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The Corps of Royal Marines
Marines
(RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.[2] The Royal Marines
Marines
were formed in 1755 as the Royal Navy's infantry troops. However, the marines can trace their origins back to the formation of the English Army's "Duke of York and Albany's maritime regiment of Foot" at the grounds of the Honourable Artillery Company on 28 October 1664.[3] As a highly specialised and adaptable light infantry force, the Royal Marines
Marines
are trained for rapid deployment worldwide and capable of dealing with a wide range of threats. The Royal Marines
Marines
are organised into a light infantry brigade (3 Commando
Commando
Brigade) and a number of separate units, including 1 Assault Group Royal Marines, 43 Commando Royal Marines
Marines
formerly Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines (previously the Comacchio Group), and a company strength commitment to the Special
Special
Forces Support Group. The Corps operates in all environments and climates, though particular expertise and training is spent on amphibious warfare, arctic warfare, mountain warfare, expeditionary warfare, and its commitment to the UK's Rapid Reaction Force. Throughout its history, the Royal Marines
Marines
have seen action in a number of major wars often fighting beside the British Army – including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, World War I
World War I
and World War II. In recent times the Corps has been largely deployed in expeditionary warfare roles such as the Falklands War, the Gulf War, the Bosnian War, the Kosovo War, the Sierra Leone Civil War, the Iraq War
Iraq War
and the War in Afghanistan. The Royal Marines have close international ties with allied marine forces, particularly the United States Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps (Dutch: Korps Mariniers).[4][5] Today, the Royal Marines
Marines
are an elite fighting force within the British Armed forces, having undergone many substantial changes over time.[6]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early British Empire 1.2 World wars

1.2.1 First World War 1.2.2 Between the wars 1.2.3 Second World War

1.3 Post-colonial era 1.4 Cold War

2 Today

2.1 Personnel 2.2 Equipment

3 Formation and structure

3.1 3 Commando
Commando
Brigade 3.2 Independent elements 3.3 Structure of a commando 3.4 Amphibious Task Group 3.5 Commando
Commando
Helicopter
Helicopter
Force

4 Commando
Commando
Forces 2030 & Maritime Operations Commando 5 Selection and training 6 Customs and traditions

6.1 Uniforms

7 Ranks and insignia 8 Associations with other regiments and marines corps 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the Royal Marines The Royal Marines
Marines
can trace its origins back as far as 28 October 1664 when at the grounds of the Honourable Artillery Company
Honourable Artillery Company
"the Duke of York and Albany's maritime regiment of foot" was first formed.[3] Early British Empire[edit] On 5 April 1755, His Majesty's Marine Forces, fifty Companies in three Divisions, headquartered at Chatham, Portsmouth, and Plymouth, were formed by Order of Council under Admiralty
Admiralty
control.[3] Initially all field officers were Royal Navy
Royal Navy
officers as the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
felt that the ranks of Marine field officers were largely honorary. This meant that the furthest a Marine officer could advance was to lieutenant colonel. It was not until 1771 that the first Marine was promoted to colonel. This attitude persisted well into the 1800s. During the rest of the 18th century, they served in numerous landings all over the world, the most famous being the landing at Belle Île on the Brittany coast in 1761.[3] They also served in the American War of Independence, notably in the Battle of Bunker Hill
Battle of Bunker Hill
led by Major John Pitcairn.[7]

Major General John Tupper His Majesty's Marine Forces.

In 1788 a detachment of four companies of marines, under Major Robert Ross, accompanied the First Fleet
First Fleet
to protect a new colony at Botany Bay (New South Wales). Due to an error the Fleet left Portsmouth without its main supply of ammunition, and were not resupplied until the Fleet docked in Rio de Janeiro midway through the voyage.[8] One scholar has claimed that the Marines
Marines
deliberately spread smallpox among Australia's indigenous population in order to reduce its military effectiveness, but this is not corroborated by contemporaneous records of the settlement and most researchers attribute the indigenous smallpox outbreak to other causes.[9][10]

Private of Marines, 1815.

In 1802, largely at the instigation of Admiral
Admiral
the Earl St. Vincent, they were titled the Royal Marines
Marines
by King George III. The Royal Marines
Marines
Artillery (RMA) was formed as a separate unit in 1804 to man the artillery in bomb ketches. These had been manned by the Army's Royal Regiment of Artillery, but a lawsuit by a Royal Artillery officer resulted in a court decision that Army
Army
officers were not subject to Naval orders. As RMA uniforms were the blue of the Royal Regiment of Artillery they were nicknamed the "Blue Marines" and the Infantry
Infantry
element, who wore the scarlet uniforms of the British infantry, became known as the "Red Marines", often given the semi-derogatory nickname "Lobsters" by sailors.[11] A fourth division of the Royal Marines, headquartered at Woolwich, was formed in 1805.[12] During the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
the Royal Marines
Marines
participated in every notable naval battle on board the Royal Navy's ships and also took part in multiple amphibious actions. Marines
Marines
had a dual function aboard ships of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in this period; routinely, they ensured the security of the ship's officers and supported their maintenance of discipline in the ship's crew, and in battle, they engaged the enemy's crews, whether firing from positions on their own ship, or fighting in boarding actions.[13] In the Caribbean theatre volunteers from freed French slaves on Marie-Galante
Marie-Galante
were used to form Sir Alexander Cochrane's first Corps of Colonial Marines. These men bolstered the ranks, helping the British to hold the island until reinforcements arrived. This practice was repeated during the War of 1812, where escaped American slaves were formed into Cochrane's second Corps of Colonial Marines. These men were commanded by Royal Marines
Marines
officers and fought alongside their regular Royal Marines
Marines
counterparts at the Battle of Bladensburg.[14] Throughout the war Royal Marines
Marines
units raided up and down the east coast of America including up the Penobscot River and in the Chesapeake Bay. They fought in the Battle of New Orleans and later helped capture Fort Bowyer in Mobile Bay in what was the last action of the war.[15]

Royal Marines
Marines
parade in the streets of Chania
Chania
in spring 1897, following British occupation.

In 1855 the Infantry
Infantry
forces were renamed the Royal Marines
Marines
Light Infantry
Infantry
(RMLI). During the Crimean War
Crimean War
in 1854 and 1855, three Royal Marines
Marines
earned the Victoria Cross, two in the Crimea and one in the Baltic.[16] In 1862 the name was slightly altered to Royal Marine Light Infantry. The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
did not fight any other ships after 1850 and became interested in landings by Naval Brigades. In these Naval Brigades, the function of the Royal Marines
Marines
was to land first and act as skimishers ahead of the sailor Infantry
Infantry
and Artillery. This skirmishing was the traditional function of Light Infantry.[17] For most of their history, British Marines
Marines
had been organised as fusiliers. In the rest of the 19th Century the Royal Marines
Marines
served in many landings especially in the First and Second Opium Wars (1839–1842 and 1856–1860) against the Chinese. These were all successful except for the landing at the Mouth of the Peiho in 1859, where Admiral
Admiral
Sir James Hope ordered a landing across extensive mud flats.[18] The Royal Marines
Marines
also played a prominent role in the Boxer Rebellion in China (1900), where a Royal Marine earned a Victoria Cross.[16] Pursuing a career in the Marines
Marines
had been considered social suicide through much of the 18th and 19th centuries since Marine officers had a lower standing than their counterparts in the Royal Navy. An effort was made in 1907 through the common entry or "Selborne Scheme" to reduce the professional differences between RN and RM officers through a system of common entry that provided for an initial period of service where both groups performed the same roles and underwent the same training.[19] World wars[edit] First World War[edit] During the First World War, in addition to their usual stations aboard ship, Royal Marines
Marines
were part of the Royal Naval Division
Royal Naval Division
which landed in Belgium
Belgium
in 1914 to help defend Antwerp
Antwerp
and later took part in the amphibious landing at Gallipoli in 1915. It also served on the Western Front. The Division's first two commanders were Royal Marine Artillery Generals. Other Royal Marines
Marines
acted as landing parties in the Naval campaign against the Turkish fortifications in the Dardanelles before the Gallipoli landing. They were sent ashore to assess damage to Turkish fortifications after bombardment by British and French ships and, if necessary, to complete their destruction. The Royal Marines were the last to leave Gallipoli, replacing both British and French troops in a neatly planned and executed withdrawal from the beaches.[20] The Royal Marines
Marines
also took part in the Zeebrugge Raid
Zeebrugge Raid
in 1918. Five Royal Marines
Marines
earned the Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
in the First World War, two at Zeebrugge, one at Gallipoli, one at Jutland and one on the Western Front.[16] Between the wars[edit] After the war Royal Marines
Marines
took part in the allied intervention in Russia. In 1919, the 6th Battalion
Battalion
RMLI mutinied and was disbanded at Murmansk. The Royal Marine Artillery (RMA) and Royal Marine Light Infantry
Infantry
(RMLI) were amalgamated on 22 June 1923.[21] Post-war demobilisation had seen the Royal Marines
Marines
reduced from 55,000 (1918) to 15,000 in 1922 and there was Treasury
Treasury
pressure for a further reduction to 6,000 or even the entire disbandment of the Corps. As a compromise an establishment of 9,500 was settled upon but this meant that two separate branches could no longer be maintained. The abandonment of the Marine's artillery role meant that the Corps would subsequently have to rely on Royal Artillery
Royal Artillery
support when ashore, that the title of Royal Marines
Marines
would apply to the entire Corps and that only a few specialists would now receive gunnery training. As a form of consolation the dark blue and red uniform of the Royal Marine Artillery now became the full dress of the entire Corps. Royal Marine officers and SNCO's however continue to wear the historic scarlet in mess dress to the present day. The ranks of private, used by the RMLI, and gunner, used by the RMA, were abolished and replaced by the rank of Marine.[22] Second World War[edit]

British Commandos
British Commandos
in action during Operation Archery, Norway.

During the Second World War, a small party of Royal Marines
Marines
were first ashore at Namsos in April 1940, seizing the approaches to the Norwegian town preparatory to a landing by the British Army
British Army
two days later. The Royal Marines
Marines
formed the Royal Marine Division as an amphibiously trained division, parts of which served at Dakar and in the capture of Madagascar. After the assault on the French naval base at Antsirane in Madagascar
Madagascar
was held up, fifty Sea Service Royal Marines
Marines
from HMS Ramilles commanded by Captain Martin Price were landed on the quay of the base by the British destroyer HMS Anthony after it ran the gauntlet of French shore batteries defending Diego Suarez Bay. They then captured two of the batteries, which led to a quick surrender by the French.[23] In addition the Royal Marines
Marines
formed Mobile Naval Base Defence Organisations (MNBDOs) similar to the United States
United States
Marine Corps Defense Battalions. One of these took part in the defence of Crete. Royal Marines
Marines
also served in Malaya and in Singapore, where due to losses they were joined with remnants of the 2nd Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to form the " Plymouth
Plymouth
Argylls". The Royal Marines
Marines
formed one Commando
Commando
(A Commando) which served at Dieppe. One month after Dieppe, most of the 11th Royal Marine Battalion
Battalion
was killed or captured in an ill staged amphibious landing at Tobruk in Operation Agreement. Again, the Marines
Marines
were involved with the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, this time the 1st Battalion. In 1942 the Infantry
Infantry
Battalions of the Royal Marine Division were re-organised as Commandos, joining the British Army
British Army
Commandos. The Division command structure became a Special Service Brigade command. The support troops became landing craft crew and saw extensive action on D-Day in June 1944.[24]

Men of No 4 (Army) Commando
Commando
engaged in house to house fighting with the Germans at Riva Bella, near Ouistreham.

A total of four Special
Special
Service Brigades (later Commando
Commando
brigade) were raised during the war, and Royal Marines
Marines
were represented in all of them. A total of nine RM Commandos (Battalions) were raised during the war, numbered from 40 to 48. 1 Commando
Commando
Brigade
Brigade
had just one RM Battalion, No 45 Commando. 2 Commando
Commando
Brigade
Brigade
had two RM battalions, Nos 40 and 43 Commandos. 3 Commando Brigade
3 Commando Brigade
also had two, Nos 42 and 44 Commandos. 4 Commando
Commando
Brigade
Brigade
was entirely Royal Marine after March 1944, comprising Nos 41, 46, 47 and 48 Commandos. 1 Commando
Commando
Brigade took part in first in the Tunisia Campaign
Tunisia Campaign
and then assaults on Sicily and Normandy, campaigns in the Rhineland
Rhineland
and crossing the Rhine. 2 Commando
Commando
Brigade
Brigade
was involved in the Salerno landings, Anzio, Comacchio, and operations in the Argenta Gap. 3 Commando
Commando
Brigade served in Sicily and Burma. 4 Commando
Commando
Brigade
Brigade
served in the Battle of Normandy and in the Battle of the Scheldt
Battle of the Scheldt
on the island of Walcheren during the clearing of Antwerp.[25]

Royal Marine Commandos attached to 3rd Division move inland from Sword Beach on the Normandy coast, 6 June 1944.

In January 1945, two further RM Brigades were formed, 116th Brigade and 117th Brigade. Both were conventional Infantry, rather than in the Commando
Commando
role. 116th Brigade
Brigade
saw some action in the Netherlands, but 117th Brigade
Brigade
was hardly used operationally. In addition one Landing Craft Assault (LCA) unit was stationed in Australia late in the war as a training unit. In 1946 the Army
Army
Commandos were disbanded, leaving the Royal Marines
Marines
to continue the Commando
Commando
role (with supporting Army elements). A number of Royal Marines
Marines
served as pilots during the Second World War. It was a Royal Marines
Marines
officer who led the attack by a formation of Blackburn Skuas that sank the Königsberg. Eighteen Royal Marines
Marines
commanded Fleet Air Arm
Fleet Air Arm
squadrons during the course of the war, and with the formation of the British Pacific Fleet
British Pacific Fleet
were well-represented in the final drive on Japan. Captains and Majors generally commanded squadrons, whilst in one case Lt. Colonel
Colonel
R.C. Hay on HMS Indefatigable was Air Group Co-ordinator from HMS Victorious of the entire British Pacific Fleet.[26] Throughout the war Royal Marines
Marines
continued in their traditional role of providing ships detachments and manning a proportion of the guns on Cruisers and Capital Ships. They also provided the crew for the UK's Minor Landing craft
Landing craft
and the Royal Marines
Marines
Armoured Support Group manned Centaur IV tanks on D Day one of these is still on display at Pegasus Bridge.[27] Only one Marine ( Corporal
Corporal
Thomas Peck Hunter of 43 Commando) was awarded the Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
in the Second World War
Second World War
for action at Lake Comacchio in Italy. Hunter was the most recent RM Commando
Commando
to be awarded the medal.[16] The Royal Marines
Marines
Boom Patrol Detachment under Blondie Haslar carried out Operation Frankton
Operation Frankton
and provided the basis for the post-war continuation of the SBS.[28] Post-colonial era[edit] The Corps underwent a notable change after 1945 however, when the Royal Marines
Marines
took on the main responsibility for the role and training of the British Commandos. The Royal Marines
Marines
have an illustrious history, and since their creation in 1942 Royal Marines Commandos have engaged on active operations across the globe, every year, except 1968.[29] Notably they were the first ever military unit to perform an air assault insertion by helicopter, during the Suez Crisis in 1956.[30] They were also part of the land element during the 1982 Falklands War.[31] Cold War[edit]

Royal Marines
Marines
during an exercise in Scotland.

During the Cold War
Cold War
the Royal Marines
Marines
were earmarked to reinforce NATO's northernmost command Allied Forces North Norway. Therefore, 3 Commando
Commando
Brigade
Brigade
began to train annually in Northern Norway
Norway
and had large stores of vehicles and supplies pre-positioned there. At the end of the Cold War
Cold War
in 1989 the structure of the Royal Marines
Marines
was as follows:[32]

Commandant General Royal Marines, London

3 Commando
Commando
Brigade, Plymouth

40 Commando, Taunton 42 Commando, Bickleigh 45 Commando, Arbroath 29 Commando
Commando
Regiment, Royal Artillery, Plymouth, one battery in Arbroath, (18x L118 light guns) 4 Assault Squadron, Plymouth
Plymouth
(4x LCU Mk.9, 4x LCVP Mk.4, 2x Centurion BARV), served aboard HMS Fearless (L10) 539 Assault Squadron, Plymouth
Plymouth
(4x LCU Mk.9, 4x LCVP Mk.4, 2x Centurion BARV), served aboard HMS Intrepid (L11) 59 Independent Commando
Commando
Squadron, Royal Engineers, Plymouth, one troop in Arbroath 3 Commando Brigade
3 Commando Brigade
Air Squadron, RNAS Yeovilton, (12x Gazelle AH.1, 6x Lynx AH.1) 2 Raiding Squadron, Royal Marines
Marines
(Reserve), Plymouth 131 Independent Commando
Commando
Squadron, Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
(V), Plymouth 289 Commando
Commando
Battery, Royal Artillery
Royal Artillery
(V), Plymouth
Plymouth
(6x L118 light guns)

Special
Special
Boat Service, Poole, under operational control of United Kingdom Special
Special
Forces Comacchio Group, HMNB Clyde, guarded HMNB Clyde
HMNB Clyde
and the UK's naval nuclear weapons stored at RNAD Coulport Royal Marines
Marines
Police, Plymouth Commando
Commando
Training Centre Royal Marines, Lympstone Royal Marines
Marines
Reserve (RMR), Plymouth

RMR Bristol, Bristol RMR London, Wandsworth RMR Merseyside, Liverpool RMR Scotland, Edinburgh RMR Tyne, Newcastle

Note: "(V)" denotes British Army
British Army
reserve units. Today[edit] Personnel[edit]

Royal Marines
Marines
in Sangin, Afghanistan, 2010

The Royal Marines
Marines
are part of the Naval Service and under the full command of Fleet Commander. The rank structure of the corps is similar to that of the British Army
British Army
with officers and other ranks recruited and initially trained separately from other naval personnel. Since 2017 women have been able to serve in all roles in the Royal Marines. On average, 1,200 recruits attend training courses at the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines
Marines
every year.[33] At its height in 1944 during the Second World War, more than 70,000 people served in the Royal Marines. Following the Allied victory the Royal Marines
Marines
were quickly reduced to a post-war strength of 13,000. When National Service finally came to an end in 1960, the Marines
Marines
were again reduced, but this time to an all Commando-trained force of 9,000 personnel.[34] As of October 2014 the Royal Marines
Marines
had a strength of 7,760 Regular[35] and 750 Royal Marines
Marines
Reserve, giving a combined component strength of around 8,510 personnel. The Royal Marines
Marines
are the only European marine force capable of conducting amphibious operations at brigade level.[36] Equipment[edit] Infantry
Infantry
The basic infantry weapon of the Royal Marines
Marines
is the L85A2 assault rifle,[37] sometimes fitted with the L123A3 underslung grenade launcher.[38] Support fire is provided by the L110A1 light machine gun,[38] the L7A2 General Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG)[39] and the L111A1 heavy machine gun[40] (which is often mounted on an armoured vehicle); indirect fire by the L16A2 81mm mortar.[40] Sniper rifles used include the L115A3,[39] produced by Accuracy International. More recently the L129A1 has come into service as the designated marksman rifle.[38] Other weapons include the Javelin Anti-Tank missile,[41] the L107A1 pistol,[37] the L131A1 pistol[37] and the Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting Knife.[42] Armour The Royal Marines
Marines
maintain no heavy armoured units, instead, they operate a fleet of lightly armoured and highly mobile vehicles intended for amphibious landings or rapid deployment. The primary armoured fighting vehicle operated by the Armoured Support Group is the BvS 10
BvS 10
Viking All Terrain Armoured Vehicle.[43] Other, lighter vehicles include the Land Rover Wolf
Land Rover Wolf
Armoured Patrol Vehicle, the Jackal (MWMIK) Armoured Vehicle and the Pinzgauer High Mobility All Terrain Vehicle.[44] Artillery Field artillery support is provided by 29th Commando Regiment Royal Artillery
Royal Artillery
of the British Army
British Army
using the L118 Light Gun, a 105 mm towed howitzer. The regiment is Commando-trained.[45] Aviation The Commando
Commando
Helicopter
Helicopter
Force of the Fleet Air Arm
Fleet Air Arm
provides transport helicopters in support of the Royal Marines. It currently uses both Merlin HC4/4A medium-lift transport and Wildcat AH1 attack helicopters to provide direct aviation support for the Corps. In addition, the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
provides Chinook heavy-lift and Puma HC2 medium-lift transport helicopters.[46] Vessels The Royal Marines
Marines
operate a varied fleet of military watercraft designed to transport troops and material from ship to shore or conduct river or estuary patrols. These include the 2000TDX Landing Craft Air Cushion, the Mk10 Landing Craft Utility, the Mk5 Landing Craft Vehicle Personnel and the SDV Mk8 Mod 1 Swimmer Delivery Vehicle for special forces. Other smaller amphibious craft such as the Offshore Raiding Craft, Rigid Raider
Rigid Raider
and Inflatable Raiding Craft
Inflatable Raiding Craft
are in service in much greater numbers.[47]

Royal Marines
Marines
equipped for Arctic warfare
Arctic warfare
during an exercise in Norway.

BvS 10
BvS 10
Vikings of the Royal Marines
Marines
Armoured Support Group on exercise.

Royal Marines
Marines
Landing Craft Utility (LCU) Mk10.

A Royal Marines
Marines
Landing Craft Vehicle Personnel (LCVP) Mk5.

Royal Marines
Marines
Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC).

Formation and structure[edit] The overall head of the Royal Marines
Marines
is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, in her role as Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the British Armed Forces. The ceremonial head of the Royal Marines
Marines
is the Captain General Royal Marines
Marines
(equivalent to the Colonel-in-Chief
Colonel-in-Chief
of a British Army regiment). The current Captain-General is Prince Henry of Wales.[48] Full Command of the Royal Marines
Marines
is vested in the Fleet Commander (FLTCDR)[49] with the Commandant General Royal Marines, a major-general, embedded within the Navy Command Headquarters
Navy Command Headquarters
(NCHQ) as Commander UK Amphibious Force (COMUKAMPHIBFOR).[50] The operational capability of the corps comprises a number of battalion-plus sized units, of which five are designated as "commandos":[51]

Operational structure of the Royal Marines.

40 Commando
Commando
(known as Forty Commando) based at Norton Manor Barracks, Taunton, Somerset, England 42 Commando
Commando
(known as Four Two Commando) based at Bickleigh Barracks, Plymouth, Devon, England 43 Commando
Commando
Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines
Marines
based at HM Naval Base Clyde, Helensburgh, Argyll and Bute
Argyll and Bute
(Previously Comacchio Group). 45 Commando
Commando
(known as Four Five Commando) based at RM Condor, Arbroath, Angus, Scotland 30 Commando
Commando
Information Exploitation Group[52] based at Stonehouse Barracks, Plymouth Commando
Commando
Logistic Regiment based at RM Chivenor, Devon Special Boat Service
Special Boat Service
based at RM Poole, Dorset (although Full Command is retained by CINCFLEET, Operational Command of SBS RM is assigned to Director Special
Special
Forces). 1 Assault Group Royal Marines
Marines
based at RM Tamar, Devonport.

Each Commando
Commando
Unit will rotate through one of three roles every six months.

Lead Commando
Commando
– This unit will be the first unit called upon in case of short-notice operations anywhere around the world. Force Generating – Training (Force Generating) to assume the role of Lead Commando Standing task – general duties unit

With the exception of the 43 Commando
Commando
Fleet Protection Group and Commando
Commando
Logistic Regiment, which are each commanded by a full colonel, each of these units is commanded by a lieutenant-colonel of the Royal Marines, who may have sub-specialised in a number of ways throughout their career.[53] 3 Commando
Commando
Brigade[edit] Main article: 3 Commando
Commando
Brigade

Insignia of 3 Commando

Operational command of the five commandos and the Commando
Commando
Logistics Regiment is delegated to 3 Commando Brigade
3 Commando Brigade
Royal Marines, of which they are a part. Based at Stonehouse Barracks, the brigade exercises control as directed by either CINCFLEET or the Permanent Joint Headquarters. As the main combat formation of the Royal Marines, the brigade has its own organic capability to it in the field, 30 Commando Information Exploitation Group, a battalion sized formation providing information operations capabilities, life support and security for the Brigade
Brigade
Headquarters.[51] 43 Commando
Commando
Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines, responsible for the security of the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent and other security-related duties was originally outside the brigade however from April 2012 it moved into it.[54] It also provides specialist boarding parties and snipers for the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
worldwide, for roles such as embargo enforcement, counter-narcotics, counter-piracy and counter-insurgency activities of the Royal Navy. It is the largest unit in the brigade, at 790 strong.[54] Independent elements[edit] The independent elements of the Royal Marines
Marines
are:[55]

A Royal Marines
Marines
team boards US Navy destroyer USS O'Bannon.

Commando
Commando
Training Centre: This is the training unit for the entire corps, and consists of three separate sections:

Commando
Commando
Training Wing: This is the initial basic commando training section for new recruits to the Royal Marines, and the UK Forces All Arms Commando
Commando
Course. Specialist Wing: This provides specialist training in the various trades which Marines
Marines
may elect to join once qualified and experienced in a Rifle Company. Command Wing: This provides command training for both officers and NCOs of the Royal Marines.

1 Assault Group Royal Marines: Provides training in the use of landing craft and boats, and also serves as a parent unit for the three assault squadrons permanently embarked on the Royal Navy's amphibious ships.

4 Assault Squadron—HMS Bulwark 6 Assault Squadron—HMS Albion 9 Assault Squadron—HMS Ocean

Special Boat Service
Special Boat Service
(SBS) are naval special forces and under operational command of Director Special
Special
Forces, UK Special
Special
Forces Group. It is commanded by a lieutenant colonel qualified as a swimmer canoeist. SBS responsibilities include water-borne operations, maritime counter-terrorism and other special forces tasks. Royal Marines
Marines
Band Service provides regular bands for the Royal Navy and provides expertise to train RN Volunteer Bands. Musicians have an important secondary roles as medics, field hospital orderlies, CBRN specialists and any other roles that may be required of them. Personnel may not be commando trained, usually wearing the dark blue beret instead of green; until 2017, the band service was the only branch of the Royal Marines
Marines
to admit women.

Structure of a commando[edit] Main article: Commando
Commando
21

The Commando
Commando
Flash and dagger worn on the sleeve

The three commando units are each organised into six companies, further organised into platoon-sized troops, as follows:[56] Command company

Main HQ Tactical HQ Reconnaissance Troop
Troop
with a sniper section Mortar Troop Anti-Tank (AT) Troop Medium Machine Gun Troop

2X Close Combat Companies

Company Headquarters 3X Close Combat Troops

2X Stand Off Companies

Company Headquarters Heavy Machine Gun (HMG) Troop AT Troop Close Combat Troop.

Logistic Company

A Echelon 1 A Echelon 2 FRT (Forward Repair Team) RAP (Regimental Aid Post) B Echelon

In general a rifle company Marine will be a member of a four-man fire team, the building block of commando operations. A Royal Marine works with his team in the field and shares accommodation if living in barracks. This structure is a recent development, formerly Commandos were structured similarly to British Army
British Army
light Infantry Battalions.[57] Amphibious Task Group[edit]

A Royal Marine RIB 'Underslinging', from an RAF Chinook as a method of quick extraction and insertion of waterborne personnel

Formerly known as the Amphibious Ready Group, the Amphibious Task Group (or ATG) is a mobile, balanced amphibious warfare force, based on a Commando
Commando
Group and its supporting assets, that can be kept at high readiness to deploy into an area of operations. The ATG is normally based around specialist amphibious ships, most notably HMS Ocean, the largest ship in the British fleet. Ocean was designed and built to accommodate an embarked commando and its associated stores and equipment. The strategy of the ATG is to wait "beyond the horizon" and then deploy swiftly as directed by HM Government. The whole amphibious force is intended to be self-sustaining and capable of operating without host-nation support. The concept was successfully tested in operations in Sierra Leone.[58] Commando
Commando
Helicopter
Helicopter
Force[edit] The Commando
Commando
Helicopter
Helicopter
Force (CHF) forms part of the Fleet Air Arm. It comprises three helicopter squadrons and is commanded by the Joint Helicopter
Helicopter
Command.[59] It consists of both Royal Navy
Royal Navy
(RN) and Royal Marines
Marines
personnel. RN personnel need not be commando trained. The CHF is neither under the permanent control of 3 Commando Brigade
3 Commando Brigade
nor that of the Commandant General Royal Marines, but rather is allocated to support Royal Marines
Marines
units as required. It uses both Merlin HC4/4A medium-lift and Wildcat AH1 light transport/reconnaissance helicopters to provide aviation support for the Royal Marines.[46] Commando
Commando
Forces 2030 & Maritime Operations Commando[edit] On 11 April 2017 the First Sea Lord, Admiral
Admiral
Sir Philip Jones, announced[60] that the Royal Marines
Marines
were to be restructured. The Royal Marines
Marines
will be able to deploy a specialist Maritime Operations Commando
Commando
from the three combat units as part of the Commando
Commando
Forces 2030 strategy.[61] Selection and training[edit] Main article: Royal Marines
Marines
selection and training

A Royal Marine stands beside a tree to sight in his weapon during a training exercise.

Royal Marines
Marines
snipers displaying their L115A1 rifles

Royal Marines
Marines
are required to undergo one of the longest and most physically demanding specialist infantry training regimes in the world. Recruit training lasts for 32 weeks for Marines
Marines
and 60 weeks for officers. Potential recruits must be male and aged 16 to 32 (18 to 25 for Commissioned Officers);[62] however by the end of 2018 women will be permitted to apply after the ban on women in Ground Close Combat roles was lifted in July 2016.[63] and they must first undertake a series of interviews, medical tests, an eye/sight test, psychometric tests and a PJFT (Pre-joining fitness test).[64] Once a potential recruit passes these, enlisted recruits undertake a 3-day selection course called PRMC (Potential Royal Marine Course) and potential officers undertake POC (Potential Officer Course) – both take place at the Commando
Commando
Training Centre Royal Marines
Marines
(CTCRM) in Lympstone, Devon. Officers must also take the Admiralty
Admiralty
Interview Board (AIB).[65] Upon passing the 3-day course, recruits then start basic recruit training (RT) at CTCRM.[64] Unlike in many countries, enlisted Marines
Marines
and officer Marines
Marines
often train together for the first 32 weeks. A large proportion of training is carried out on Dartmoor's inhospitable terrain and Woodbury Common woodland.[66] Throughout the recruit training, Royal Marines
Marines
learn and develop many military skills such as weapons handling, marksmanship and proficiency with different firearms, personal administration, marching and parade ground skills, map reading and navigation, physical fitness and mental toughness development, fieldcraft skills such as camouflage and stalking, basic survival techniques, patrolling and sentry duty development, unarmed and armed close quarters combat (CQC), first aid, underwater escape, chemical biological radiological nuclear (CBRN) training, military communications and signals, teamwork skills, amphibious landings training, and leadership skills for officers to name a few.[67] The best recruit to finish training is awarded the Kings Badge. King George V directed that his Royal Cypher, surrounded by a laurel wreath, would be known as the King's Badge, and would be awarded to the best all round recruit in the King's Squad, provided that he was worthy of the honour. The badge was to be carried on the left shoulder, and worn in every rank. The King's Badge is not awarded to every squad, and is only presented if a recruit measures up to the very exacting standards required.[68] Throughout his career, a Marine can specialise in a number of different roles upon completion of their respective courses after spending 1–2 years as a general duties (GD) Marine. Examples of some specialisations and different courses includes the mountain leader (ML), physical training instructor (PTI), Assault Engineer (AE), military police (MP), sniper course, medical assistant, pilot, reconnaissance operator (RO), drill instructor, driver, clerk, chef, signaller, combat intelligence, armourer, and heavy weapons training. Royal Marines
Marines
can also apply for swimmer canoeist/ Special
Special
Boat Service selection (SBS) or any other branch of the UKSF.[69] All Royal Marines will also conduct training exercises on differing military skills on a regular basis including development in mountain, arctic, jungle, amphibious and desert warfare. They can also be involved in exchange training programs with other countries forces – particularly the United States
United States
Marine Corps[4] and the Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps/Korps Mariniers.[5] Customs and traditions[edit] The Royal Marines
Marines
have a proud history and unique traditions. With the exceptions of "Gibraltar" and the laurel wreath for the Battle of Belle Island, their colours (flags) do not carry battle honours in the manner of the regiments of the British Army
British Army
or of the US Marine Corps, but rather the "globe itself" as a symbol of the Corps.[70]

Royal Marine Beret Badge

Memorial for H Barley of the Royal Marine Engineers

The heraldic crest of the Royal Marines
Marines
commemorates the history of the Corps. The Lion and Crown denotes a Royal regiment. King George III conferred this honour in 1802 "in consideration of the very meritorious services of the Marines
Marines
in the late war." The "Great Globe itself" was chosen in 1827 by King George IV in place of Battle honours to recognise the Marines' service and successes in multiple engagements in every quarter of the world.[11] The laurels are believed to honour the gallantry they displayed during the investment and capture of Belle Isle, off Lorient, in April–June 1761. The word Gibraltar
Gibraltar
refers to the Capture of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
by a force of Anglo-Dutch Marines
Marines
in 1704 and the subsequent defence of the strategic fortress throughout a nine-month siege against a numerically superior Franco-Spanish force.[11] Their determination and valour throughout the siege led to a contemporary report published in The Triumphs of Her Majesty's Arms in 1707 to announce:

Encouraged by the Prince of Hesse, the garrison did more than could humanly be expected, and the English Marines
Marines
gained an immortal glory — referred to by Paul Harris Nicolas, Historical record of the Royal marine forces[71]

There are no other battle honours displayed on the colours of the four battalion-sized units of the current Corps. The Latin motto "Per Mare Per Terram" translates into English as "By Sea By Land". Believed to have been first used in 1775 this motto describes the Royal Marines ability in fighting both afloat on-board ships of the Royal Navy, as well as ashore in their many land engagements. The fouled anchor, incorporated into the emblem in 1747, is the badge of the Lord High Admiral
Admiral
and shows that the Corps is part of the Naval Service.[70] The regimental quick march of the Corps is "A Life on the Ocean Wave", while the slow march is the march of the Preobrazhensky Regiment, awarded to the Corps by Admiral
Admiral
of the Fleet Earl Mountbatten
Earl Mountbatten
of Burma on the occasion of the Corps's tercentenary in 1964. Lord Mountbatten was Life Colonel
Colonel
Commandant of the Royal Marines
Marines
until his murder by the IRA in 1979.[72]

Royal Marines
Marines
on Parade in the City of London
London
marking the 350th anniversary of the Corps in 2014

The Royal Marines
Marines
are allowed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London to march through the City as a regiment in full array. This dates to the charter of Charles II that allowed recruiting parties of the Admiral's Regiment of 1664 to enter the City with drums beating and colours flying.[73] Uniforms[edit] The modern Royal Marines
Marines
retain a number of distinctive uniform items. These include the green "Lovat" service dress worn with the green beret, the dark blue parade dress worn with either the white Wolseley Pattern Helmet (commonly referred to as "pith helmet") or white and red peaked cap, the scarlet and blue mess dress for officers and senior non-commissioned officers and the white hot-weather uniform of the Band Service.[74] For historical information regarding Marine uniforms, see Uniforms of the Royal Marines. Ranks and insignia[edit] See also: Royal Marines
Marines
officer ranks and Royal Marines
Marines
other ranks

NATO
NATO
code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer

United Kingdom (Royal Marines) (Edit)

No equivalent

Captain General Royal Marines General Lieutenant-General Major-General Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Officer Cadet

NATO
NATO
Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1

United Kingdom (Royal Marines) (Edit)

No equivalent

No equivalent No insignia

Warrant officer class 1 Warrant officer class 2 Colour sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance corporal Marine

Associations with other regiments and marines corps[edit] Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders Early connections date from Balaclava in the Crimean War
Crimean War
and Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny, but the main association stems from World War II. In July 1940, after the fall of Dunkirk, the 5th Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders
Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders
served with the Royal Marine Brigade for over a year. When the battleships HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse were sunk in December 1941, the Royal Marines survivors joined up with the remnants of the 2nd Battalion, in the defence of Singapore. They formed what became known as 'The Plymouth Argylls', after the association football team, since both ships were Plymouth
Plymouth
manned. Most of the Highlanders and Marines
Marines
who survived the bitter fighting were taken prisoner by the Japanese. The Royal Marines inter-unit rugby football trophy is the 'Argyll Bowl', presented to the Corps by the Regiment in 1941.[3] Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment The fore-bearer regiments of the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment, 31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment of Foot
31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment of Foot
was initially raised as amphibious troops. They served as Marines
Marines
for a period. To this day one officer from the Royal Marines
Marines
serves with the PWRR and Vice Versa. Also the Royal Marine Lanyard is worn by all ranks in Service Dress and Number 2 Dress uniform and barrack dress of PWRR.[75] Barbados Defence Force Close links have existed between the Royal Marines
Marines
and the Barbados Defence Force since 1985 when a bond was established following a series of cross-training exercises in the Caribbean. The Alliance was approved by HM the Queen in 1992.[3] Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps The Royal Marines
Marines
have close links with the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps, with whom they conduct NATO
NATO
exercises throughout the year. Formed during the Anglo-Dutch Wars in 1665, the Dutch Marines distinguished themselves in raids on the English coast, where it is likely they met their future counterparts. Units of the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps
Netherlands Marine Corps
work in close co-operation with 3 Commando Brigade
Brigade
of the Royal Marines. Operational units of the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps
Netherlands Marine Corps
are fully integrated into this brigade. This integration is known as the United Kingdom- Netherlands
Netherlands
Landing Force and is a component of the United Kingdom- Netherlands
Netherlands
Amphibious Force as a key strike force during the Cold War
Cold War
to strengthen the Nordic area.[76] 9th Light Armoured Marine Brigade The 9eme BIMa (9th Marine Infantry
Infantry
Brigade) is a Marine infantry brigade which is one of the two designated amphibious brigades in France. It is unique in being the only 'all Marine' Brigade
Brigade
in the French Army; the other amphibious brigade, 6eme Light Armoured Brigade, is composed of a mix of cap badges. 9 BIMa is also a light armoured brigade, formed of two Marine infantry regiments (2 and 3 Regiments d'Infanterie de Marine- 2/3 RIMa) and a tank battalion.[77] See also[edit]

Royal Marines
Marines
selection and training Royal Marines
Marines
Reserve Royal Marines
Marines
Museum Achnacarry Royal Marines
Marines
Volunteer Cadet Corps RM Turnchapel Category:Royal Marines
Marines
personnel and its subcategories, for people who have served in the corps List of active Royal Marines
Marines
military watercraft

Notes[edit]

^

England
England
(1664–1707) Great Britain (1707–1801)

References[edit]

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Marines
Charity. 19 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.  ^ Royal Marines, Ministry of Defence, 30 March 2018  ^ a b c d e f "Royal Marines
Marines
History and Traditional Facts" (PDF). Marine Society & Sea Cadet. Retrieved 22 May 2016.  ^ a b Royal Marines
Marines
Train In Californian Desert, mod.uk ^ a b Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps, royalnavy.mod.uk ^ Thompson, p. 3 ^ "Major John Pitcairn". Silverwhistle. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ Moore 1987, p.41 ^ Warren Christopher (2013). "Smallpox at Sydney Cove – Who, When, Why". Journal of Australian Studies. doi:10.1080/14443058.2013.849750.  ^ Warren, Christopher, Could First Fleet
First Fleet
smallpox infect Aborigines? – a note (PDF), several authors – including Josephine Flood, Alan Frost, Charles Wilson and Judy Campbell – maintain that First Fleet smallpox did not cause the outbreak  ^ a b c "The crest, colours, beret, nicknames and prayers of the Royal Marines". Royal Marines
Marines
Museum. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2015. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ "Admiralty: Royal Marines, Woolwich
Woolwich
Division: Correspondence, Registers and Papers". National Archives. Retrieved 12 April 2017.  ^ "Per Mare Per Terram – the Royal Marines
Marines
1793–1815". Napoleon Series. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "The Royal Marines
Marines
in the War of 1812". Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "The Battle of Fort Bowyer, Alabama". Explore Southern History. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ a b c d "The Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
and the Royal Marines". Royal Marines Museum. Archived from the original on 15 January 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Chappell, pp. 14–15 ^ "Second Anglo-Chinese War ("Opium war") of 1856 – 1860 (part 2)". William Loney. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "Class Warfare and the Selborne Scheme: The Royal Navy's battle over technology and social hierarchy". The Mariner's Mirror. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "The RMLI move to, and deployment at, Gallipoli". The Long, Long Trail. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ London
London
Gazette, 20 July 1923 ^ London
London
Gazette, 16 October 1923 ^ Mountbatten, p. 107 ^ "D-Day: Heroic battle in Port-en-Bessin". The Telegraph. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "Operation Infatuate". Combined Operations. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "Obituary: Colonel
Colonel
Ronnie Hay". The Telegraph. 24 December 2001. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "D-Day tanks found on seabed". The Telegraph. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "Remembering the secret mission of Cockleshell Heroes". BBC. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ History of RM deployments ^ Royal Marines
Marines
Museum – Suez deployment (PDF) ^ "The 22 Royal Marines
Marines
who took on Argentine Falklands invasion force". The Telegraph. 14 April 2009. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "Royal Marines". British Army
British Army
units 1945 on. Retrieved 2 July 2017.  ^ "Marine dies after illness at base". BBC. 3 November 2004. Retrieved 30 December 2017.  ^ Nicholas van der Bijl and Nick Bijl, The Royal Marines
Marines
1939–93, Osprey Publishing, 1995 ^ gov.uk MoD – Royal Navy
Royal Navy
& Royal Marines
Marines
quarterly pocket brief, October 2014. See table 1. ^ "Securing Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The Strategic Defence and Security Review" (PDF). HM Government. 19 October 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010.  ^ a b c " Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Aircraft and Weapons page 44" (PDF). Royal Air Force. 2013.  ^ a b c " Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Aircraft and Weapons page 45" (PDF). Royal Air Force. 2013.  ^ a b " Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Aircraft and Weapons page 46" (PDF). Royal Air Force. 2013.  ^ a b " Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Aircraft and Weapons page 48" (PDF). Royal Air Force. 2013.  ^ " Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Aircraft and Weapons page 49" (PDF). Royal Air Force. 2013.  ^ Fairbairn, W.E. (December 1996) [1942]. Get Tough (new ed.). Boulder, Colo.: Paladin Press. ISBN 0-87364-002-0.  ^ IISS 2010, pp. 168 ^ Joint Committees On Transportation Holds Public Hearing Re: Trans 123 www.wisconsin-pinzgauers.org ^ "29th Regiment RA". British Army
British Army
units 1945 on. Retrieved 10 May 2014.  ^ a b " Commando
Commando
Helicopter
Helicopter
Force (CHF) Royal Navy". www.royalnavy.mod.uk. Retrieved 2017-07-27.  ^ "Royal Marines
Marines
- Landing Craft". Royal Navy. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ " Prince Harry
Prince Harry
succeeds the Duke of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
as Captain General Royal Marines". Royal Navy. 19 December 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017.  ^ "Senior Naval Staff". Archived from the original on 14 March 2009. As the Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
Fleet, a position he took up in November 2007, Mark Stanhope has full command of all deployable Fleet units, including the Royal Marines.  ^ "Fleet Battle Staff". Royal Navy. Archived from the original on March 17, 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ a b "3 Commando
Commando
Brigade". Royal Navy. Retrieved 4 April 2016.  ^ "30 Commando
Commando
Information Exploitation Group". Royal Navy. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ Bridge Card – 11 February 11 ^ a b "43 Commando
Commando
resurrected as historic Royal Marines
Marines
unit returns".  ^ Other Units of the Royal marines on Royal Navy
Royal Navy
website ^ Extract from The Globe & Laurel, November–December 2000, archived from the original on 5 November 2010  ^ Commando
Commando
Units To Be Reshaped, Navy News article ^ comukamphibfor ^ Commando
Commando
Helicopter
Helicopter
Force webpage ^ "Royal Marines
Marines
to be restructured in line with growing Royal Navy". GOV.UK. 2017-04-11. Retrieved 2017-04-17.  ^ " Commando
Commando
Forces 2020". Royal Navy. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "What Does It Take To Be A Royal Marine? Royal Navy
Royal Navy
Jobs". Royalnavy.mod.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-31.  ^ "Women". Royal Navy. Retrieved 2016-10-19.  ^ a b Recruitment Process Royal Marines, royalnavy.mod.uk ^ Admiralty
Admiralty
Interview Board (pdf), royalnavy.mod.uk ^ "Woodbury information and guide to Woodbury Devon UK". Devonlink.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-11-20.  ^ "Royal Marines
Marines
Commando
Commando
Training". Royal Navy. Retrieved 30 December 2017.  ^ "Kings Squad". Royal Navy. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2014.  ^ Commando
Commando
specialisations, royalnavy.mod.uk ^ a b "The Royal Marines" (PDF). NATO. Retrieved 17 December 2015.  ^ "The Capture of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
- 24 July 1704" (PDF). Royal Navy. Retrieved 17 December 2015.  ^ "Sword presentation Royal Marine Corps at the Royal Marines
Marines
Museum". Retrieved 17 December 2015.  ^ "Royal Marines". Retrieved 17 December 2015.  ^ "Helmet, Wolseley pattern (Tropical) S/P 1912 Royal Marines". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 17 December 2015.  ^ "The East Surrey Regiment - Marine Service of the Regiment, War of the Spanish Succession". Queen's Royal Surreys. Retrieved 24 February 2017.  ^ "HMS Bulwark arrives in the Netherlands
Netherlands
to mark amphibious pact". Royal Navy. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "Devon Royal Marines
Marines
in French exercise". Ministry of Defence. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

Akins, Thomas Beamish (1895). History of Halifax. Brookhouse Press. ISBN 978-1298600462.  Brooks, Richard; Little, Matthew (2008). Tracing Your Royal Marine Ancestors: A Guide for Family Historians. Pen & Sword, Barnsley. ISBN 978-1844158690.  Chappell, Mike (2004). Wellington's Peninsula Regiments (2): The Light Infantry. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-403-5.  Chartrand, Rene (2002). Colonial American Troops, 1610–1774. 1. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1841763248.  Edye, Lourenço (1893). The Historical Records of the Royal Marines. v. 1. London: Harrison & Sons.  Francis, David (1975). The First Peninsular War: 1702–1713. Ernest Benn. ISBN 978-0510002053.  Gleig, George Robert (1827). The campaigns of the British army at Washington and New Orleans in the years 1814-1815. John Murray, London.  Heidler, David; Heidler, Jeanne (2004). Encyclopedia of the War Of 1812. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1591143624.  Moore, John (1989). The First Fleet
First Fleet
Marines. University of Queensland Press. ISBN 0702220655.  Mountbatten, Lord Louis (1943). Combined Operations: The Official Story Of The Commandos. New York, The Macmillan Company.  Nicolas, Paul (1845). Historical record of the Royal marine forces. Thomas and Boone, London.  Lenihan, Padraig. Consolidating Conquest, Ireland 1603-1727. Pearson Education. ISBN 978-0582772175.  Thompson, Julian (2001). The Royal Marines, From Sea Soldiers to a Special
Special
Force. Pan Books. ISBN 978-0330377027.  Carter, B L (2013). A Short history of The Royal Marines. Royal marines Historical Society. ISBN 978-1908123053. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Royal Marines.

Royal Marines
Marines
website Royal Marines
Marines
Band Service website Royal Marines
Marines
Volunteer Cadet Corps (RMVCC) Portsmouth
Portsmouth
website Download Royal Marines
Marines
Registers of Service (1842–1925). The National Archives official website Potential Royal Marines
Marines
Commando
Commando
forum (for men wishing to join) "Rum Ration": The Navy Network – unofficial website for the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, and Royal Fleet Auxiliary Royal Marines
Marines
Museum website Marine Society website Royal Navy
Royal Navy
ranks, professions, and trades in World War 2, including Royal Marines Royal Navy
Royal Navy
Battle Honours including Royal Marine Corps Memorable Dates, 1939–1945 Royal Marines
Marines
Badges of Rank & Other Insignia

v t e

British Commando
Commando
Forces as of 2016

Brigade

3 Commando
Commando
Brigade

Royal Marines

Special
Special
Boat Service 40 Commando 42 Commando 45 Commando 43 Commando
Commando
Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines Commando
Commando
Logistic Regiment 1 Assault Group Royal Marines 539 Assault Squadron RM Royal Marines
Marines
Armoured Support Group 30 Commando
Commando
Information Exploitation Group Brigade
Brigade
Patrol Troop Mountain Leader Training Cadre

British Army

24 Commando
Commando
Regiment Royal Engineers 29 Commando
Commando
Regiment Royal Artillery

v t e

Commissioned officer ranks of the British Armed Forces

NATO
NATO
rank code Student officer OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4 OF-5 OF-6 * OF-7 ** OF-8 *** OF-9 **** OF-10 *****

Royal Navy O Cdt Mid SLt Lt Lt Cdr Cdr Capt Cdre RAdm (list) VAdm (list) Adm (list) Adm of the Fleet

Royal Marines O Cdt 2Lt Lt Capt Maj Lt Col Col Brig Maj-Gen Lt-Gen Gen (list) Capt-Gen

Army O Cdt 2Lt Lt Capt Maj Lt Col Col Brig Maj-Gen (list) Lt-Gen (list) Gen (list) Fd Mshl

Royal Air Force Off Cdt / SO APO / Plt Off Fg Off Flt Lt Sqn Ldr Wg Cdr Gp Capt Air Cdre AVM Air Mshl Air Chf Mshl (list) Mshl of the RAF

v t e

Ratings and other ranks of the British Armed Forces

   

Service Royal Navy Royal Marines Army Royal Air Force

OR-1

Pte AC

OR-2 AB Mne Pte LAC

OR-3 Not Applicable LCpl LCpl SAC / SAC(T) / LCpl (RAF Regt only)

OR-4 LH Cpl Cpl Cpl

OR-5/OR-6 PO Sgt Sgt Sgt

OR-7 CPO CSgt SSgt / CSgt Chf Tech - Flt Sgt

OR-8

WO2 WO2

OR-9 WO1 WO1 WO1 WO / MAcr

v t e

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