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A decree is a rule of
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundaries, ...
usually issued by a
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
(such as the president of a
republic A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "public affair") is a List of forms of government, form of government in which "power is held by the people and their elected representatives". In republics, the country is considered a "public m ...
or a
monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority a ...
), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution). It has the force of law. The particular term used for this concept may vary from country to country. The ''
executive order An executive order is a means of issuing federal directives in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily lo ...
s'' made by the
President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the Federal government of the United States#Executive branch, executive branch of the Federal govern ...
, for example, are decrees (although a decree is not exactly an order).


Decree by jurisdiction


Belgium

In
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the s ...
, a decree is a law of a community or regional parliament, e.g. the
Flemish Parliament The Flemish Parliament ( Dutch: , formerly called Flemish Council or ''Vlaamse Raad'') constitutes the legislative power in Flanders Flanders (, ; Dutch: ''Vlaanderen'' ; French: ''Flandre'' ; German: ''Flandern'' ) is the Dutch-speaking n ...
.


France

The word ''décret'', literally "decree", is an old legal usage in France and is used to refer to executive orders issued by the French President or Prime Minister. Any such order must not violate the French Constitution or
Civil Code A civil code is a codification of private law relating to property law, property, family law, family, and law of obligations, obligations. A jurisdiction that has a civil code generally also has a code of civil procedure. In some jurisdictions w ...
, and a party has the right to request an order be annulled in the French Council of State. Orders must be ratified by Parliament before they can be modified into legislative Acts. Special orders known as ''décret-loi'', literally "decree-act" or "decree-law", usually considered an illegal practice under the 3rd and 4th Republic, were finally abolished and replaced by the regulations under the 1958 Constitution. Except for the reserve powers of the President (as stated in Art. 16 of the 1958 Constitution, exercised only once so far), the executive can issue decrees in areas that the Constitution grants as the responsibility of Parliament only if a law authorizes it to do so. In other cases, orders are illegal and, should anyone sue for the order's annulment, it would be voided by the Council of State. There exists a procedure for the Prime Minister to issue ordinances in such areas, but this procedure requires Parliament's express consent (see Art 38 of the 1958 Constitution). Orders issued by the Prime Minister take two forms: *Orders (''décrets simples''); *Orders-in-council (''décrets en Conseil d'État''), when a statute mandates the advisory consultation of the Council of State. Sometimes, people refer to ''décrets en Conseil d'État'' improperly as ''décrets du Conseil d'État''. This would imply that it is the Council of State that takes the decree, whereas the power of decreeing is restricted to the president or prime minister; the role of the administrative sections of the Council is purely advisory. Decrees may be classified into: *
Regulation Regulation is the management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In systems theory, these types of rules exist in various fields of biology and society, but the term has slightly different meanings according to context. For ...
s, which may be: **Application decrees (''décrets d'application''), each of which must be specifically authorized by one or more
statuteA statute reffers to the body of law that are made by legislature of the nation with instrument which govern the state, country or any nation. it includes laws, rules and the reulation whichhas to be followed by each citizen in the county. A statute ...
s to determine some implementation conditions of this or these statutes; these constitute secondary legislation and are roughly equivalent to British statutory instruments; **Autonomous regulations (''règlements autonomes''), which may be taken only in areas where the Constitution does not impose statute law (passed by the Legislature); these constitute primary legislation; *Particular measures, such as the nomination of high-level French Civil Service, civil servants. Only the prime minister may issue regulatory or application decrees. Presidential decrees are generally nominations or exceptional measures where the law mandates a presidential decree, such as the dissolution of the French National Assembly and the calling of new legislative elections. Decrees are published in the ''Journal Officiel de la République Française'' or "French Gazette".


Catholic Church

A decree (Ecclesiastical Latin, Latin: ''decretum'') in the usage of the canon law (Catholic Church), canon law of the Catholic Church has various meanings. Any papal bull, papal brief, brief, or motu proprio is a decree inasmuch as these documents are legislative acts of the pope. In this sense, the term is quite ancient. The Roman Congregations were formerly empowered to issue decrees in matters which come under their particular jurisdiction but were forbidden from continuing to do so under Pope Benedict XV in 1917. Each ecclesiastical province and also each diocese may issue decrees in their periodical synods within their sphere of authority. While in a general sense all documents promulgated by an ecumenical council can be called decrees. in a specific sense some of these documents, as at the Second Vatican Council, were called more precisely constitutions or declarations. Canon 29 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law defines general decrees:


Holy See

The Holy See uses decrees from the pope such as papal bull, papal brief or motu proprio as legislative acts.


Italy

According to clause 77 of the Italian Constitution, "The Government may not, without an enabling act from the Houses, issue decrees having the force of ordinary law. When in extraordinary cases of necessity and urgency the Government adopts provisional measures having the force of law, it must on the same day present said measures for confirmation to the Houses which, even if dissolved, shall be summoned specially for this purpose and shall convene within five days. The decrees lose effect from their inception if they are not confirmed within sixty days from their publication. The Houses may however regulate by law legal relationships arising out of not confirmed decrees." The effectiveness for sixty days produces the effects immediately, giving rights or expectations whose legal basis was precarious, especially when the conversion law never intervened.


Portugal

In Portugal, there are several types of decrees ( pt, decretos, singular pt, decreto) issued by the various bodies of sovereignty or by the bodies of self-government of autonomous regions of Portugal, autonomous regions. Currently, there are the following types of decrees: # Decree-law ( pt, decreto-lei): is a legislative act issued by the Government of Portugal under its legislative powers defined by Article 198 of the Constitution of Portugal, Portuguese Constitution; # Regional legislative decree ( pt, decreto legislativo regional): is a regional law, issued by the legislative assembly of an autonomous region, within its powers defined by articles 227 and 233 of the Constitution ; # Decree of the President of the Republic ( pt, decreto do Presidente da República): is a decree issued by the President of Portugal, for the ratification of international treaties, the appointment or dismissal of members of the Government or to exercise other presidential powers defined in the Constitution; # Decree ( pt, decreto): is an act issued by the Government of Portugal to an approve international agreement whose approval is not within the competence of the Assembly of the Republic (Portugal), Assembly of the Republic or has not been submitted to it or within the Government administrative jurisdiction laid down in Article 199 of the Constitution in relation to a statute that requires this decree; # Regulatory decree ( pt, decreto regulamentar): is an act issued by the Government of Portugal, under its administrative jurisdiction laid down in Article 199 of the Constitution, to make the necessary regulations for the proper execution of the laws and to take all actions and decisions necessary to promote economic and social development and to meet the community needs; # Regional regulatory decree ( pt, decreto regulamentar regional): is an act issued by the legislature or the government of an autonomous region, regulating the proper implementation of regional legislative decrees; # A decree from the representative of the Republic ( pt, decreto do representante da República): is the decree of appointment or removal of members of the government of an autonomous region, issued by the representative of the Republic for that region.


Iran

File:Ali Khamenei first presidency decree by Rohullah Khomeini (3).jpg, 9 October 1981, Jamaran, Tehran; Ruhollah Khomeini as supreme leader of Iran signs presidential decree of Ali Khamenei. According to the article 110 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, constitution, the Supreme Leader of Iran, supreme leader delineates the general policies of the Islamic Republic.


Russia

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Russian Revolution, a government proclamation of wide meaning was called a "decree" (Russian: декрет, dekret); a more specific proclamation was called an . Both terms are usually translated as 'decree'. According to the Constitution of Russia, Russian Federation's 1993 constitution, an is a presidential decree. Such have the power of laws, but may not alter the Russian constitution or the regulations of existing laws, and may be superseded by-laws passed by the Federal Assembly of Russia, Federal Assembly. The Government of Russia can also issue decrees formally called Decisions (Постановления) or Orders (Распоряжения) and may not contradict the constitution/laws or presidential decrees.


Saudi Arabia

Royal decrees are the source of law in Saudi Arabia.


Spain

In Spain, decrees come in several forms: *Royal decree *Royal Decree-Law (Spain), Royal Decree-Law *Royal Legislative Decree (Spain), Royal Legislative Decree


Turkey

In accordance with Article 107 of the 1982 Constitution. One of the important amendments made in the constitution with the act no. 6771 is related to decrees of the presidency.


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, Orders-in-Council is either primary legislation deriving their authority from the Royal Prerogative, promulgated by the Privy Council in the name of the Monarch; or secondary legislation, promulgated by a Minister of the Crown using the authority granted by an Act of Parliament or other primary legislation. Both are subject to Judicial review in English law, judicial review, the former with some exceptions.


United States

In US legal usage, during the 19th and early 20th centuries, a decree was an order of a court of equity determining the rights of the parties to a suit, according to equity and good conscience. Since the 1938 procedural merger of law and equity in the federal courts under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, the term ''judgment'' (the parallel term in the common law) has generally replaced ''decree''. This is now true also in most state courts. The term ''decree'' has had a similar usage in admiralty, probate, and divorce law. A decree is often a final determination, but there are also interlocutory decrees. A ''final decree'' fully and finally disposes of the whole litigation, determining all questions raised by the case, and it leaves nothing that requires further judicial action; it is also appealable. An ''interlocutory decree'' is a provisional or preliminary decree that is not final and does not fully determine the suit, so that some further proceedings are required before entry of a final decree. It is usually not appealable, although preliminary injunctions by federal courts are appealable even though interlocutory.Cornell Law School
Legal Information Institute. Executive orders, which are instructions from the President to the executive branch of government, are decrees in the general sense in that they have the force of law, although they cannot override statute law or the Constitution and are subject to judicial review. Governors of individual states may also issue State executive order, state executive orders.


Other uses of the term

In some jurisdictions, certain types of court orders by judges are referred to as decrees, e.g. a divorce decree.


See also

*Consent decree *Edict *Fatwa *Firman *Official Communications of the Chinese Empire **Memorial to the throne *Proclamation *Rule by decree *Rescript *Soviet Decree *Ukase


Notes


References

*''Executive decree authority'', John M. Carey and Matthew Soberg Shugart, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 1998,


External links

''All external sites in French unless otherwise noted.''
1946 Constitution of the 4th Republic
{{Authority control Sources of law Decrees,