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Traditional rank amongst European royalty , peers , and nobility is rooted in Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Although they vary over time and between geographic regions (for example, one region's prince might be equal to another's grand duke ), the following is a reasonably comprehensive list that provides information on both general ranks and specific differences.

CONTENTS

* 1 Ranks and title

* 1.1 Sovereign
Sovereign
* 1.2 Other sovereigns, royalty, peers, and major nobility * 1.3 Minor nobility, gentry, and other aristocracy

* 2 Corresponding titles of nobility between languages * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links

RANKS AND TITLE

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SOVEREIGN

Main articles: Monarch
Monarch
and Sovereign
Sovereign

It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Royal title
Royal title
. (Discuss ) (November 2016)

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* The word monarch is derived from the Greek μονάρχης, monárkhēs, "sole ruler" (from μόνος, mónos, "single" or "sole", and ἄρχων, árkhōn, archon , "leader", "ruler", "chief", the word being the present participle of the verb ἄρχειν, árkhein, "to rule", "to lead", this from the noun ὰρχή, arkhē, "beginning", "authority", "principle") through the Latinized form monarcha. * The word sovereign is derived from the Latin
Latin
above. * Autocrat is derived from the Greek αὐτοκράτωρ: αὐτός ("self") and κρατείν ("to hold power"), and may be translated as "one who rules by himself".

Common titles for European and Near Eastern monarchs

Note that many titles listed may also be used by lesser nobles – non-sovereigns – depending on the historical period and state. The sovereign titles listed below are grouped together into categories roughly according to their degree of dignity; these being: imperial (Emperor, Empress, etc.), high royal ( King
King
of Kings etc.), royal (King/Queen, sovereign Grand Duke
Duke
or Grand Prince, etc.), others (sovereign Prince, sovereign Duke, etc.), and religious.

IMPERIAL TITLES

* EMPEROR , from the Latin
Latin
Imperator
Imperator
, meaning "commander" or "one who commands". In English, the feminine form is EMPRESS (the Latin
Latin
is imperatrix). The realm of an emperor or empress is termed an Empire. Other words meaning Emperor
Emperor
include:

* CAESAR , the appellation of Roman emperors derived from the Roman dictator Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
, whose great-nephew and adopted son Gaius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Augustus became the first emperor of Rome. Augustus' four successors were each made the adoptive son of his predecessor, and were therefore legally entitled to use "Caesar" as a constituent of their names; after Nero, however, the familial link of the Julio-Claudian dynasty
Julio-Claudian dynasty
was disrupted and use of the word Caesar continued as a title only. * KAISER , derived from Caesar, primarily used in Germanic countries. * BASILEUS , from Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
meaning "chieftain", later used for the Roman emperors of the Byzantine period. * TSAR / CZAR / CSAR / TZAR , derived from Caesar, the feminine form Tsarina
Tsarina
, primarily used in Bulgaria, and after that in Russia and other Slavic countries. * HUANGDI , the Imperial monarch during Imperial China . * SAMRAAT , (Sanskrit: samrāṭ or सम्राज् samrāj) is an Ancient Indian title sometimes translated into modern English as "Emperor". The feminine form is SAMRãJñī. * CHHATRAPATI , ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: छत्रपती) is the Indian royal title equivalent to an Emperor
Emperor
. The word ‘Chhatrapati’ is from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
chatra (roof or umbrella) and pati (master/Owner/ruler); Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
thus indicates a person who gives shade to his followers and protects their success. * SAPA INCA , The SAPA INCA (Hispanicized spelling) or SAPA INKA (Quechua for "the only Inca"), also known as APU ("divinity"), INKA QHAPAQ ("mighty Inca"), or simply SAPA ("the only one"), was the ruler of the Kingdom of Cusco
Kingdom of Cusco
and, later, the Emperor
Emperor
of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu) and the Neo-Inca State
Neo-Inca State
.

HIGH ROYAL TITLES

* KING OF KINGS mostly used in Christian contexts to denote Jesus Christ or the Christian Roman emperors of the Late Empire and Byzantine periods.

* SHAHANSHAH , literally " King
King
of Kings" in Middle Persian
Middle Persian
šāhān šāh, meaning "Kings' King." Used in Persia
Persia
and surrounding countries. * SULTAN OF SULTANS , literally " King
King
of Kings" in Ottoman Turkish Sulṭānü's-Selāṭīn, meaning "King's King." Used in Turkey and surrounding countries of the Ottoman dynasty
Ottoman dynasty
. * XI CHU BA WANG meaning the Hegemon King
King
of Western Chu . * TIAN KEHAN meaning Heavenly Khagan
Khagan
. Held by Tang Taizong and Tang Gaozong * TAEWANG , literally "Greatest King", a Korean title for the rulers of the Goguryeo
Goguryeo
Empire. * NəGUSä NäGäST , title of the Emperors of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, meaning " King
King
of Kings". * MANSA , title of the Emperors of the Mali Empire , meaning King
King
of Kings. * MEPE-MEPETA , Georgian for " King
King
of Kings." * KHAGAN , derived from Khan of Khans, used by the Central Asian nomads.

* HIGH KING , A king who rules over lesser kings.

* DEVARAJA , literally "God King", a title in the Khmer Empire and throughout Java
Java
. * MAHāRāJA , Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for a "great king" or "high king". The female form is MAHARANI. * PADISHAH , Persian pād "master" and shāh "king". Used in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. * ANAX , from Mycenaean wanax for "High King". Outranked Basileus in Mycenaean usage. * NAM-LUGAL High kings of ancient Sumer
Sumer
(Mesopotamia). * PHARAOH , "Man of the Great House (Palace)" used in ANCIENT EGYPT to denote the High kings of the upper and lower kingdoms of the Nile river valley. * ARD , Gaelic for high king, most notably used for high kings of Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland
Scotland
. * BRETWALDA , high kings of Anglo-Saxon England
Anglo-Saxon England
. * YANG DI-PERTUAN AGONG , the official title of the Malaysian head of state, and means "He who is Made Supreme Lord" and is generally glossed in English as "king". The officeholder is elected from among the heads of the nine royal states, so the office may also be analogous to that of a high king.

ROYAL TITLES

* KING , from the Germanic *kuningaz, roughly meaning "son of the people." (See: Germanic kingship
Germanic kingship
) The realm of a King
King
is termed a Kingdom (sovereign kings are ranked above vassal kings)

* REX Latin
Latin
for "ruler". Cognate with Raja, Rí, Reign, Regina, etc. * WANG , the head of state of Ancient China
Ancient China
. * CHANYU , the title for the ruler of the Xiongnu Empire . * KOROL Derived from Old East Slavic Король king, used in Ukrainian, Russian, Kazakh, Tatar, and Kyrgyz languages. * RAJA , Indian for "ruler and King.". Cognate with Latin
Latin
Rex, Gaelic Rí, etc. * RANA , was used to be a title for martial sovereignty of Rajput kings in India. * DESHMUKH , Indian for "ruler and king." * , Gaelic title meaning KING, of which there were several grades, the highest being Ard Rí
Ard Rí
(High king). Cognate with Indian Raja, Latin
Latin
Rex, and ancient Gaulish rix. * KHAN , from the Turco-Mongol word for "lord," like Duke
Duke
it was originally a military rank. A Khan's realm is called a Khanate. * LAMANE , "master of the land" or "chief owner of the soil" in old Serer language were the ancient hereditary kings and landed gentry of the Serer people found in Senegal
Senegal
, the Gambia
Gambia
and Mauritania
Mauritania
. The Lamanes were guardians of Serer religion
Serer religion
and many of them have been canonized as Holy Saints (Pangool). * EZE , the Igbo word for the King
King
or Ruler of a kingdom or city-state. It is cognate with Obi and Igwe. * OBA , the Yoruba word for King
King
or Ruler of a kingdom or city-state. It is used across all the traditional Yoruba lands, as well as by the Edo, throughout Nigeria, Benin, and Togo. * OMUKAMA , King
King
of Bunyoro-Kitara in Uganda
Uganda
, also the title of the Omukama of Toro
Omukama of Toro
. * KABAKA , King
King
of Buganda , a realm within Uganda
Uganda
in East Africa. * SHAH , Persian word for King, from Indo-European for "he who rules". Used in Persia, alongside Shahanshah
Shahanshah
(see above). The title of the sons of a Shah
Shah
is SHAHZADE / SHAHZADEH. * SULTAN , from Arabic and originally referring to one who had "power", more recently used as synonym for King. * MALIK , Arabic for King. * TLATOANI , Ruler of the atlepetl or city state in ancient Mexico. Title of the Aztec Emperors. The word literally means "speaker" in Nahuatl, but may be translated into English as "king". * AJAW , In Maya meaning "lord", "ruler", "king" or "leader". Was the title of the ruler in the Classic Maya polity. A variant being the title of K'inich Ajaw or "Great Sun King" as it was used to refer to the founder of the Copán
Copán
dynasty, K\'inich Yax K\'uk\' Mo\' . * HALACH UINIK , In Maya meaning "real man", "person of fact" or "person of command". Was the title of the ruler in the Post-Classic Maya polity( Kuchkabal ). * DATU in the Visayas
Visayas
and Mindanao
Mindanao
which, together with the term RAJA ( in the Rajahnate of Cebu
Rajahnate of Cebu
and Kingdom of Maynila
Kingdom of Maynila
) and LAKAN (title widely used on the island of Luzon
Luzon
), are the Filipino equivalents of "sovereign prince" and thus, glossed as "king". (Cf. also PRINCIPALíA — the hispanized and christianized Datu class during the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines
Philippines
.) * TUANKU, literally "My Lord", the title of the kings of the nine Royal states of Malaysia
Malaysia
; all princes and princesses of the Royal Families also receive the appellation TENGKU , * Mwami in Rwanda
Rwanda
* MAAD A SINIG , King
King
of Sine , a pre-colonial kingdom of the Serer people . From the old Serer title "Maad" (king). * MAAD SALOUM , King
King
of Saloum , a pre-colonial kingdom of the Serer people. * RATU , A Fijian chiefly title that is also found in Javanese culture. * TEIGNE , King
King
of Baol , previously a pre-colonial Serer kingdom. * NIZAM , The word is derived from the Arabic language Nizām (نظام), meaning order, arrangement. Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in Urdu
Urdu
around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy for the Whole Empire.

* QUEEN , from the Germanic *kwoeniz, or *kwenon, "wife"; cognate of Greek γυνή, gynē, "woman"; from PIE *gʷḗn, "woman". The female equivalent of a King, or the consort of a King; a Queen's realm is also a kingdom.

* RANI , Indian for Queen. See Raja, above. * SHAHBANU , Persian for Empress. See Shah, above. * SULTANA, Arabic for Queen. See Sultan, above. * MALIKA, Arabic for Queen. * IX-AJAW, See Ajaw above, it was a title was also given to women, though generally prefixed with the sign Ix ("woman") to indicate their gender. * DAYANG, Filipino feminine equivalent of "Datu". See Datu * HARA, Filipino feminine equivalent of "Raha". See Raja, above.

* SOVEREIGN GRAND DUKES or GRAND PRINCES are considered to be part of the reigning nobility ("Royalty", in German Hochadel; their correct form of address is "Royal Highness")

PRINCELY, DUCAL, AND OTHER SOVEREIGN TITLES

* PRINCE , from the Latin
Latin
princeps, meaning "first citizen". The feminine form is PRINCESS. Variant forms include the German Fürst
Fürst
and Russian Tsarevich (царевич) and the feminine form Tsarevna (царевна).

* BAI, Filipino feminine equivalent of a prince. * AMPUAN, Maranao royal title which literally means "The One to whom one asks for apology" * GINOO, Ancient Filipino equivalent to noble man or prince (now used in the form "Ginoóng" as the analogue to "mister "). * PILLAI , Ancient South Indian Title meaning Prince
Prince
for junior children of Emperors * MORZA , a Tartar title usually translated as "prince", it ranked below a Khan. The title was borrowed from Persian and Indian appellation Mirza
Mirza
added to the names of certain nobles, which itself derived from Emir. * KNYAZ , a title found in most Slavic languages, denoting a ruling or noble rank. It is usually translated into English as "Duke".

* DESPOT , Greek for "lord, master", initially an appellation for the Byzantine emperor, later the senior court title, awarded to sons and close relatives of the emperor. In the 13th-15th centuries borne by autonomous and independent rulers in the Balkans. * DUKE , from the Latin
Latin
Dux
Dux
, meaning "leader," a military rank in the late Roman Empire . Variant forms include DOGE, and DUCE; it has also been modified into ARCHDUKE (meaning "chief" Duke), GRAND DUKE (literally "large," or "big" Duke; see above under royal titles), VICE DUKE ("deputy" Duke), etc. The female equivalent is DUCHESS. * SHEIKH , is often used as a title for Arab royal families. Some Emirs of the Arabian Peninsula use the title Sheikh
Sheikh
("elder" or "lord"), as do other members of the extended family.

* EMIR , often rendered Amir in older English usage; from the Arabic "to command." The female form is EMIRA (Amirah). Emir
Emir
is the root of the naval rank "Admiral"

* AMIR AL-UMARA , Emir
Emir
of Emirs.

* MIR , According to the book Persian Inscriptions on Indian Monuments , Mir is most probably an Arabized form of Pir. Pir in Old Persian and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
means the old, the wise man, the chief and the great leader. It was Arabized as Mir then, with Al(A) (Arabic definite article ), it was pronounced as Amir.

* BEY , or Beg/ Baig
Baig
, Turkish for "Chieftain."

* BEGUM , female royal and aristocratic title from Central and South Asia. * BEYLERBEY , Bey of Beys. * ATABEG , word is a compound of two Turkic words: ata, "ancestor", and beg or bey, "lord, leader, prince". * BEG KHAN , concatenation of Baig
Baig
and Khan. * KHAGAN BEK , title used by Khazars
Khazars
.

* BUUMI , first in line to the throne in Serer pre-colonial kingdoms. * THILAS , second in line to the throne in Serer pre-colonial kingdoms. * LOUL , third in line to the throne in Serer country. * DEY , title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers
Regency of Algiers
and Tripoli
Tripoli
under the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1671 onwards. * SAHIB , name of Arabic origin meaning "holder, master or owner." * ZAMINDAR , were considered to be equivalent to lords and barons in some cases they were seen as independent, sovereign princes. * JAGIR , also spelled as JAGEER ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: जागीर, Persian : جاگیر, ja- meaning "place", -gir meaning "keeping, holding") The feudal owner/lord of the Jagir were called JAGIRDAR or JAGEERDAR * SARDAR , also spelled as SIRDAR, SARDAAR or SERDAR, is a title of nobility (sir-, sar/sair- means "head or authority" and -dār means "holder" in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Avestan )

RELIGIOUS TITLES

* POPE , derived from Latin
Latin
and Italian papa, the familiar form of "father" (also "SUPREME PONTIFF of the Universal Church and Vicar of Christ"); once wielding substantial secular power as the ruler of the Papal States
Papal States
and leader of Christendom
Christendom
, the Pope
Pope
is also the absolute ruler of the sovereign state VATICAN CITY . Also the title of the leader of the Coptic Church . * CALIPH , was the ruler of the caliphate , an Islamic title indicating the successor to Muhammad
Muhammad
. Both a religious and a secular leader; the Ottoman sultans continued to use Caliph
Caliph
as another of their titles. However, in later Ottoman times the religious function was practically exercised by the Sheikh
Sheikh
ül-Islam ; after the establishment of the Turkish Republic, a solely religious Caliphate, held by members of the Sultans' family, was established for a short period of time. * SALTIGUE , the high priests and priestesses of the Serer people . They are the diviners in Serer religion.

OTHER SOVEREIGNS, ROYALTY, PEERS, AND MAJOR NOBILITY

Main articles: Royal family
Royal family
, Peerage , Nobility
Nobility
, and Imperial immediacy

Several ranks were widely used (for more than a thousand years in Europe alone) for both sovereign rulers and non-sovereigns. Additional knowledge about the territory and historic period is required to know whether the rank holder was a sovereign or non-sovereign. However, joint precedence among rank holders often greatly depended on whether a rank holder was sovereign, whether of the same rank or not. This situation was most widely exemplified by the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(HRE) in Europe. Almost all of the following ranks were commonly both sovereign and non-sovereign within the HRE. Outside of the HRE, the most common sovereign rank of these below was that of Prince. Within the HRE, those holding the following ranks who were also sovereigns had (enjoyed) what was known as an immediate relationship with the Emperor. Those holding non-sovereign ranks held only a mediate relationship (meaning that the civil hierarchy upwards was mediated by one or more intermediaries between the rank holder and the Emperor). TITLES

* ARCHDUKE , ruler of an archduchy; used exclusively by the Habsburg dynasty and its junior branch of Habsburg-Lorraine which ruled the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(until 1806), the Austrian Empire (1804-1867), and the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
(1867-1918) for imperial family members of the dynasty, each retaining it as a subsidiary title when founding sovereign cadet branches by acquiring thrones under different titles (e.g., Tuscany , Modena ); it was also used for those ruling some Habsburg territories such as those that became the modern so-called "Benelux" nations (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg); The title was created in 1358 by the Habsburgs themselves to establish a precedence of their princes over the other titleholders of high nobility of the era; therefore the rank was not recognized by the other ruling dynasties until 1453 * GRAND DUKE , ruler of a grand duchy; nowadays considered to be in precedence the third highest monarchial rank in the western world, after "Emperor" and "King" or "Queen" * GRAND PRINCE (Velikiy Knyaz
Knyaz
), ruler of a grand principality; a title primarily used in the medieval Kyivan Rus' principalities; It was also used by the Romanovs of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
for members of the imperial family, although then it is more commonly translated into English as Grand Duke * DUKE ( Herzog
Herzog
in German), ruler of a duchy ; also for junior members of ducal and some grand ducal families

* PRINCE (Prinz in German), junior members of a royal, grand ducal, ruling ducal or princely, or mediatised family. The title of Fürst was usually reserved, from the 19th century, for rulers of principalities—the smallest sovereign entities (e.g., Liechtenstein, Lippe, Schwarzburg, Waldeck-and-Pyrmont)—and for heads of high-ranking, noble but non-ruling families (Bismarck, Clary und Aldringen, Dietrichstein, Henckel von Donnersmarck, Kinsky, Paar, Pless, Thun und Hohenstein, etc.). Cadets of these latter families were generally not allowed to use Prinz, being accorded only the style of count ( Graf
Graf
) or, occasionally, that of Fürst
Fürst
(Wrede, Urach ) even though it was also a ruling title. Exceptional use of Prinz was permitted for some morganatic families (e.g., Battenberg , Montenuovo) and a few others (Carolath-Beuthen, Biron von Kurland).

* In particular, CROWN PRINCE (Kronprinz in German) was reserved for the heir apparent of an emperor or king

* DAUPHIN , title of the heir apparent of the royal family of France
France
, as he was the de jure ruler of the Dauphiné region in southeastern France
France
(under the authority of the King) * INFANTE , title of the cadet members of the royal families of Portugal
Portugal
and Spain
Spain
* ELECTOR ( Kurfürst in German), a rank for those who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
, usually sovereign of a state (e.g. the Margrave of Brandenburg, an elector, called the Elector of Brandenburg) * MARQUESS , MARGRAVE , or MARQUIS (literally " Count
Count
of a March" (=Border territory)) was the ruler of a marquessate , margraviate , or march * LANDGRAVE (literally "Land Count"), a German title, ruler of a landgraviate * COUNT , theoretically the ruler of a county ; known as an EARL in modern Britain; known as a GRAF in German, known as a SERDAR in Montenegro and Serbia * PRINCIPALíA the aristocratic ruling class of Filipino nobles, roughly equivalent to ancient Roman Patricians , through whom the Spanish Monarchs ruled the Philippines
Philippines
during the colonial period (c. 1600s to 1898). * VISCOUNT (vice-count), theoretically the ruler of a viscounty , which did not develop into a hereditary title until much later. In the case of French viscounts, it is customary to leave the title untranslated as VICOMTE . * FREIHERR , a German word meaning literally "Free Master" or "Free Lord" (i.e. not subdued to feudal chores or drudgery), is the German equivalent of the English term "Baron", with the important difference that unlike the British Baron, he is not a " Peer of the Realm
Peer of the Realm
" (member of the high aristocracy) * BARON , theoretically the ruler of a barony – some barons in some countries may have been "free barons" (liber baro) and as such, regarded (themselves) as higher barons.

Regarding the titles of Grand Duke, Duke
Duke
and Prince:

In all European countries, the sovereign Grand Duke
Duke
(or Grand Prince in some eastern European languages) is considered to be the third highest monarchic title in precedence, after Emperor
Emperor
and King.

In Germany, a sovereign Duke
Duke
(Herzog) outranks a sovereign prince (Fürst). A cadet prince (Prinz) who belongs to an imperial or royal dynasty, however, may outrank a duke who is the cadet of a reigning house, e.g., Wurttemberg , Bavaria , Mecklenburg or Oldenburg .

The children of a sovereign Grand Duke
Duke
may be titled "Prince" (Luxembourg, Tuscany, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Saxe-Weimar) or "Duke" (Oldenburg) in accordance with the customs of the dynasty. The heir of the throne of a Grand Duchy is titled "Hereditary Grand Duke", as soon as he reaches the full legal age (majority).

Children of a sovereign (i.e., ruling) Duke
Duke
and of a ruling Prince (Fürst) were, however, all titled prince (Prinz).

The heir apparent to a ruling or mediatised title would usually prepend the prefix Erb- (hereditary) to his or her title, e.g., ERBherzog, ERBprinz, ERBgraf, to distinguish their status from that of their junior siblings.

Children of a mediatised Fürst
Fürst
were either Prinzen or Grafen (counts), depending upon whether the princely title was limited to descent by masculine primogeniture or not. In the German non-sovereign nobility, a Duke
Duke
(Herzog) still ranked higher than a Prince
Prince
(Fürst).

MINOR NOBILITY, GENTRY, AND OTHER ARISTOCRACY

Main articles: Aristocracy (class) and Gentry

The distinction between the ranks of the major nobility (listed above) and the minor nobility, listed here, was not always a sharp one in all nations. But the precedence of the ranks of a Baronet or a Knight
Knight
is quite generally accepted for where this distinction exists for most nations. Here the rank of Baronet (ranking above a Knight) is taken as the highest rank among the ranks of the minor nobility or gentry that are listed below. Titles

* BARONET is a hereditary title ranking below Baron
Baron
but above Knight; this title is granted only in the British Isles and does not confer nobility. * DOMINUS was the Latin
Latin
title of the feudal, superior and mesne, lords, and also an ecclesiastical and academical title (equivalent of Lord
Lord
) * VIDAME , a minor French aristocrat * VAVASOUR , also a petty French feudal lord * SEIGNEUR or LORD OF THE MANOR rules a smaller local fief * KNIGHT is the central rank of the Medieval aristocratic system in Europe (and having its equivalents elsewhere), usually ranking at or near the top of the Minor Nobility * PATRICIAN is a dignity of minor nobility or gentry (most often being hereditary) usually ranking below Knight
Knight
but above Esquire * FIDALGO or HIDALGO is a minor Portuguese and Spanish aristocrat (respectively; from filho d'algo / hijo de algo, lit. son of wealth, mediaeval Galician-Portuguese and Spanish "algo" = wealth, riches, fortune, nowadays "algo" = something) * NOBILE (ARISTOCRACY) is an Italian title of nobility for prestigious families that never received a title * EDLER is a minor aristocrat in Germany and Austria during those countries' respective imperial periods. * JONKHEER is an honorific for members of noble Dutch families that never received a title. An untitled noblewoman is styled Jonkvrouw, though the wife of a Jonkheer is a Mevrouw or, sometimes, Freule, which could also be used by daughters of the same. * JUNKER is a German noble honorific, meaning "young nobleman" or otherwise "young lord" * SKARTABEL is a minor Polish aristocrat. * SCOTTISH BARON is a hereditary feudal nobility dignity, outside the Scots peerage , recognised by Lord
Lord
Lyon as a member of the Scots noblesse and ranking below a Knight
Knight
but above a Scottish Laird
Laird
in the British system. However, Scottish Barons on the European continent are considered and treated equal to European barons. * LAIRD is a Scottish hereditary feudal dignity ranking below a Scottish Baron
Baron
but above an Esquire * ESQUIRE is a rank of gentry originally derived from Squire
Squire
and indicating the status of an attendant to a knight, an apprentice knight or a manorial lord; it ranks below Knight
Knight
(or in Scotland below Laird) but above Gentleman
Gentleman
* GENTLEMAN is the basic rank of gentry (ranking below Esquire), historically primarily associated with land; within British Commonwealth nations it is also roughly equivalent to some minor nobility of some continental European nations * BIBI , means Miss in Urdu
Urdu
and is frequently used as a respectful title for women in South Asia when added to the given name

In Germany, the constitution of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
in 1919 ceased to accord privileges to members of dynastic and noble families. Their titles henceforth became legal parts of the family name, and traditional forms of address (e.g., "Hoheit" or " Durchlaucht ") ceased to be accorded to them by governmental entities. The last title was conferred on 12 November 1918 to Kurt von Klefeld. The actual rank of a title-holder in Germany depended not only on the nominal rank of the title, but also the degree of sovereignty exercised, the rank of the title-holder's suzerain , and the length of time the family possessed its status within the nobility (Uradel, Briefadel, altfürstliche, neufürstliche, see: German nobility
German nobility
). Thus, any reigning sovereign ranks higher than any deposed or mediatized sovereign (e.g., the Fürst
Fürst
of Waldeck , sovereign until 1918, was higher than the Duke
Duke
of Arenberg , head of a mediatized family, although Herzog
Herzog
is nominally a higher title than Fürst). However, former holders of higher titles in extant monarchies retained their relative rank, i.e., a queen dowager of Belgium outranks the reigning Prince
Prince
of Liechtenstein. Members of a formerly sovereign or mediatized house rank higher than the nobility. Among the nobility, those whose titles derive from the Holy Roman Empire rank higher than the holder of an equivalent title granted by one of the German monarchs after 1806.

In Austria, nobility titles may no longer be used since 1918.

In Switzerland, nobility titles are prohibited and are not recognized as part of the family name.

CORRESPONDING TITLES OF NOBILITY BETWEEN LANGUAGES

Below is a comparative table of corresponding royal and noble titles in various European countries. Quite often, a Latin
Latin
3rd declension noun formed a distinctive feminine title by adding -issa to its base, but usually the 3rd declension noun was used for both male and female nobles, except for Imperator
Imperator
and Rex. 3rd declension nouns are italicized in this chart. See Royal and noble styles to learn how to address holders of these titles properly.

Emperor
Emperor
, Empress King, Queen Grand Duke
Duke
/ Grand Prince
Prince
, Grand Duchess/ Grand Princess Archduke
Archduke
, Archduchess Duke
Duke
, Duchess (Prince)-Elector , Electress Prince
Prince
, Princess Viceroy
Viceroy
, Vicereine Marquess / Margrave, Marchioness/ Margravine Earl
Earl
/ Count
Count
, Countess Viscount
Viscount
, Viscountess Baron
Baron
, Baroness Baronet Baronetess KNIGHT / DAME ESQUIRE , GENTLEMAN

LATIN Imperator
Imperator
/ Caesar , Imperatrix/ Caesarina Rex , Regina Magnus Dux/ Magnus Princeps, Magna Ducissa, Magna Principissa Archidux, Archiducissa Dux
Dux
, Ducissa Princeps Elector Princeps , Principissa Prorex, Proregina Marchio, Marchionissa Comes
Comes
, Comitissa Vicecomes, Vicecomitissa Baro, Baronissa Eques Nobilis Homo (N.H.)

BULGARIAN Цар, Царица Крал, Кралица Велик Княз, Велика Княгиня Ерцхерцог, Ерцхерцогиня Херцог, Херцогиня Курфюрст, Курфюрстина Княз, Княгиня Вице-крал, Вице-кралица Маркиз, Маркиза Граф, Графиня Виконт, Виконтеса Барон, Баронеса Баронет, Дама Рицар, Дама Господин

CZECH Císař, Císařovna Král, Královna Velkovévoda, Velkovévodkyně Arcivévoda, Arcivévodkyně Vévoda, Vévodkyně Kurfiřt, Kurfiřtka Kníže, Kněžna10 Místokrál/Vicekrál Místokrálovna/Vicekrálovna Markýz/Markrabě Markýza/Markraběnka Hrabě, Hraběnka Vikomt, Vikomtka/Vikomtesa Baron, Baronka Baronet Rytíř Pán, Paní

DANISH Kejser, Kejserinde Konge Dronning Storhertug, Storhertuginde Ærkehertug, Ærkehertuginde Hertug, Hertuginde Kurfyrste, Kurfystinde Prins/Fyrste Prinsesse/Fyrstinde Vicekonge, Vicedronning Markis, Markise Greve Grevinde, Komtesse Vicegreve, Vicegrevinde/ Vicekomtesse Baron, Friherre, Baronesse, Friherreinde Baronet, Baronetesse Ridder Junker

DUTCH Keizer, Keizerin Koning, Koningin Groothertog, Groothertogin Aartshertog, Aartshertogin Hertog, Hertogin Keurvorst, Keurvorstin Prins/Vorst, Prinses/Vorstin Onderkoning, Onderkoningin Markies/Markgraaf, Markiezin/Markgravin Graaf, Gravin Burggraaf, Burggravin Baron, Barones(se) Erfridder Ridder,

Jonkvrouw Jonkheer,

Jonkvrouw

FINNISH Keisari, Keisarinna (or Keisaritar, obsolete) Kuningas, Kuningatar Suurherttua/Suuriruhtinas, Suurherttuatar/Suuriruhtinatar Arkkiherttua, Arkkiherttuatar Herttua, Herttuatar Vaaliruhtinas, Vaaliruhtinatar Prinssi/Ruhtinas, Prinsessa/Ruhtinatar Varakuningas, Varakuningatar Markiisi/Rajakreivi, Markiisitar/Rajakreivitär Jaarli/Kreivi, Kreivitär Varakreivi, Varakreivitär Paroni, Vapaaherra, Paronitar, Rouva/ Vapaaherratar Baronetti, " Herra " (=fiefholder ), Herratar Aatelinen /Ritari style of wife: Rouva

FRENCH Empereur, Impératrice Roi, Reine Grand-Duc, Grande-Duchesse Archiduc, Archiduchesse Duc, Duchesse Prince-électeur, Princesse-électrice Prince, Princesse Viceroi, Vicereine Marquis, Marquise Comte, Comtesse Vicomte, Vicomtesse Baron, Baronne Baronnet Chevalier Ecuyer, Gentilhomme

GERMAN Kaiser
Kaiser
, Kaiserin König, Königin Großherzog/ Großfürst, Großherzogin/ Großfürstin Erzherzog
Erzherzog
, Erzherzogin Herzog
Herzog
, Herzogin Kurfürst , Kurfürstin Prinz/ Fürst
Fürst
, Prinzessin/Fürstin Vizekönig, Vizekönigin Markgraf
Markgraf
, Markgräfin Graf
Graf
, Gräfin Vizegraf, Burggraf Vizegräfin, Burggräfin Baron, Herr, Freiherr Baronin, Frau, Freifrau, Freiin Ritter
Ritter
Junker (Prussia), Edler
Edler
(Austria), Junkerin, Edle

GREEK DOMESTIC Αυτοκράτωρ, Αυτοκράτειρα Βασιλεύς, Βασίλισσα Μέγας Δούκας, Μεγάλη Δούκισσα Aρχιδούκας, Aρχιδούκισσα Δούκας, Δούκισσα Eκλέκτορας Δεσπότης, Δέσποινα Aντιβασιλέας, Αντιβασίλησσα Μαρκήσιος, Μαρκησία Κόμης, Κόμισσα Υποκόμης, Υποκόμισσα Bαρώνος Βαρωνίσκος Ιππότης, Ντάμα Νωβελίσσιμος, Νωβελίσσιμα;

HUNGARIAN Császár, császárnő Király, királynő Nagyherceg, fejedelem, vajda nagyhercegnő, fejedelemasszony, - Főherceg, főhercegnő Herceg, hercegnő Választófejedelem, (választófejedelemnő) Királyi herceg, királyi hercegnő Alkirály, alkirálynő Márki, őrgróf márkinő, őrgrófnő Gróf grófnő Várgróf, vikomt Várgrófnő (vikomtnő) Báró, bárónő Baronet, baronetnő Lovag (vitéz ) Nemes, nemesasszony

ICELANDIC Keisari, keisarynja Konungur, kóngur, drottning Stórhertogi, stórhertogaynja Hertogi, hertogaynja Kjörfursti, kjörfurstynja Prins/fursti, prinsessa/furstynja Vísikonungur, vísidrottning Markgreifi, markgreifynja Greifi, jarl greifynja, jarlkona Vísigreifi, vísigreifynja Barón, fríherra, barónessa Riddari Aðalsmaður, aðalskona

ITALIAN Imperatore, Imperatrice Re, Regina Granduca, Granduchessa Arciduca, Arciduchessa Duca, Duchessa Principe Elettore, Principessa Electrice Principe, Principessa Viceré, Viceregina Marchese, Marchesa Conte, Contessa Visconte, Viscontessa Barone, Baronessa Baronetto Cavaliere Nobile, Nobiluomo

LATVIAN Imperators, Imperatrise Karalis, Karaliene Lielhercogs, Lielhercogene Erchercogs, Erchercogiene Hercogs, Hercogiene Princis, Princese Vicekaralis, Vicekaraliene Markgrāfs/Marķīzs Markgrāfiene/Marķīziene Grāfs, Grāfiene Vikonts, Vikontese Barons, Baronese Baronets

LITHUANIAN Imperatorius, Imperatorienė Karalius, Karalienė Didysis kunigaikštis, Didžioji kunigaikštytė Kunigaikštis, Kunigaikštytė Hercogas, Hercogienė Princas, Princesė Vicekaralius, Vicekaralienė Markizas, Markizienė Grafas, Grafienė Vikontas, Vikontienė Baronas/Freiheras, Baronienė/Freifrau Baronetas Riteris

LUXEMBOURGISH Keeser, Keeserin Kinnek, Kinnigin Groussherzog, Groussherzogin Erzherzog, Erzherzogin Herzog, Herzogin Kuerfierscht, Kuerfierschtin Prënz/Fierscht, Prënzessin/Fierschtin Vizekinnek, Vizekinnigin Markgrof/Marquis, Markgrofin/Marquise Grof, Grofin/Comtesse Vizegrof/Vicomte, Vizegrofin/Vicomtesse Baron, Baroness(e) Ritter

MALTESE Imperatur, Imperatriċi Re/Sultan, Reġina/Sultana Gran Duka, Gran Dukessa Arċiduka, Arċidukessa Duka, Dukessa Prinċep Elettur, Prinċipessa Elettriċi Prinċep, Prinċipessa Viċirè, Viċireġina Markiż, Markiża Konti, Kontessa Viskonti, Viskontessa Baruni, Barunessa Barunett Kavallier

NORWEGIAN Keiser, Keiserinne Konge, Dronning Storhertug, Storhertuginne Erkehertug, Erkehertuginne Hertug, Hertuginne Kurfyrste, Kurfyrstinne Prins/Fyrste, Prinsesse/Fyrstinne Visekonge, Visedronning Marki, Markise Jarl / Greve, Grevinne Vikomte/Visegreve, Visegrevinne Baron, Friherre, Baronesse, Friherreinde Ridder Adelsmann, Adelskvinne

POLISH Cesarz, Cesarzowa Król, Królowa Wielki Książę, Wielka Księżna Arcyksiążę Arcyksiężna Diuk (Książę), (Księżna) Książę Elektor, Księżna Elektorowa Książę, Księżna Wicekról, Wicekrólowa Markiz/Margrabia, Markiza/Margrabina Hrabia, Hrabina Wicehrabia, Wicehrabina Baron, Baronowa Baronet Rycerz/ Kawaler Szlachcic

PORTUGUESE Imperador, Imperatriz Rei, Rainha Grão-Duque, Grã-Duquesa Arquiduque, Arquiduquesa; Duque, Duquesa Príncipe-Eleitor, Princesa-Eleitora; Príncipe, Princesa Vice-rei, Vice-rainha Marquês, Marquesa Conde, Condessa Visconde, Viscondessa Barão, Baronesa Baronete, Baronetesa; Cavaleiro Fidalgo

ROMANIAN Împărat, Împărăteasă Rege, Regina Mare Duce, Mare Ducesă Arhiduce, Arhiducesă Duce, Ducesă Prinț Elector, Prințesa Electora Prinț, Prințesa Vicerege, Viceregina Marchiz, Marchiza Conte, Contesă Viconte, Vicontesă Baron, Baroneasă, Baronă Baronet Cavaler

RUSSIAN Император/Царь( Imperator
Imperator
/Tsar) ,

Императрица/Царица( Imperatritsa /Tsaritsa) Король/Царь

(Koról/Tsar), Королева/Царица

(Koroléva/Tsaritsa) Великий Князь (Velikiy Knyaz), Великая Княгиня (Velikaya Kniagina) Эрцгерцог (Ertsgertsog), Эрцгерцогиня (Ertsgertsoginya) Герцог (Gertsog), Герцогиня (Gertsoginya) Курфюст (Kurfyurst), Курфюстина (Kurfyurstina) Князь(Kniaz) , Княгиня (Kniagina) Вице-король (Vitse-koról), Вице-королева (Vitse-koroléva) Маркиз (Markiz), Маркиза (Markiza),

Боярин ( Boyar
Boyar
), Боярыня (Boyarina) Граф (Graf), Графиня (Grafinya) Виконт (Vikont), Виконтесса (Vikontessa) Барон (Baron), Баронесса (Baronessa) Баронет (Baronet) Рыцарь (Rytsar),

Дама (Dama) Господин (Gospodin),

Госпожа (Gospozha)

SERBIAN Car, Carica Kralj, Kraljica Veliki vojvoda, Velika vojvodkinja Nadvojvoda/ Herceg, Nadvojvodkinja/ Hercoginja Vojvoda, Vojvodkinja Princ, Princeza Knez, Kneginja Ban, Vicereine Markiz, Markiza Grof, Grofica Vikont, Vikontica Baron, Baronica/ Baronesa Barunet, Baruneta Vitez Gospodin

SPANISH Emperador, Emperatriz Rey, Reina Gran Duque, Gran Duquesa Archiduque, Archiduquesa Duque, Duquesa Príncipe Elector, Princesa Electora; Príncipe, Princesa Virrey, Virreina Marqués, Marquesa Conde, Condesa Vizconde, Vizcondesa Barón, Baronesa Baronet Caballero Escudero, Hidalgo

SLOVAK Cisár, Cisárovná Kráľ, Kráľovná Veľkovojvoda, Veľkovojvodkyňa Arcivojvoda, Arcivojvodkyňa Vojvoda, Vojvodkyňa Kurfirst/ Knieža voliteľ/ Knieža volič Knieža, Kňažná Miestokráľ/Vicekráľ Markíz, Markíza Gróf, Grófka Vikomt, Vikontesa Barón, Barónka Baronet Rytier

SLOVENE Cesar, Cesarica Kralj, Kraljica Veliki vojvoda, Velika vojvodinja Nadvojvoda, Nadvojvodinja Vojvoda, Vojvodinja Volilni knez, Volilna kneginja Knez, Kneginja Podkralj, Podkraljica Markiz/Mejni grof, Markiza/Mejna grofica Grof, Grofica Vikont, Vikontinja Baron, Baronica Baronet, Baronetinja Vitez Oproda

SWEDISH Kejsare, Kejsarinna Kung, Drottning Storhertig/Storfurste, Storhertiginna/Storfurstinna Ärkehertig, ärkehertiginna Hertig, hertiginna Kurfurste Kurfurstinna Prins/Furste, Prinsessa/Furstinna Vicekung, Vicedrottning Markis/markgreve, markisinna/markgrevinna Greve, Grevinna Vicomte, Vicomtessa Baron, Herre, Friherre, Baronessa, Fru, Friherreinde Riddare/Frälseman, Fru

TURKISH İmparator, İmparatoriçe Kral, Kraliçe Grandük, Grandüşes Arşidük, Arşidüşes Dük, Düşes Veliaht Prens, Veliaht Prenses Prens, Prenses Vezir; Marki, Markiz Kont, Kontes Vikont, Vikontes Baron, Barones Baronet, Baronetes Şövalye Bey, Efendi

UKRAINIAN Імператор/Цар ( Imperator
Imperator
/ Tsar
Tsar
), Імператриця/Цариця (Imperatrytsia /Tsarytsia ) Король/Цар (Koról/Tsar), Королева/Цариця (Koroléva/Tsarytsia) Великий Князь (Velykyi Knyaz), Велика Княгиня (Velyka Kniahynia) Ерцгерцог/Архекнязь (Ertshertsoh/Arkheknyaz), Ерцгерцогиня/Архікнягиня (Ertshertsohynia/Arkhikniahynia) Герцог/Дюк (Hertsoh/Diuk), Герцогиня/Дючесса (Hertsohynia/Diuchessa) Курфюрст (Kurfyurst), Курфюрстина (Kurfyurstyna) Князь/Принц (Knyaz /Printz), Княгиня/Принцесса (Kniahynia/Pryntsessa) Віце-король (Vitse-koról), Віце-королева (Vitse-koroléva) Маркіз/Бояр (Markiz/ Boyar
Boyar
), Маркіза/Боярина (Markiza/Boyaryna) Граф (Hraf), Графиня (Hrafynia) Віконт (Vikont), Віконтесса (Vikontessa) Барон (Baron), Баронесса (Baronessa) Баронет (Baronet) Лицар (Lytsar) Пан/Господар (Pan/Hospodar), Пані/Господиня (Pani/Hospodynia)

WELSH Ymerawdwr, Ymerodres Brenin, Brenhines Archddug, Archdduges Archddug, Archdduges Dug, Duges Tywysog, Tywysoges Marcwis/Ardalydd, Ardalyddes Iarll/Cownt, Iarlles/Cowntes Iarll, Iarlles Barwn, Barwnes Barwnig, Barwniges Marchog

SEE ALSO

* Clergy
Clergy
, Ecclesiastical Addresses , Prince
Prince
of the church * Courtesy title * False titles of nobility * Forms of address in the United Kingdom * Nobiliary particle
Nobiliary particle
* Petty kingdom * Royal and noble styles

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Loss of sovereignty or fief does not necessarily lead to loss of title. The position in the ranking table is however accordingly adjusted. The occurrence of fiefs has changed from time to time, and from country to country. For instance, dukes in England rarely had a duchy to rule. * ^ Esta institucion (Cabecería de Barangay), mucho más antigua que la sujecion de las islas al Gobierno, ha merecido siempre las mayores atencion. En un principio eran las cabecerías hereditarias, y constituian la verdadera hidalguía del país; mas del dia, si bien en algunas provincias todavía se tramiten por sucesion hereditaria, las hay tambien eleccion, particularmente en las provincias más inmediatas á Manila, en donde han perdido su prestigio y son una verdadera carga. En las provincias distantes todavía se hacen respetar, y allí es precisamente en donde la autoridad tiene ménos que hacer, y el órden se conserva sin necesidad de medidas coercitivas; porque todavía existe en ellas el gobierno patriarcal, por el gran respeto que la plebe conserva aún á lo que llaman aquí PRINCIPALíA.FERRANDO, Fr Juan ils formaient, à cette époque une espèce de noblesse héréditaire. L'hérédité leur a été conservée aujourd hui: quand une de ces places devient vacante, la nomination du successeur est faite par le surintendant des finances dans les pueblos qui environnent la capitale, et, dans les provinces éloignées, par l'alcalde, sur la proposition du gobernadorcillo et la présentation des autres membres du barangay; il en est de même pour les nouvelles créations que nécessite de temps à autre l'augmentation de la population. Le cabeza, sa femme et l'aîné de ses enfants sont exempts du tributo. MALLAT de BASSILAU, Jean (1846). Les Philippines: Histoire, géographie, moeurs. Agriculture, industrie et commerce des Colonies espagnoles dans l'Océanie (2 vols) (in French). Paris: Arthus Bertrand Éd. ISBN 978-1143901140 . OCLC 23424678, p. 356. * ^ Meyers Taschenlexikon Geschichte 1982, vol 1, p21-22 * ^ Indian Epigraphical Dictionary Page 166 Accessed at https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pySCGvdyYLIC&pg=PA166&dq=indian+epigraphical+pillai+prince&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiHpO3DvuTQAhWpBcAKHRzwDSIQ6AEIHDAA#v=onepage&q=indian%20epigraphical%20pillai%20prince mas del dia, si bien en algunas provincias todavía se tramiten por sucesion hereditaria, las hay tambien eleccion, particularmente en las provincias más inmediatas á Manila, en donde han perdido su prestigio y su una verdadera carga. En las provincias distantes todavía se hacen respetar, y allí es precisamente en donde la autoridad tiene ménos que hacer, y el órden se conserva sin necesidad de medidas coercitivas; porque todavía existe en ellas el gobierno patriarcal, por el gran respeto que la plebe conserva aún á lo que llaman aquí principalía." FERRANDO, Fr Juan Terry, Janice; Holoka, Jim; Goff, Richard; Cassar, George H. (2011). Cengage Advantage Books: World History. I. California: Wadsworth Publishing Co Inc. p. 329. ISBN 9781111345167 . * ^ Meyers Taschenlexikon Geschichte 1982, vol 1, p22 these are (in descending order of rank): Scottish feudal Earl
Earl
, Scottish Feudal Lord , and Scottish feudal Baron
Baron
(the general name for the dignity listed above among the ranks of aristocratic gentry). * ^ Dodd, Charles R. (1843) A manual of dignities, privilege, and precedence: including lists of the great public functionaries, from the revolution to the present time, London: Whittaker & Co., pp.248,251 * ^ The meaning of the title Esquire became (and remains) quite diffuse, and may indicate anything from no aristocratic status, to some official government civil appointment, or (more historically) the son of a knight or noble who had no other title above just Gentleman
Gentleman
. * ^ In the United States, where there is no nobility, the title esquire is sometimes arrogated (without any governmental authorization) by lawyers admitted to the state bar. * ^ Larence, Sir James Henry (1827) . The nobility of the British Gentry or the political ranks and dignities of the British Empire compared with those on the continent (2nd ed.). London: T.Hookham -- Simpkin and Marshall. Retrieved 2013-01-06. * ^ "RIS Dokument". bka.gv.at. * ^ A B C D "Prince" (Prinz in German, Prins in Swedish, Prinssi in Finnish, "Principe" in Spanish) can also be a title of junior members of royal houses. In the British system, for example, prince is not a rank of nobility but a title held exclusively by members of the royal family. * ^ Does not confer nobility in the British system. * ^ Non-hereditary. Does not confer nobility in the British system. See also squire and esquire . * ^ Latin
Latin
titles are for etymological comparisons. They do not accurately reflect their medieval counterparts. * ^ The title Markýz was not used in Bohemia and thus referred only to foreign nobility, while the title Markrabě (the same as the German Markgraf) is connected only to a few historical territories (including the former marches on the borders of the Holy Roman Empire, or Moravia). * ^ Finland accorded the noble ranks of Ruhtinas, Kreivi, Vapaaherra and Aatelinen. The titles Suurherttua, Arkkiherttua, Vaaliruhtinas, Prinssi, Markiisi, Jaarli, Varakreivi, Paroni, and Baronetti were not granted in Finland, though they are used of foreign titleholders. Keisari, Kuningas, Suuriruhtinas, Prinssi, and Herttua have been used as official titles of members of the dynasties that ruled Finland, though not granted as titles of nobility. Some feudally-based privileges in landowning, connected to nobily related lordship , existed into the nineteenth century; and fiefs were common in the late medieval and early modern eras. The title Ritari was not commonly used except in the context of knightly orders. The lowest, untitled level of hereditary nobility was that of the "Aatelinen" (i.e. "noble"). * ^ A B C D E F G No noble titles were granted after 1906 when the unicameral legislatures ( Eduskunta
Eduskunta
) were established, removing the constitutional status of the so-called First Estate . However, noble ranks were granted in Finland until 1917 (there, the lowest, untitled level of hereditary nobility was "Aatelinen", or "noble"; it was in essence a rank, not a title). * ^ In central Europe, the title of Fürst
Fürst
or kníže (e.g. Fürst von Liechtenstein) ranks below the title of a duke (e.g. Duke
Duke
of Brunswick). The title of Vizegraf was not used in German-speaking countries, and the titles of Ritter
Ritter
and Edler
Edler
were not commonly used. * ^ In the German system by rank approximately equal to Landgraf and Pfalzgraf. * ^ The "vitéz" title was introduced in Hungary after 1920. In preceding ages simply meant a warrior or a courageous man. * ^ In keeping with the principle of equality among noblemen, no noble titles (with few exceptions) below that of prince were allowed in Poland. The titles in italics are simply Polish translations of western titles which were granted to some Polish nobles by foreign monarchs, especially after the partitions . Instead of hereditary titles, the Polish nobility developed and used a set of titles based on offices held . See "szlachta " for more info on Polish nobility. * ^ In Portugal, a baron or viscount who was a "grandee of the kingdom" (Portuguese : Grandes do Reino) was called a "baron with grandness" (Portuguese : Barão com Grandeza) or "viscount with grandness" (Portuguese : Visconde com Grandeza); each of these grandees was ranked as equal to a count. * ^ A B C For domestic Russian nobility, only the titles Kniaz
Kniaz
and Boyar
Boyar
were used before the 18th century, when Graf
Graf
was added.

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