The ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS (RA) is an art institution based in
* 1 History * 2 Activities * 3 Royal Academy Schools
* 4 Library, archive, and collections
* 4.1 Wall and ceiling paintings
* 4.2 Michelangelo\'s
* 5 War memorials * 6 Membership * 7 See also * 8 References and sources * 9 Further reading * 10 External links
The Royal Academy of Arts was founded through a personal act of King George III on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition. The motive in founding the Academy was twofold: to raise the professional status of the artist by establishing a sound system of training and expert judgement in the arts, and to arrange the exhibition of contemporary works of art attaining an appropriate standard of excellence. Supporters wanted to foster a national school of art and to encourage appreciation and interest in the public based on recognised canons of good taste.
Fashionable taste in 18th-century Britain was based on continental
and traditional art forms, providing contemporary British artists
little opportunity to sell their works. From 1746 the Foundling
Hospital , through the efforts of
The origin of the
Royal Academy of Arts lies in an attempt in 1755 by
members of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and
Commerce , principally the sculptor
Henry Cheere , to found an
autonomous academy of arts. Prior to this a number of artists were
members of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and
Commerce, including Cheere and
It was Sir William Chambers , a prominent architect and head of the British government's architects' department, the Office of Works , who used his connections with George III to gain royal patronage and financial support of the Academy in 1768. The painter Joshua Reynolds was made its first president, and Francis Milner Newton was elected the first secretary, a post he held for two decades until his resignation in 1788.
The instrument of foundation, signed by George III on 10 December
1768, named 34 founder members and allowed for a total membership of
40. The founder members were Reynolds, John Baker , George Barret ,
Francesco Bartolozzi ,
Giovanni Battista Cipriani , Augustino Carlini
Charles Catton ,
Mason Chamberlin , William Chambers, Francis Cotes
, George Dance , Nathaniel Dance ,
The Royal Academy was initially housed in cramped quarters in Pall
Mall , although in 1771 it was given temporary accommodation for its
library and schools in Old
The first Royal Academy exhibition of contemporary art, open to all artists, opened on 25 April 1769 and ran until 27 May 1769. 136 works of art were shown and this exhibition, now known as the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition , has been staged annually without interruption to the present day. In 1870 the Academy expanded its exhibition programme to include a temporary annual loan exhibition of Old Masters, following the cessation of a similar annual exhibition at the British Institution . The range and frequency of these loan exhibitions have grown enormously since that time, making the Royal Academy a leading art exhibition institution of international importance.
Britain's first public lectures on art were staged by the Royal Academy, as another way to fulfil its mission. Led by Reynolds, the first president, a program included lectures by Dr. William Hunter , John Flaxman, James Barry , Sir John Soane , and J. M. W. Turner . The last three were all graduates of the RA School, which for a long time was the only established art school in the country.
An early RA Summer Exhibition at the Academy's original home in
The Royal Academy does not receive financial support from the state or the Crown. Its income is from exhibitions, trust and endowment funds, receipts from its trading activities, and from the subscriptions of its Friends and corporate members. It also gains funds by sponsorship from commercial and industrial companies, in which the Academy was one of the pioneers.
One of its principal sources of revenue is hosting a programme of
temporary loan exhibitions. These are comparable to those at the
Under the direction of the former exhibitions secretary Norman
Rosenthal , the Academy has hosted ambitious exhibitions of
contemporary art. In its 1997 "Sensation ," it displayed the
collection of work by
Young British Artists owned by
Anyone who wishes may submit pictures for inclusion in the summer exhibition; those selected are displayed alongside the works of the Academicians. Many of the works are available for purchase.
In 1977 Sir Hugh Casson founded the Friends of the Royal Academy, a charity designed to provide financial support for the institution. Over the years the Friends scheme has grown in size and importance and by 2007 had almost 90,000 members.
In 2004, the Academy attracted media attention for a series of financial scandals and reports of a feud between Rosenthal and other senior staff. These problems resulted in the cancellation of what were expected to have been profitable exhibitions. In 2006, it attracted the press by erroneously placing only the support for a sculpture on display, and then justifying it being kept on display.
In September 2007, Charles Saumarez Smith became secretary and chief executive of the Royal Academy, a newly created post. In March 2014, critic and broadcaster Tim Marlow was appointed the Royal Academy's first director of artistic programmes.
The Academy has received many gifts and bequests of objects and money. Many of these gifts were used to establish Trust Funds to support the work of the Royal Academy Schools by providing "Premiums" to students displaying excellence in various artistic genre. The rapid changes in 20th-century art left some of the classifications of the older prize funds as somewhat anachronistic. But efforts are made to award each prize to a student producing work that bears a relation to the intentions of the original benefactor.
ROYAL ACADEMY SCHOOLS
The Royal Academy at
The Royal Academy Schools form the oldest art school in Britain. They offer a three-year postgraduate art course to students.
The Royal Academy Schools was the first institution to provide
professional training for artists in Britain. The Schools' programme
of formal training was modelled on that of the French Académie de
peinture et de sculpture , founded by Louis XIV in 1648. It was shaped
by the precepts laid down by Sir Joshua Reynolds. In his fifteen
Discourses delivered to pupils in the Schools between 1769 and 1790,
Reynolds stressed the importance of copying the Old Masters, and of
drawing from casts after the Antique and from the life model. He
argued that such a training would form artists capable of creating
works of high moral and artistic worth. Professorial chairs were
founded in Chemistry, Anatomy, Ancient History and Ancient Literature,
the latter two being held initially by
In 1769, the first year of operation, the Schools enrolled 77
students. By 1830 over 1,500 students had enrolled in the Schools,
giving an average intake of 25 students each year. They included men
such as John Flaxman,
J. M. W. Turner ,
John Soane , Thomas Rowlandson
Professors and Royal Academician "Visitors" taught through a series of lectures. Royal Academicians, practising artists, were elected as Visitors, and served in rotation for nine months of the year. Each Visitor attended for a month, setting the models and examining and instructing the performances of the students. This system lasted into the late 1920s, when Visitors were replaced with permanent teachers.
The first woman to enrol as a student of the Schools was Laura Herford in 1860. Three more women enrolled in 1861, with an additional three in 1862.
Today some 60 students study in the Schools on a three-year postgraduate course. The programme is focused on studio-based practice across all fine art media. The studios accommodate a wide variety of disciplines, including painting, sculpture, print, installation, and time-based and digital media. Selection of candidates is based on evidence of individual ability and commitment, with an emphasis on potential for further development across the three-year course. Students are given the opportunity twice each year to show their work in the Royal Academy.
LIBRARY, ARCHIVE, AND COLLECTIONS
The Royal Academy has an important collection of books, archives and works of art accessible for research and display. A large part of these collections have been digitised and can be investigated through the Collection website.
The first president of the Royal Academy, Sir Joshua Reynolds, gave
his noted self-portrait, beginning the Royal Academy collection. This
was followed by gifts from other founding members, such as
The library of the Royal Academy is the oldest institutional fine art library in Britain. For more than 200 years it has served the needs of students and teachers in the Academy Schools and provided an important source for the history of British art and architecture. The library contains some 65,000 books, including an historic book collection of approximately 12,000 volumes, acquired before 1920, reflecting the early teaching philosophy of the Academy Schools. The archive forms one of the world's most significant resources for the historical study of British art since 1768.
The photographic collection consists of photographs of Academicians, landscapes, architecture and works of art. Holdings include early portraits by William Lake Price dating from the 1850s, portraits by David Wilkie Wynfield and Eadweard Muybridge 's _Animal Locomotion_ (1872–85). In addition, there are over 55,000 photographs relating to the history of the Academy, from views of exhibition installations to images of the Academy's homes and its staff.
WALL AND CEILING PAINTINGS
Among the paintings decorating the walls and ceilings of the building
are those of
MICHELANGELO\'S TADDEI TONDO
_ The Virgin and Child with the Infant St John_ Main article:
The most prized possession of the Academy's collection is
In the entrance portico are two war memorials. One is in memory of the students of the Royal Academy Schools who fell in World War I and the second commemorates the 2,003 men of the Artists Rifles who gave their lives in that war with a further plaque to those who died in World War II.
The Artists Rifles, founded in 1860, had its first headquarters at Burlington House. Four members of the Artists Rifles were elected president of the Royal Academy.
See also: List of officers of the Royal Academy of Arts and List of Royal Academicians
Membership of the Royal Academy is composed of up to 80 practising artists, each elected by ballot of the General Assembly of the Royal Academy, and known individually as Royal Academicians (RA, or more traditionally as R.A.). The Royal Academy is governed by these Royal Academicians. The 1768 Instrument of Foundation allowed total membership of the Royal Academy to be 40 artists. The category of Associate Member of the Royal Academy (ARA, traditionally as A.R.A.) was introduced in 1769 to provide a means of preselecting suitable candidates to fill future vacancies among Academicians. Originally engravers were completely excluded from the academy, but at the beginning of 1769 the category of Associate-Engraver was created. Their number was limited to six, and unlike other associates, they could not be promoted to full academicians, In 1853 membership of the Academy was increased to 42, and opened to engravers. In 1922, 154 years after the founding of the Royal Academy, Annie Swynnerton became the first woman ARA.
The number of Royal Academicians was increased once again in 1972 to 50, and in 1991 the maximum was set at 80. All Academicians must be professionally active, either wholly or partly, in the United Kingdom. Of the 80 Academicians, there must always be at least 14 sculptors, 12 architects and 8 printmakers with the balance being painters. Associate membership was abolished in 1991.
In 1918, it was decided that all Academicians and Associates on reaching the age of 75 would become members of a Senior Order of Academicians, thereby creating a vacancy in the other categories of membership. A senior member is effectively retired from the day-to-day government of the Academy but retains all other membership privileges. All RAs are entitled to exhibit up to six works in the annual Summer Exhibition. They also have the opportunity to exhibit their work in small exhibitions held in the Friends' Room and are occasionally invited to hold major exhibitions in the Sackler Galleries. Many Academicians are involved in teaching in the schools and giving lectures as part of the Royal Academy Education Programme.
6 Burlington Gardens
REFERENCES AND SOURCES
* ^ "Visits made in 2009 to visitor attractions in membership with
ALVA". Association of Leading Visitor Attractions. Retrieved 21 May
* ^ Gordon Sutton, _Artisan or Artist?: A History of the Teaching
of Art and Crafts in English Schools_ (London: Pergamon Press, 2014)
* ^ Emin, Tracey. "I can see that the Ra-Ra club is going to be a
lot of fun", _The Independent_, 30 March 2007
* ^ Higgins, Charlotte (10 June 2004). "Feud at top \'tearing Royal
Academy apart\'". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 7 March 2007.
* _ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Academy, Royal". Encyclopædia Britannica _ (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
* J. E. Hodgson and Fred. A. Eaton: _The Royal academy and its members 1768–1830_. Publisher: Charles Scribner’s Sons, London 1905 * George Dunlop Leslie: _The inner life of the Royal Academy, with an account of its schools and exhibitions principally in the reign of Queen Victoria_ (John Murray, 1914) * _The History of the Royal Academy 1768–1968_, Sidney C. Hutchison, Taplinger, NY, 1968 * Smith, Charles Saumarez (2012). _The Company of Artists: The Origins of the Royal Academy of Arts in London_. London: Bloomsbury/Modern Art Press. ISBN 9781408182109 .