries
on public property and eat them on location, but only local residents
may transport them from that location and only ripe berries may be
picked. Since 1970 in Norway, while it has been illegal to pick
unripe cloudberries, transporting ripe cloudberries from the harvest
location is permitted in many counties.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Thiem B (2003). "Rubus
chamaemorus L. – a boreal plant rich in biologically active
metabolites: a review" (PDF). Biological Letters. 40 (1): 3–13.
* ^ "BSBI List 2007" (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and
Ireland. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
* ^ University of
Alaska @ Fairbanks, Cooperative Extension
* ^ "
Rubus chamaemorus - cloudberry". National Museums, Northern
Ireland. 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
* ^ "Floristic Synthesis of North America; Map for Rubus
chamaemorus". Biota of North America Program. 2 November 2014.
Retrieved 29 December 2016.
* ^ K. Rapp (1986). "Vegetativ oppformering av molte (Rubus
chamaemorus L.)". Jord og Myr. 10: 1–11.
* ^ Ville Heiskanen ¶ 1)". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
* ^ "TINE Yoghurt Molte". TINE.no.
* ^ "Wild berries: cloudberries".
Arctic Flavours Association.
2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
* ^ "Chicoutai" (in French). terroirsquebec.com. Retrieved 7 April
* ^ Jaakkola, M; Korpelainen, V; Hoppula, K; Virtanen, V (2012).
"Chemical composition of ripe fruits of
Rubus chamaemorus L. Grown in
different habitats". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.
92 (6): 1324–30. PMID 22083544 . doi :10.1002/jsfa.4705 .
* ^ Kähkönen M, Kylli P, Ollilainen V, Salminen J-P, Heinonen M
(2012). "Antioxidant activity of isolated ellagitannins from red
raspberries and cloudberries". J Agric Food Chem. 60 (5): 1167–74.
PMID 22229937 . doi :10.1021/jf203431g . CS1 maint: Uses authors
parameter (link )
* ^ McDougall, G. J.; Martinussen, I; Junttila, O; Verrall, S;
Stewart, D (2011). "Assessing the influence of genotype and
temperature on polyphenol composition in cloudberry (
L.) using a novel mass spectrometric method". Journal of Agricultural
and Food Chemistry. 59 (20): 10860–8. PMID 21916411 . doi
* ^ Laine, P; Kylli, P; Heinonen, M; Jouppila, K (2008). "Storage
stability of microencapsulated cloudberry (
Rubus chamaemorus )
phenolics". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (23):
11251–61. PMID 18989975 . doi :10.1021/jf801868h .
* ^ Pyysalo, T; Honkanen, E (1977). "The influence of heat on the
aroma of cloudberries (rubus Chamaemorus l.)". Zeitschrift für
Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung. 163 (1): 25–30. PMID
* ^ "Finnish face of Euro coins: cloudberry, swan and heraldic
lion". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
* ^ "Beinn nan Oighreag, Hill of the Cloudberries". Scotsman.com.
20 May 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
* ^ A B Saastamoinen, Olli. "Forest policies, access rights and
non-wood forest products in northern Europe". FAO. Retrieved 17 August
* ^ "Guide to Cloudberries". My Little Norway. Retrieved 17 August
* ^ "(in Norwegian) Dette har du lov til å gjøre på tur". UT.no,
Norwegian Trekking and NRK. 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
* Resvoll, T. R. , 1925.
Rubus chamaemorus L. A morphological -
biological study. Nytt Magasin for Naturvidenskapene, 67: 55-129.
* Resvoll, T. R. , 1925.
Rubus chamaemorus L. Die geographische
Verbreitung der Pflanze und ihre Verbreitungsmittel.
Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes Rübel in Zürich,
Wikimedia Commons has