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The Royal Observatory, Greenwich
Greenwich
(ROG;[1] known as the Old Royal Observatory
Observatory
from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich
Greenwich
to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich
Greenwich
Park, overlooking the River Thames. It played a major role in the history of astronomy and navigation, and is best known as the location of the prime meridian, and thereby gave its name to Greenwich
Greenwich
Mean Time. The ROG has the IAU observatory code of 000, the first in the list.[2] ROG, the National Maritime Museum, the Queen's House
Queen's House
and Cutty Sark
Cutty Sark
are collectively designated Royal Museums Greenwich.[1] The observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II, with the foundation stone being laid on 10 August. The site was chosen by Sir Christopher Wren.[3] At that time the king also created the position of Astronomer Royal, to serve as the director of the observatory and to "apply himself with the most exact care and diligence to the rectifying of the tables of the motions of the heavens, and the places of the fixed stars, so as to find out the so much desired longitude of places for the perfecting of the art of navigation." He appointed John Flamsteed as the first Astronomer Royal. The building was completed in the summer of 1676.[4] The building was often called "Flamsteed House", in reference to its first occupant. The scientific work of the observatory was relocated elsewhere in stages in the first half of the 20th century, and the Greenwich
Greenwich
site is now maintained as a museum.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Chronology 1.2 Site 1.3 Establishment 1.4 Greenwich
Greenwich
Meridian 1.5 Greenwich
Greenwich
Mean Time and the time ball 1.6 Bomb attack of 1894 1.7 Early 20th century 1.8 Herstmonceux
Herstmonceux
Castle

2 Observatory
Observatory
museum 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links

History[edit] Chronology[edit]

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1675 – 22 June, Royal Observatory
Observatory
founded. 1675 – 10 August, construction began. 1714 Longitude
Longitude
Act established the Board of Longitude
Board of Longitude
and Longitude rewards. The Astronomer Royal
Astronomer Royal
was, until the Board was dissolved in 1828, always an ex officio Commissioner of Longitude. 1767 Astronomer Royal
Astronomer Royal
Nevil Maskelyne
Nevil Maskelyne
began publication of the Nautical Almanac, based on observations made at the Observatory. 1818 Oversight of the Royal Observatory
Observatory
was transferred from the Board of Ordnance to the Board of Admiralty; at that time the observatory was charged with maintaining the Royal Navy's Marine chronometers. 1833 Daily time signals began, marked by dropping a Time ball. 1899 The New Physical Observatory
Observatory
(now known as the South Building) was completed. 1924 Hourly time signals ( Greenwich
Greenwich
Time Signal) from the Royal Observatory
Observatory
were first broadcast on 5 February. 1948 Office of the Astronomer Royal
Astronomer Royal
was moved to Herstmonceux. 1957 Royal Observatory
Observatory
completed its move to Herstmonceux, becoming the Royal Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory
Observatory
(RGO). The Greenwich
Greenwich
site is renamed the Old Royal Observatory. 1990 RGO moved to Cambridge. 1998 RGO closed. Greenwich
Greenwich
site is returned to its original name, the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, is made part of the National Maritime Museum. 2011 The Greenwich
Greenwich
museums, including the ROG, become collectively the Royal Museums Greenwich.

Former Royal Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory, Herstmonceux, East Sussex

Site[edit]

Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory
Observatory
(Latinized as "Observatorium Anglicanum Hoc Grenovici prope Londinum"), as illustrated in Doppelmayr's map of the southern celestial hemisphere, ca. 1730

There had been significant buildings on this land since the reign of William I.[5] Greenwich
Greenwich
Palace, on the site of the present-day Maritime Museum, was the birthplace of both Henry VIII
Henry VIII
and his daughters Mary I and Elizabeth I; the Tudors used Greenwich
Greenwich
Castle, which stood on the hilltop that the Observatory
Observatory
presently occupies, as a hunting lodge. Greenwich
Greenwich
Castle was reportedly a favourite place for Henry VIII
Henry VIII
to house his mistresses, so that he could easily travel from the Palace to see them.[6] Establishment[edit]

Laser
Laser
projected from the observatory marking the Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
line

Laser
Laser
at night

The establishment of a Royal Observatory
Observatory
was proposed in 1674 by Sir Jonas Moore
Jonas Moore
who, in his role as Surveyor General at the Ordnance Office, persuaded King Charles II to create the observatory, with John Flamsteed installed as its director.[7] The Ordnance Office was given responsibility for building the Observatory, with Moore providing the key instruments and equipment for the observatory at his own personal cost. Flamsteed House, the original part of the Observatory, was designed by Sir Christopher Wren, probably assisted by Robert Hooke, and was the first purpose-built scientific research facility in Britain. It was built for a cost of £520 (£20 over budget) out of largely recycled materials on the foundations of Duke Humphrey's Tower, the forerunner of Greenwich
Greenwich
Castle, which resulted in the alignment being 13 degrees away from true North, somewhat to Flamsteed's chagrin. The original observatory at first housed the scientific instruments to be used by Flamsteed in his work on stellar tables, and over time also incorporated additional responsibilities such as marking the official time of day, and housing Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac
Nautical Almanac
Office. Moore donated two clocks, built by Thomas Tompion, which were installed in the 20 foot high Octagon Room, the principal room of the building. They were of unusual design, each with a pendulum 13 feet (3.96 metres) in length mounted above the clock face, giving a period of four seconds and an accuracy, then unparalleled, of seven seconds per day. Greenwich
Greenwich
Meridian[edit] Main article: Greenwich
Greenwich
Meridian

The 24-hour Shepherd Gate Clock

Telescope and tree

Royal Observatory, Greenwich

One of the hyper-accurate timekeepers at the observatory

British astronomers have long used the Royal Observatory
Observatory
as a basis for measurement. Four separate meridians have passed through the buildings, defined by successive instruments.[8] The basis of longitude, the meridian that passes through the Airy transit circle, first used in 1851, was adopted as the world's Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
at the International Meridian Conference
International Meridian Conference
on 22 October 1884 (voting took place on 13 October).[9] Subsequently, nations across the world used it as their standard for mapping and timekeeping. The Prime Meridian was marked by a brass (later replaced by stainless steel) strip in the Observatory's courtyard once the buildings became a museum in 1960, and, since 16 December 1999, has been marked by a powerful green laser shining north across the London night sky. Since the first triangulation of Great Britain in the period 1783–1853, Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
maps have been based on an earlier version of the Greenwich
Greenwich
meridian, defined by the transit instrument of James Bradley. When the Airy circle (5.79 m to the east) became the reference for the meridian, the difference resulting from the change was considered small enough to be neglected. When a new triangulation was done between 1936 and 1962, scientists determined that in the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
system the longitude of the international Greenwich meridian was not 0° but 0°00'00.417" (about 8 m) East.[10] Besides the change of the reference line, imperfections of the surveying system added another discrepancy to the definition of the origin, so that the Bradley line itself is now 0°00'00.12" East of the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Zero Meridian (about 2.3m).[11] This old astronomical prime meridian has been replaced by a more precise prime meridian. When Greenwich
Greenwich
was an active observatory, geographical coordinates were referred to a local oblate spheroid called a datum known as a geoid, whose surface closely matched local mean sea level. Several datums were in use around the world, all using different spheroids, because mean sea level undulates by as much as 100 metres worldwide. Modern geodetic reference systems, such as the World Geodetic System
World Geodetic System
and the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, use a single oblate spheroid, fixed to the Earth's gravitational centre. The shift from several local spheroids to one worldwide spheroid caused all geographical coordinates to shift by many metres, sometimes as much as several hundred metres. The Prime Meridian of these modern reference systems is 102.5 metres east of the Greenwich
Greenwich
astronomical meridian represented by the stainless steel strip, which is now 5.31 arcseconds West. The modern location of the Airy Transit is 51°28′40.1″N 0°0′5.3″W / 51.477806°N 0.001472°W / 51.477806; -0.001472 (Airy Transit)[12] International time from the end of the 19th century until UT1
UT1
was based on Simon Newcomb's equations, giving a mean sun about 0.18 seconds behind UT1
UT1
(the equivalent of 2.7 arcseconds) as of 2013; it coincided in 2013 with a meridian halfway between Airy's circle and the IERS origin: 51°28′40.1247″N 0°0′2.61″W / 51.477812417°N 0.0007250°W / 51.477812417; -0.0007250.[13] Greenwich
Greenwich
Mean Time and the time ball[edit] Main article: Greenwich
Greenwich
Mean Time Greenwich
Greenwich
Mean Time (GMT) was until 1954 based on celestial observations made at Greenwich, and later on observations made at other observatories. GMT was formally renamed as Universal Time
Universal Time
in 1935, but is still commonly referred to as GMT. It is now calculated from observations of extra-galactic radio sources. To help mariners at the port and others in line of sight of the observatory to synchronise their clocks to GMT, Astronomer Royal
Astronomer Royal
John Pond installed a very visible time ball that drops precisely at 1 p.m. (13:00) every day atop the observatory in 1833. Initially it was dropped by an operator; from 1852 it was released automatically via an electric impulse from the Shepherd Master Clock.[14] The ball is still dropped daily at 13:00 (GMT in winter, BST in summer).[15] Bomb attack of 1894[edit] The Observatory
Observatory
underwent an attempted bombing on 15 February 1894. This was possibly the first "international terrorist" incident in Britain.[citation needed] The bomb was accidentally detonated while being held by 26-year-old French anarchist Martial Bourdin
Martial Bourdin
in Greenwich
Greenwich
Park, near the Observatory
Observatory
building. Bourdin died about 30 minutes later. It is not known why he chose the observatory, or whether the detonation was intended to occur elsewhere. Novelist Joseph Conrad
Joseph Conrad
used the incident in his novel The Secret Agent.[16] Early 20th century[edit]

Standard lengths on the wall of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, London – 1 yard (3 feet), 2 feet, 1 foot, 6 inches (1/2 foot), and 3 inches. The separation of the inside faces of the marks is exact at an ambient temperature of 60 °F (16 °C) and a rod of the correct measure, resting on the pins, will fit snugly between them.[17][18]

During most of the twentieth century, the Royal Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory was not at Greenwich. The last time that all departments were there was 1924: in that year electrification of the railways affected the readings of the Magnetic and Meteorological Departments, and the Magnetic Observatory
Observatory
moved to Abinger. Prior to this, the observatory had had to insist that the electric trams in the vicinity could not use an earth return for the traction current.[19] After the onset of World War II
World War II
in 1939, many departments were temporarily evacuated out of range of German bombers, to Abinger, Bradford on Avon, Bristol,[20] and Bath,[21] and activities in Greenwich
Greenwich
were reduced to the bare minimum. On 15 October 1940, during the Blitz, the Courtyard gates were destroyed by a direct bomb hit. The wall above the Gate Clock collapsed, and the clock's dial was damaged. The damage was repaired after the war.[22] Herstmonceux
Herstmonceux
Castle[edit] After the Second World War, in 1947, the decision was made to move to Herstmonceux
Herstmonceux
Castle[23] and 320 adjacent acres (1.3 km²), 70 km south-southeast of Greenwich
Greenwich
near Hailsham
Hailsham
in East Sussex, due to light pollution in London. The Observatory
Observatory
was officially known as The Royal Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory, Herstmonceux. Although the Astronomer Royal
Astronomer Royal
Harold Spencer Jones moved to the castle in 1948, the scientific staff did not move until the observatory buildings were completed, in 1957. Shortly thereafter, other previously dispersed departments were reintegrated at Herstmonceux. The Isaac Newton Telescope
Isaac Newton Telescope
was built at Herstmonceux
Herstmonceux
in 1967, but was moved to Roque de los Muchachos Observatory
Observatory
in Spain's Canary Islands in 1979. In 1990 the RGO moved again, to Cambridge.[24] Following a decision of the Particle Physics and Astronomy
Astronomy
Research Council, it closed in 1998. Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac
Nautical Almanac
Office was transferred to the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, on the Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Oxfordshire
Chilton, Oxfordshire
after the closure. Other work went to the UK Astronomy
Astronomy
Technology Centre in Edinburgh. The castle grounds became the home of the International Study Centre of Queen's University, Kingston, Canada and The Observatory
Observatory
Science Centre,[25] which is operated by an educational charity Science Project.

The Queen's House
Queen's House
at Greenwich, showing the Royal Observatory
Observatory
in the far distance, 2017.

Observatory
Observatory
museum[edit] The observatory buildings at Greenwich
Greenwich
became a museum of astronomical and navigational tools, which is part of the Royal Museums Greenwich.[26] Notable exhibits include John Harrison's sea watch, the H4, which received a large reward from the Board of Longitude, and his three earlier marine timekeepers; all four are the property of the Ministry of Defence. Many additional horological artefacts are displayed, documenting the history of precision timekeeping for navigational and astronomical purposes, including the mid-20th-century Russian-made F.M. Fedchenko clock (the most accurate pendulum clock ever built in multiple copies). It also houses the astronomical instruments used to make meridian observations and the 28-inch equatorial Grubb refracting telescope of 1893, the largest of its kind in the UK. The Shepherd Clock outside the observatory gate is an early example of an electric slave clock. In February 2005 a £16 million redevelopment comprising a new planetarium and additional display galleries and educational facilities was started; the ROG reopened on 25 May 2007 with the new 120-seat Peter Harrison Planetarium.[27] References[edit]

^ a b Rebekah Higgitt (6 September 2012). "Royal Observatory Greenwich, London". BSHS Travel Guide - A Travel Guide to Scientific Sites. Retrieved 28 April 2017.  ^ "List of Observatory
Observatory
Codes". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 28 April 2017.  ^ " Greenwich
Greenwich
and the Millennium". 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.  ^ Robert Chambers, Book of Days ^ John Timbs' Abbeys, Castles and Ancient Halls of England and Wales ^ Hart, Kelly (2010), The Mistresses of Henry VIII, The History Press, p. 73, ISBN 978-0-7524-5496-2  ^ Willmoth, Frances (2004). "Moore, Sir Jonas (1617–1679)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19137.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ Dolan, Graham. "The Greenwich
Greenwich
Meridian before the Airy Transit Circle". The Greenwich
Greenwich
Meridian. Retrieved 2 May 2015.  ^ Howse, Derek (1997). Greenwich
Greenwich
time and the longitude. London: Phillip Wilson. pp. 12, 137. ISBN 0-85667-468-0.  ^ Howse, Derek (1980). " Greenwich
Greenwich
time and the discovery of the longitude". p. 171.  ^ Adams, Brian (1994). "Charles Close Society" (PDF). pp. 14–15.  ^ Malys, Stephen; Seago, John H.; Palvis, Nikolaos K.; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Kaplan, George H. (1 August 2015). "Why the Greenwich meridian moved". Journal of Geodesy. doi:10.1007/s00190-015-0844-6.  ^ Seago, John H.; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth. "The mean-solar-time origin of Universal Time
Universal Time
and UTC" (PDF). Paper presented at the AAS/AIAA Spaceflight Mechanics Meeting, Kauai, HI, USA, March 2013. Reprinted from Advances in the Astronomical Sciences v. 148. pp. 1789, 1801, 1805.  ^ "From The Royal Observatory: The Greenwich
Greenwich
Time Ball". Londonist.com. Retrieved 3 May 2017.  ^ " Greenwich
Greenwich
Time Ball".  ^ "Propaganda by Deed – the Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory
Observatory
Bomb of 1894". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.  ^ Bennett, Keith (2004), Bucher, Jay L., ed., The Metrology Handbook, Milwaukee, WI: American Society for Quality Measurement, p. 8, ISBN 978-0-87389-620-7 . ^ Walford, Edward (1878), Old and New London, VI . ^ " Abinger
Abinger
Magnetic Observatory
Observatory
(1923-1957)". The Royal Observatory Greenwich. Retrieved 3 May 2017.  ^ " Bristol
Bristol
& Bradford on Avon
Bradford on Avon
(1939-1948)". The Royal Observatory Greenwich. Retrieved 3 May 2017.  ^ "Bath (1939-1949)". The Royal Observatory
Observatory
Greenwich. Retrieved 3 May 2017.  ^ "The Royal Observatory
Observatory
Greenwich
Greenwich
- The Shepherd Gate Clock". Royal Observatory
Observatory
Greenwich. Retrieved 3 May 2017.  A very detailed history of the Shepherd Gate Clock. ^ "The Herstmonceux
Herstmonceux
years... 1948-1990". The Royal Observatory Greenwich. Retrieved 3 May 2017.  ^ "A Personal History Of The Royal Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory
Observatory
at Herstmonceux
Herstmonceux
Castle, 1948-1990 by G.A. Wilkins".  ^ the-observatory.org ^ "Royal Museums Greenwich : Sea, Ships, Time and the Stars : RMG".  ^ "Press Release: Reopening of the new Royal Observatory, Greenwich". Royal Museums Greenwich. 27 June 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory: ... the Royal Observatory
Observatory
at Greenwich
Greenwich
and Herstmonceux, 1675–1975. London: Taylor & Francis, 1975 3v. (Vol. 1. Origins and early history (1675–1835), by Eric G. Forbes. ISBN 0-85066-093-9; Vol. 2. Recent history (1836–1975), by A.J. Meadows. ISBN 0-85066-094-7; Vol. 3. The buildings and instruments by Derek Howse. ISBN 0-85066-095-5)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Royal Observatory, Greenwich.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory.

Royal Museums Greenwich
Greenwich
(RMG) Web site - includes section on Royal Observatory
Observatory
Greenwich
Greenwich
(ROG)

ROG on RMG Web site

Online catalogue of the Royal Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory
Observatory
Archives (held at Cambridge
Cambridge
University Library) "Where the Earth's surface begins—and ends", Popular Mechanics, December 1930 HM Nautical Almanac
Nautical Almanac
Office Aerial View of The Royal Observatory, Greenwich
Greenwich
at Google Maps Castle in the sky – The story of the Royal Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory
Observatory
at Herstmonceux A Personal History of the Royal Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory
Observatory
at Herstmonceux Castle, 1948–1990 by George Wilkins, a former staff member The Observatory
Observatory
Science Centre Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes A pictorial catalogue of meridian markers

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Torpedo Experimental Establishment Admiralty
Admiralty
Underwater Weapons Establishment Architectural and Engineering Works Department Air Equipment and Naval Photography Department Air Department Air Materiel Department Air Personnel Department Amphibious Warfare Headquarters Armament Supply Department Board of Invention and Research Board of Longitude Boom Defence Department Boom Defence and Marine Salvage Department Britannia Royal Naval College Chemical Board Chemical Department Civil Catering Department Civil Engineer in Chiefs Department Coastguard and Reserves Branch Combined Operations Headquarters Commissioner for Property and Income-tax for the Naval Department Compass Department Contract and Purchase Department Council of Naval Education Dental Examining Board Department of Radio Equipment Department of the Accountant-General of the Navy Department of Aeronautical and Engineering Research Department of Miscellaneous Weapons Development Department of Naval Assistant (Foreign) to Second Sea Lord Department of Naval Education Operational Research Department of Personal Services and Officer Appointments Department of Physical Research Department of Physical Training & Sports Department of Radio Equipment Department of Research Programmes and Planning Department of Superintendent of de-magnetisation Department of the Admiral of the Training Service Department of the Chief Inspector of Naval Ordnance Department of the Chief of Naval Information Department of the Chief Scientist Department of the Civil Engineer-in-Chief Department of the Comptroller of Steam Machinery Department of the Comptroller for Victualling and Transport Services Department of the Controller of the Navy Department of the Controller-General of Merchant Shipbuilding Department of the Controller for Navy Pay Department of the Deputy Controller for Auxiliary Shipbuilding Department of the Deputy Controller for Dockyards and Shipbuilding Department of the Director Contract-Built Ships Department of the Director-General Aircraft Department of the Director-General of Manpower Department of the Director-General, Supply and Secretariat Branch Department of the Director of Aircraft Maintenance and Repair Department of the Director of Contract Labour Department of the Director of Dockyards Department of the Director of Electrical Engineering Department of the Director of Manning Department of the Director of Merchant Shipbuilding Department of the Director of Merchant Shipbuilding and Repairs Department of the Director of Merchant Ship Repairs Department of the Director of Naval Construction Department of the Director of Naval Equipment Department of the Director of Naval Recruiting Department of the Director of Naval Weather Service Department of the Director of Personal Services Department of the Director of Physical Training and Sports Department of the Director of Torpedoes and Mining Department of the Director of Transports Department of the Director of Underwater Weapons Department of the Director of Unexploded Bombs Department of the Director of Warship Production Department of the Director of Welfare and Service Conditions Department of the Director of Wreck Dispersal Department of the Flag Officer Sea Training Department of the Engineer in Chief Department of the Paymaster Director-General Department of the Inspector of Anti-Aircraft Weapons Department of the Inspector of Dockyard Expense Accounts Department of the Inspector-General of Naval Hospitals and Fleets Department of the Medical Director-General of the Navy Department of the Physician of the Navy Department of the Physician General of the Navy Department of the Storekeeper-General of the Navy Department of the Surveyor of Buildings Department of the Surveyor of Dockyards Dockyards and Fleet Maintenance Department Dockyards Branch Dockyard Expense Accounts Department Dockyard Schools Electrical Engineering Department Engineer Branch Engineering Department Experimental Department Fire Control Group Greenwich
Greenwich
Hospital Department Inspector of Telegraphs Inspector of Repairs Medical Consultative Board Medical Examining Board Historical Section Hydrographic Department Marine Pay Office Materials and Priority Department Medical Consultative Board Medical Department Medical Examining Board Movements Department Nautical Almanac
Nautical Almanac
Office Naval Artillery and Torpedo Department Naval Engineering College Naval Equipment Department Naval Historical Branch Naval Construction Department Naval Intelligence Department Naval Medical Service Naval Law Division Naval Mobilisation Department Naval Ordnance Department Naval Ordnance Inspection Department Naval Ordnance Stores Department Naval Publicity Department Naval Reserve Department Naval Security Department Naval Stores Department Naval Training Department Naval Works Department Navy, Army and Air Force Institute Navy and Army Canteen Board Navy Works Department Navigation
Navigation
Department Observatory
Observatory
at the Cape of Good Hope Office of the Admiral Commanding Coast Guard and Reserves Office of the Admiral Commanding, Reserves Office of the Admiral Superintendent, Chatham Office of the Admiral-Superintendent, Devonport Office of the Admiral-Superintendent, Malta Office of the Admiral-Superintendent of Naval Reserves Office of the Admiral-Superintendent, Pembroke Office of the Admiral-Superintendent, Plymouth Office of the Admiral-Superintendent, Portsmouth Office of the Admiral-Superintendent, Rosyth Office of the Admiralty
Admiralty
Chemist Office of the Adviser on the Naval Construction to the Board of Admiralty Office of the Assistant Controller Office of the Assistant Controller Research and Development Office of the Clerk of the Journals Office of the Deputy Controller of Navy Office of the Deputy Controller Production Office of the Director Woman’s Royal Naval Nursing Service Office of Extra Naval Assistant to Second Sea Lord Office of the Inspector Gun Mountings Office of the Keeper of Records Office of the Senior Psychologist of the Navy Office of the Translator of French and Spanish Languages Office of the Vice Controller Air Office of the Vice Controller of the Navy Organisation and Methods Department Packet Service Regional Organisation for Merchant Shipbuilding and Repairs Royal Corps of Naval Constructors Royal Flying Corps Royal Marines
Royal Marines
Office Royal Marines
Royal Marines
Pay Office Office of the Chaplain of the Fleet Royal Naval Academy Royal Naval Aircraft Workshops Royal Naval Air Service Royal Naval Air Stations Royal Naval Armaments Depot Royal Naval Cordite Factories Royal Naval Propellant Factory Royal Naval College, Dartmouth Royal Naval College, Greenwich Royal Naval College, Keyham Royal Naval College, Osborne Royal Naval Engineering College Royal Naval Film Corporation Royal Naval Hospital Royal Naval Medical Depot Royal Naval Minewatching Service Royal Naval Mine Depot Royal Naval Patrol Service Royal Naval Scientific Service Royal Naval Sick Quarters Royal Naval Torpedo Depot Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Royal Naval War College Royal Naval War College, Portsmouth Royal Navy Dockyard Royal Navy Medical Service Royal Navy Shore Signal Service Royal Observatory, Greenwich Royal School of Naval Architecture Salvage Department School of Mathematics and Naval Construction Scientific Research and Experiment Department Sea Transport Department Ship Department Ship Design Department Signal Department Signal School Statistics Department Steam Department Superintendent of De-magnetisation Torpedoes and Mining Department Transport Department Undersurface Warfare Department Victualling Department Volunteer Boys and Cadet Corps Weapons Department Wireless Telegraphy Board

Distribution of the Fleet

Office of the Permanent Secretary to the Admiralty Office of the First Naval Lord Office of the First Sea Lord Admiralty
Admiralty
Naval Staff

Military units distributed under the Admiralty

1st Fleet 2nd Fleet 3rd Fleet Africa Station Atlantic Fleet Australia Station Cape of Good Hope Station Cape and West Africa Station Battle Cruiser Fleet Battle Cruiser Force Caspian Flotilla Channel Fleet Channel Squadron Coastal Forces Coast of Ireland Station Cork Station Coast of Scotland Command China Command Dover Command Downs Station East Indies Fleet East Indies Station East Indies and China Station Eastern Fleet Far Eastern Fleet Grand Fleet Gibraltar Command Gibraltar and Mediterranean Approaches Command Harwich Force Home Fleet Jamaica Station Leeward Islands Station Lisbon Station Mediterranean Fleet Newfoundland Station New Zealand Division New Zealand Naval Forces Nore Command North America and West Indies Station North Atlantic Command North Sea Fleet Orkneys and Shetlands Command Pacific Fleet Pacific Station Patrols Command Plymouth Command Portsmouth Command Queenstown Station Royal East African Navy Royal Indian Navy Royal Navy Submarine Service Rosyth Command Reserve Fleet Scotland and Northern Ireland South Atlantic Command South Atlantic and Pacific Station South America Station South East Coast of America Station West Africa Squadron West Africa Station Western Approaches Command West Indies Station Western Squadron

Direction of Naval Finance

Department of the Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty

Departments under Secretary

Department of the Civil Lord of the Admiralty Accountant-General's Department Comptroller of the Navy Department of the Surveyor of the Navy

Direction of Naval Administration and the Admiralty
Admiralty
Secretariat

Department of the Permanent Secretary

Branches and offices under Permanent Secretary

Admiralty
Admiralty
Central Copying Branch Admiralty
Admiralty
Central Registry Branch Admiralty
Admiralty
Record Office Admiralty
Admiralty
Library Admiralty
Admiralty
Secretariat Air Branch Civil Branch Legal Branch Military Branch Naval Branch Ship Branch

Civil Administration

Department of the Civil Lord of the Admiralty, Department of the Additional Civil Lord of the Admiralty

Departments under Civil Administration

Accountant-General's Department Contract and Purchase Department Department of the Director of Contract Labour Department of the Surveyor of Buildings Director of Works' Department Greenwich
Greenwich
Hospital Department Works Loan Department

Legal

Judicial Department

Legal under Judicial Department

Admiralty
Admiralty
court High Court of Admiralty Office of the Judge of the High Court of Admiralty High Court of Justice Office of the Judge Advocate of the Fleet Office of the Chief Naval Judge Advocate Office of the Marshall High Court of the Admiralty Office of the Admiralty
Admiralty
Advocate Office of the Admiralty
Admiralty
Proctor Office of the Receiver of Droits High Court of Admiralty Office of the Registrar High Court of the Admiralty Office of the Solicitor for the Affairs of the Admiralty Office of the Solicitor to the Admiralty
Admiralty
and Navy Office of the Counsel to the Admiralty Court of Admiralty
Admiralty
for the Cinque Ports King's Bench Division (Admiralty) Queens's Bench Division (Admiralty) Probate, Divorce and Admiralty
Admiralty
Division Vice Admiralty
Admiralty
courts Colonial C

.