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The Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of England (abbreviated RCS and sometimes RCSEng), is an independent professional body and registered charity promoting and advancing standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales. The College is located at Lincoln's Inn Fields
Lincoln's Inn Fields
in London. It publishes multiple medical journals including the Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of England, the Faculty Dental Journal, and the Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of England.

Contents

1 History 2 Fellows 3 Buildings 4 Hunterian Museum 5 Faculties 6 Medals, Awards and Lectures 7 Education 8 Current and past Presidents 9 Past Masters - Royal College of Surgeons 10 Past Masters - Company of Surgeons 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit]

Royal College of Surgeons, Court of Examiners (1894) by Henry Jamyn Brooks

The origins of the College date to the fourteenth century with the foundation of the "Guild of Surgeons
Surgeons
Within the City of London".[1] Certain sources date this as occurring in 1368. There was ongoing dispute between the surgeons and barber surgeons until an agreement was signed between them in 1493, giving the fellowship of surgeons the power of incorporation.[2] This union was formalised further in 1540 by Henry VIII between the Worshipful Company of Barbers
Worshipful Company of Barbers
(incorporated 1462) and the Guild of Surgeons
Surgeons
to form the Company of Barber-Surgeons. In 1745 the surgeons broke away from the barbers to form the Company of Surgeons. In 1800 the Company was granted a Royal Charter to become the Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
in London. A further charter in 1843 granted it the present title of the Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of England. Fellows[edit] The correct way to address a member or fellow of The Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
is to use the title Mr, Miss, Mrs, or Ms (not Dr). This system (which applies only to surgeons, not physicians) has its origins in the 16th century, when surgeons were barber-surgeons and did not have a medical degree (or indeed any formal qualification), unlike physicians, who held a University medical degree. When the College of Surgeons
Surgeons
received its royal charter, the Royal College of Physicians insisted that candidates must have a medical degree first.[citation needed] Therefore, an aspiring surgeon had to study medicine first and received the title Doctor. Thereafter, having obtained the diploma of Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
he would revert to the title "Mr" as a snub to the RCP. Nowadays the title "Mr" is used by Members of the College who have passed the diploma MRCS examination and the College addresses Members as "Mr" or "Ms". In Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's The Hound of the Baskervilles, the distinction is made in the following conversation:

"Come, come, we are not so far wrong after all," said Holmes. "And now, Dr. James Mortimer--" "Mister, sir, Mister--a humble M.R.C.S."

Despite Mortimer's correction, he is referred to as "Dr. Mortimer" throughout the story. A biographical register of fellows is available on Plarr's Lives of the Fellows Online

The main exhibit room, Hunterian Museum, woodblock engraving by T.H.Shepperd & E.Radclyffe, London, 1853 (Dr. Nuno Carvalho de Sousa collection, Lisbon)

Buildings[edit] The Company of Surgeons
Surgeons
moved from Surgeon's Hall in Old Bailey
Old Bailey
to a site at 41 Lincoln's Inn Fields
Lincoln's Inn Fields
in 1797. Construction of the first College building, to a design by George Dance the Younger, and James Lewis, took from 1805 to 1813. In 1833 Sir Charles Barry
Charles Barry
won the public competition to design a replacement. The library and portico of this building are all that remain today after a German incendiary bomb hit the College in 1941.[citation needed] The exterior of the building was one of the filming location of Agatha Christie's Poirot episode The Mystery of the Spanish Chest.[3] Hunterian Museum[edit]

The skeleton of the seven and a half foot (231cm) tall "Irish Giant" is visible in the middle of this image.

Main article: Hunterian Museum (London) In 1799 the government purchased the collection of John Hunter which they presented to the College. This formed the basis of the Hunterian Collection, which has since been supplimented by others including an Odontological Collection (curated by A E W Miles until the early 1990s) and the natural history collections of Richard Owen. The Hunterian Museum is a member of The London
London
Museums of Health & Medicine group, and displays thousands of anatomical specimens, including the Evelyn tables and the skeleton of the "Irish giant" Charles Byrne, surgical instruments, and paintings and sculptures about medical individuals and medicine.[4][5] Faculties[edit]

Faculty of Dental Surgery Faculty of General Dental Practice Faculty of Anaesthetists - Until 1988, now the Royal College of Anaesthetists.

Medals, Awards and Lectures[edit] The Cheselden Medal was instituted in 2009 in honour of William Cheselden "to recognise unique achievements in, and exceptional contributions to, the advancement of surgery". The award is made at irregular intervals to reflect the outstanding qualities required of recipients and is deemed one of the College’s highest professional honours.[6] The Royal Colleges' Bronze Medal was instituted in 1957 and is awarded jointly with the Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians
and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. It is awarded annually "on the nomination of the Medical Group of the Royal Photographic Society for the outstanding example of photography in the service of medicine and surgery". The Wood Jones Medal was instituted in 1975 to commemorate Frederic Wood Jones (Sir William Collins Professor of Human and Comparative Anatomy and Conservator of the Anatomy Museum 1945-52). It is awarded occasionally (triennially until 1994) by a Committee "for contributions to anatomical knowledge or the teaching of anatomy in the tradition of Frederic Wood Jones". The Clement-Price Award was founded in 1958 with a gift of 1,000 guineas from members of the staff of the Westminster Hospital in honour of Sir Clement Price Thomas. It is awarded triennially, or at such other interval as the President may decide, by the Council on the recommendation of the Fellowship Election and Prize Committee, "in recognition of meritorious contributions to surgery in its widest sense, without restriction of candidature". The Lister Medal
Lister Medal
has been awarded since 1924 (mostly on a triennial basis), after the College was entrusted in 1920 with administrating the Lister Memorial Fund, in memory of pioneering British surgeon Joseph Lister. The award is decided in conjunction with the Royal Society, the Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
in Ireland, the University of Edinburgh, and the University of Glasgow. In addition to being presented with a medal, the recipient delivers the Lister Oration at the College. The Honorary Gold Medal was instituted in 1802 and is awarded at irregular intervals "for liberal acts or distinguished labours, researches and discoveries eminently conducive to the improvement of natural knowledge and of the healing art". Recipients to date include Sir Victor Negus, Sir Geoffrey Keynes, Sir Stanford Cade (all three in 1969), Professor Harold Ellis (1998), Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys (2002) and Dr Barry J. Marshall
Barry J. Marshall
(2005). The Bradshaw Lecture was founded in 1875 under the will of Mrs Sally Hall Bradshaw in memory of her husband, Dr William Wood Bradshaw. It is a biennial (annual until 1993) lecture on surgery, customarily given by a senior member of the Council on or about the day preceding the second Thursday of December. (Given in alternate years, with the Hunterian Oration given in the intervening years). Not to be confused with the corresponding Bradshaw Lectures delivered to the Royal College of Physicians. See Bradshaw Lecture for list of past lectures and lecturers. The Hunterian Oration was founded in 1853 when a bequest was made by the executors of John Hunter's will, to provide for an annual dinner and oration in memory of the famous surgeon. It is now delivered biennially.

Education[edit] The RCS offeres a range of both on-line e-learning modules and hands-on practical workshops to facilitate the CPD for trainee and consultant surgeons across varies specialties. Since May 2017, the RCS started to offer Postgraduate Certificate in Surgery
Surgery
to junior surgical trainee.[1] This qualification combined e-learning modules and practical causes “offer surgical trainees a high-quality, flexible and interactive way to build their surgical knowledge and skills”[7] across different surgical specialties. Current and past Presidents[edit]

Name Presidential term

Professor Derek Alderson July 2017 onwards[8]

Clare Marx CBE July 2014 - July 2017 [9]

Sir Norman Stanley Williams 2011–2014[10]

John Black 2008-11[11]

Lord Bernard Ribeiro 2005-08[12]

Hugh Phillips 2004–05[13]

Sir Peter Morris 2001-04[14]

Sir Barry Jackson 1998-2001

Sir Rodney Sweetnam 1995-98

Sir Norman Browse 1992-95

Sir Terence English 1989-92

Sir Ian Todd 1986-89

Geoffrey Slaney 1982-86

Sir Alan Parks 1980-82

Sir Reginald Murley 1977-80

Rodney Smith, Baron Smith 1973-77

Edward Muir 1972

Thomas Holmes Sellors 1969-72

Hedley Atkins 1966-69

Russell Brock, Baron Brock 1963-66

Arthur Porritt, Baron Porritt 1960-63[15]

James Paterson Ross 1957-60

Harry Platt 1954-57

Cecil Wakeley 1949-54

Sir Alfred Webb-Johnson 1941-48

Hugh Lett 1938-40

Cuthbert Sidney Wallace 1935-37

Holburt Jacob Waring 1932-34

Berkeley Moynihan 1926-31

Sir John Bland-Sutton 1923-23

Anthony Alfred Bowlby 1920-22

George Henry Makins 1917-19

Sir William Watson Cheyne 1914-16

Rickman Godlee 1911–1913

Henry Trentham Butlin 1909-11

Sir Henry Morris, 1st Baronet 1906-08

John Tweedy 1903-05

Sir Henry Howse 1901-02

William MacCormac 1896–1900

Christopher Heath 1895

John Whitaker Hulke 1893-94

Thomas Bryant 1890-92

Jonathan Hutchinson 1889

Sir William Scovell Savory 1885-88

John Cooper Forster 1884

John Marshall 1883

Thomas Spencer Wells 1882

William James Erasmus Wilson 1881

John Eric Erichsen 1880

Luther Holden 1879

John Simon 1878

John Birkett 1877

Prescott Gardner Hewett 1876

James Paget 1875

Frederick Le Gros Clark 1874

Thomas Blizard Curling 1873

Henry Hancock 1872

George Busk 1871

William Fergusson 1870

Edward Cock 1869

Richard Quain 1868

John Hilton 1867

Richard Partridge 1866

Thomas Wormald 1865

Joseph Hodgson 1864

Frederic Carpenter Skey 1863

James Luke 1862

Caesar Henry Hawkins 1861

John Flint South 1860

James Moncrieff Arnott 1859

Joseph Henry Green 1858

Edward Stanley 1857

Benjamin Travers 1856

William Lawrence 1855

George James Guthrie 1854

James Luke 1853

Caesar Hawkins 1852

John Flint South 1851

James Moncrieff Arnott 1850

Joseph Henry Green 1849

Edward Stanley 1848

Benjamin Travers 1847

William Lawrence 1846

Samuel Cooper 1845

Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Baronet 1844

John Goldwyer Andrews 1843

Anthony White 1842

George James Guthrie 1841

John Painter Vincent 1840

Robert Keate 1839

Honoratus Leigh Thomas 1838

Sir Anthony Carlisle 1837

Astley Paston Cooper 1836

John Goldwyer Andrews 1835

Anthony White 1834

George James Guthrie 1833

John Painter Vincent 1832

Robert Keate 1831

Richard Clement Headington 1830

Honoratus Leigh Thomas 1829

Sir Anthony Carlisle 1828

Astley Paston Cooper 1827

John Abernethy 1826

William Lynn 1825

William Norris 1824

Henry Cline 1823

William Blizard 1822

Everard Home 1821-22

Past Masters - Royal College of Surgeons[edit]

Name Magisterial term

Thompson Foster 1820

Sir David Dundas 1819

Thomas Keate 1818

George Chandler 1817

Sir James Earle 1817

William Norris 1816

Henry Cline 1815

William Blizard 1814

Everard Home 1813

Thompson Foster 1812

David Dundas 1811

Sir Charles Blicke 1810

Thomas Keate 1809

George Chandler 1808

Sir James Earle 1807

Charles Hawkins 1806

Thompson Forster 1805

David Dundas 1804

Sir Charles Blicke 1803

Thomas Keate 1802

George Chandler 1801

William Long 1800

Past Masters - Company of Surgeons[edit]

Name Magisterial term

Charles Hawkins 1799–1800

James Earle 1798

John Gunning 1797

Isaac Minors 1796

William Cooper 1795

William Walker 1794

John Wyatt 1793

Samuel Howard 1792

William Lucas 1791

Charles Hawkins 1790

John Gunning 1789

Henry Watson 1788

Edmund Pitts 1787

Isaac Minors 1786

Henry Watson 1785

Joseph Warner 1784

Richard Grindall 1782-3

Peter Triquet 1781

Joseph Warner 1780

Fleming Pinkstan 1779

Pennell Hawkins 1778

Robert Young 1776-77

Richard Grindall 1775

Matthew Spray 1774

Joseph Warner 1773

John Pyle 1772

Wentworth Gregory 1770-71

William Bromfield 1769

Benjamin Cowell 1768

Robert Adair 1767

Stafford Crane 1766

Percivall Pott 1765

Robert Young 1764

John Blagden 1763

John Townsend 1762

David Middleton 1761

Edward Nourse 1760

Christopher Fullagar 1759

Mark Hawkins 1758

William Singleton 1757

John Westbrook 1756

Noah Roul 1755

James Hickes 1754

Legard Sparham 1753

John Ranby 1751-52

Peter Sainthill 1749-50

Caesar Hawkins 1748

John Freke 1747

William Cheselden 1746

John Ranby 1745

See also[edit]

Hunterian Oration Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of Edinburgh Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
in Ireland Association of Surgeons
Surgeons
in Training Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians
and Surgeons
Surgeons
of Glasgow Definitive Surgical Trauma Skills

References[edit]

^ Louis Kuo Tai Fu (2000)The origins of surgery. 2: From barbers to surgeons Annals of the College of Surgeons
Surgeons
Hong Kong 4 (1), 35–49. doi:10.1046/j.1442-2034.2000.00029.x ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-16. Retrieved 2006-10-16. , page 118 ^ On Location with Poirot - The Mystery of the Spanish Chest ^ "Medical Museums". medicalmuseums.org. Retrieved 26 August 2016.  ^ "Collections". Hunterian Museum. Retrieved 11 November 2015.  ^ "Terms of reference for Fellowship, Election and Prize Committee". Royal College of Surgeons. Retrieved 21 August 2010.  ^ sitecorenkane@rcseng.ac.uk. "RCS to offer Postgraduate Certificate in Surgery
Surgery
— Royal College of Surgeons". Royal College of Surgeons. Retrieved 2018-01-26.  ^ "Professor Derek Alderson elected as President of the Royal College of Surgeons".  ^ "First Female President Elected at the Royal College of Surgeons". Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of England. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.  ^ "New President for Royal College of Surgeons". Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of England. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2012.  ^ "New President for Royal College of Surgeons". Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of England. 10 April 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009.  ^ "New President for Royal College of Surgeons". Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of England. 14 July 2005. Retrieved 19 June 2009.  ^ "Hugh Phillips". London: The Independent. 16 July 2005. Retrieved 19 June 2009.  ^ "New President for Royal College of Surgeons". Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of England. 7 July 2004. Retrieved 19 June 2009.  ^ G, H. H. (4 January 1994). "Lord Porritt". London: The Independent. Retrieved 19 June 2009. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of England, London.

Official website Hunterian Museum and Wellcome Museum website Plarr's Lives of the Fellows Online London
London
Museums of Health and Medicine

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Academy of Medical Royal Colleges

Faculty of Dental Surgery Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine Faculty of Occupational Medicine Faculty of Pharmaceutical Medicine Faculty of Public Health Royal College of Anaesthetists Royal College of Emergency Medicine Royal College of General Practitioners Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Royal College of Ophthalmologists Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health Royal College of Pathologists Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians
and Surgeons
Surgeons
of Glasgow Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians
of Edinburgh Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians
of Ireland Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians
of London Royal College of Psychiatrists Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare Royal College of Radiologists Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of Edinburgh Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of England Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
in Ireland

Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management Medical royal colleges

Coordinates: 51°30′55″N 0°6′57″W / 51.51528°N 0.11583°W / 51.515

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