Traditional rank amongst European royalty , peers , and nobility is
Late Antiquity and the
Middle Ages . Although they vary over
time and between geographic regions (for example, one region's prince
might be equal to another's grand duke ), the following is a
reasonably comprehensive list that provides information on both
general ranks and specific differences.
* 1 Ranks and title
* 1.2 Other sovereigns, royalty, peers, and major nobility
* 1.3 Minor nobility, gentry, and other aristocracy
* 2 Corresponding titles of nobility between languages
* 3 See also
* 4 References
* 5 External links
RANKS AND TITLE
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* The word monarch is derived from the Greek μονάρχης,
monárkhēs, "sole ruler" (from μόνος, mónos, "single" or
"sole", and ἄρχων, árkhōn, archon , "leader", "ruler",
"chief", the word being the present participle of the verb
ἄρχειν, árkhein, "to rule", "to lead", this from the noun
ὰρχή, arkhē, "beginning", "authority", "principle") through the
Latinized form monarcha.
* The word sovereign is derived from the
* Autocrat is derived from the Greek αὐτοκράτωρ:
αὐτός ("self") and κρατείν ("to hold power"), and may be
translated as "one who rules by himself".
Common titles for European and Near Eastern monarchs
Note that many titles listed may also be used by lesser nobles –
non-sovereigns – depending on the historical period and state. The
sovereign titles listed below are grouped together into categories
roughly according to their degree of dignity; these being: imperial
(Emperor, Empress, etc.), high royal (
King of Kings etc.), royal
(King/Queen, sovereign Grand
Duke or Grand Prince, etc.), others
(sovereign Prince, sovereign Duke, etc.), and religious.
* EMPEROR , from the
Imperator , meaning "commander" or "one
who commands". In English, the feminine form is EMPRESS (the
imperatrix). The realm of an emperor or empress is termed an Empire.
Other words meaning
* CAESAR , the appellation of Roman emperors derived from the Roman
Julius Caesar , whose great-nephew and adopted son Gaius
Julius Caesar Augustus became the first emperor of Rome. Augustus'
four successors were each made the adoptive son of his predecessor,
and were therefore legally entitled to use "Caesar" as a constituent
of their names; after Nero, however, the familial link of the
Julio-Claudian dynasty was disrupted and use of the word Caesar
continued as a title only.
* KAISER , derived from Caesar, primarily used in Germanic
* BASILEUS , from
Mycenaean Greek meaning "chieftain", later used
for the Roman emperors of the Byzantine period.
* TSAR / CZAR / CSAR / TZAR , derived from Caesar, the feminine form
Tsarina , primarily used in Bulgaria, and after that in Russia and
other Slavic countries.
* HUANGDI , the
Imperial monarch during
Imperial China .
* SAMRAAT , (Sanskrit: samrāṭ or सम्राज् samrāj)
is an Ancient Indian title sometimes translated into modern English as
"Emperor". The feminine form is SAMRãJñī.
* CHHATRAPATI , (
Devanagari : छत्रपती) is the Indian
royal title equivalent to an
Emperor . The word ‘Chhatrapati’ is
Sanskrit chatra (roof or umbrella) and pati (master/Owner/ruler);
Chhatrapati thus indicates a person who gives shade to his followers
and protects their success.
* SAPA INCA , The SAPA INCA (Hispanicized spelling) or SAPA INKA
(Quechua for "the only Inca"), also known as APU ("divinity"), INKA
QHAPAQ ("mighty Inca"), or simply SAPA ("the only one"), was the ruler
Kingdom of Cusco and, later, the
Emperor of the Inca Empire
(Tawantinsuyu) and the
Neo-Inca State .
HIGH ROYAL TITLES
* KING OF KINGS mostly used in Christian contexts to denote Jesus
Christ or the Christian Roman emperors of the Late Empire and
* SHAHANSHAH , literally "
King of Kings" in
Middle Persian šāhān
šāh, meaning "King's King." Used in
Persia and surrounding
* SULTAN OF SULTANS , literally "
King of Kings" in Ottoman Turkish
Sulṭānü's-Selāṭīn, meaning "King's King." Used in Turkey and
surrounding countries of the
Ottoman dynasty .
* XI CHU BA WANG meaning the Hegemon
King of Western Chu .
* TIAN KEHAN meaning Heavenly
Khagan . Held by
Tang Taizong and Tang
* TAEWANG , literally "Greatest King", a Korean title for the rulers
* NəGUSä NäGäST , title of the Emperors of
Ethiopia , meaning
King of Kings".
* MANSA , title of the Emperors of the
Mali Empire , meaning
* MEPE-MEPETA , Georgian for "
King of Kings."
* KHAGAN , derived from Khan of Khans, used by the Central Asian
* HIGH KING , A king who rules over lesser kings.
* DEVARAJA , literally "God King", a title in the
Khmer Empire and
* MAHāRāJA ,
Sanskrit for a "great king" or "high king". The
female form is MAHARANI.
* PADISHAH , Persian pād "master" and shāh "king". Used in the
Ottoman Empire .
* ANAX , from Mycenaean wanax for "High King". Outranked
* NAM-LUGAL High kings of ancient
* PHARAOH , "Man of the Great House (Palace)" used in ANCIENT EGYPT
to denote the High kings of the upper and lower kingdoms of the Nile
Rí , Gaelic for high king, most notably used for high kings
* BRETWALDA , high kings of
Anglo-Saxon England .
* YANG DI-PERTUAN AGONG , the official title of the Malaysian head
of state, and means "He who is Made Supreme Lord" and is generally
glossed in English as "king". The officeholder is elected from among
the heads of the nine royal states, so the office may also be
analogous to that of a high king.
* KING , from the Germanic *kuningaz, roughly meaning "son of the
Germanic kingship ) The realm of a
King is termed a
Kingdom (sovereign kings are ranked above vassal kings)
Latin for "ruler". Cognate with Raja, Rí, Reign, Regina, etc.
* WANG , the head of state of
Ancient China .
* CHANYU , the title for the ruler of the
Xiongnu Empire .
* KOROL Derived from Old East Slavic Король king, used in
Ukrainian, Russian, Kazakh, Tatar, and Kyrgyz languages.
* RAJA , Indian for "ruler and King.". Cognate with
Gaelic Rí, etc.
* RANA , was used to be a title for martial sovereignty of Rajput
kings in India.
* DESHMUKH , Indian for "ruler and king."
Rí , Gaelic title meaning KING, of which there were several
grades, the highest being
Ard Rí (High king). Cognate with Indian
Latin Rex, and ancient Gaulish rix.
* KHAN , from the
Turco-Mongol word for "lord," like
Duke it was
originally a military rank. A Khan's realm is called a Khanate.
* LAMANE , "master of the land" or "chief owner of the soil" in old
Serer language were the ancient hereditary kings and landed gentry of
Serer people found in
Senegal , the
Mauritania . The
Lamanes were guardians of
Serer religion and many of them have been
canonized as Holy Saints (Pangool).
* EZE , the Igbo word for the
King or Ruler of a kingdom or
city-state. It is cognate with Obi and Igwe.
* OBA , the Yoruba word for
King or Ruler of a kingdom or
city-state. It is used across all the traditional Yoruba lands, as
well as by the Edo, throughout Nigeria, Benin, and Togo.
* OMUKAMA ,
King of Bunyoro-Kitara in
Uganda , also the title of the
Omukama of Toro .
* KABAKA ,
King of Buganda , a realm within
Uganda in East Africa.
* SHAH , Persian word for King, from Indo-European for "he who
rules". Used in Persia, alongside
Shahanshah (see above). The title of
the sons of a
Shah is SHAHZADA / SHAHZADAH.
* SULTAN , from Arabic and originally referring to one who had
"power", more recently used as synonym for King.
* MALIK , Arabic for King.
* TLATOANI , Ruler of the atlepetl or city state in ancient Mexico.
Title of the Aztec Emperors. The word literally means "speaker" in
Nahuatl, but may be translated into English as "king".
* AJAW , In Maya meaning "lord", "ruler", "king" or "leader". Was
the title of the ruler in the Classic Maya polity. A variant being the
title of K'inich
Ajaw or "Great Sun King" as it was used to refer to
the founder of the
Copán dynasty, K\'inich Yax K\'uk\' Mo\' .
* HALACH UINIK , In Maya meaning "real man", "person of fact" or
"person of command". Was the title of the ruler in the Post-Classic
* DATU in the
Mindanao which, together with the term
RAJA ( in the
Rajahnate of Cebu
Rajahnate of Cebu and
Kingdom of Maynila ) and LAKAN
(title widely used on the island of
Luzon ), are the Filipino
equivalents of "sovereign prince" and thus, glossed as "king". (Cf.
also PRINCIPALíA — the hispanized and christianized
during the Spanish colonial period in the
* TUANKU, literally "My Lord", the title of the kings of the nine
Royal states of
Malaysia ; all princes and princesses of the Royal
Families also receive the appellation TENGKU ,
* MAAD A SINIG ,
King of Sine , a pre-colonial kingdom of the Serer
people . From the old Serer title "Maad" (king).
* MAAD SALOUM ,
King of Saloum , a pre-colonial kingdom of the Serer
* RATU , A Fijian chiefly title that is also found in Javanese
* TEIGNE ,
Baol , previously a pre-colonial Serer kingdom.
* NIZAM , The word is derived from the Arabic language Nizām
(نظام), meaning order, arrangement. Nizām-ul-mulk was a title
first used in
Urdu around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy
for the Whole Empire.
* QUEEN , from the Germanic *kwoeniz, or *kwenon, "wife"; cognate of
Greek γυνή, gynē, "woman"; from PIE *gʷḗn, "woman". The female
equivalent of a King, or the consort of a King; a Queen's realm is
also a kingdom.
* RANI , Indian for Queen. See Raja, above.
* SHAHBANU , Persian for Empress. See Shah, above.
* SULTANA, Arabic for Queen. See Sultan, above.
* MALIKA, Arabic for Queen.
* IX-AJAW, See
Ajaw above, it was a title was also given to women,
though generally prefixed with the sign Ix ("woman") to indicate their
* DAYANG, Filipino feminine equivalent of "Datu". See Datu
* HARA, Filipino feminine equivalent of "Raha". See Raja, above.
* SOVEREIGN GRAND DUKES or GRAND PRINCES are considered to be part
of the reigning nobility ("Royalty", in German Hochadel; their correct
form of address is "Royal Highness")
PRINCELY, DUCAL, AND OTHER SOVEREIGN TITLES
* PRINCE , from the
Latin princeps, meaning "first citizen". The
feminine form is PRINCESS. Variant forms include the German
Tsarevich (царевич) and the feminine form Tsarevna
* BAI, Filipino feminine equivalent of a prince.
* AMPUAN, Maranao royal title which literally means "The One to whom
one asks for apology"
* GINOO, Ancient Filipino equivalent to noble man or prince (now
used in the form "Ginoóng" as the analogue to "mister ").
* PILLAI , Ancient South Indian Title meaning
Prince for junior
children of Emperors
* MORZA , a Tartar title usually translated as "prince", it ranked
below a Khan. The title was borrowed from Persian and Indian
Mirza added to the names of certain nobles, which itself
derived from Emir.
* KNYAZ , a title found in most Slavic languages, denoting a ruling
or noble rank. It is usually translated into English as "Duke".
* DESPOT , Greek for "lord, master", initially an appellation for
the Byzantine emperor, later the senior court title, awarded to sons
and close relatives of the emperor. In the 13th-15th centuries borne
by autonomous and independent rulers in the Balkans.
* DUKE , from the
Dux , meaning "leader," a military rank in
the late Roman Empire . Variant forms include DOGE, and DUCE; it has
also been modified into ARCHDUKE (meaning "chief" Duke), GRAND DUKE
(literally "large," or "big" Duke; see above under royal titles), VICE
DUKE ("deputy" Duke), etc. The female equivalent is DUCHESS.
* SHEIKH , is often used as a title for Arab royal families. Some
Emirs of the Arabian Peninsula use the title
Sheikh ("elder" or
"lord"), as do other members of the extended family.
* EMIR , often rendered Amir in older English usage; from the Arabic
"to command." The female form is EMIRA (Amirah).
Emir is the root of
the naval rank "Admiral"
* AMIR AL-UMARA ,
Emir of Emirs.
* MIR , According to the book Persian Inscriptions on Indian
Monuments , Mir is most probably an Arabized form of Pir. Pir in Old
Sanskrit means the old, the wise man, the chief and the
great leader. It was Arabized as Mir then, with Al(A) (Arabic definite
article ), it was pronounced as Amir.
* BEY , or Beg/
Baig , Turkish for "Chieftain."
* BEGUM , female royal and aristocratic title from Central and South
* BEYLERBEY ,
Bey of Beys.
* ATABEG , word is a compound of two Turkic words: ata, "ancestor",
and beg or bey, "lord, leader, prince".
* BEG KHAN , concatenation of
Baig and Khan.
* KHAGAN BEK , title used by
* BUUMI , first in line to the throne in Serer pre-colonial
* THILAS , second in line to the throne in Serer pre-colonial
* LOUL , third in line to the throne in Serer country.
* DEY , title given to the rulers of the
Regency of Algiers
Regency of Algiers and
Tripoli under the
Ottoman Empire from 1671 onwards.
* SAHIB , name of Arabic origin meaning "holder, master or owner."
* ZAMINDAR , were considered to be equivalent to lords and barons in
some cases they were seen as independent, sovereign princes.
* JAGIR , also spelled as JAGEER (
Devanagari : जागीर,
Persian : جاگیر, ja- meaning "place", -gir meaning "keeping,
holding") The feudal owner/lord of the
Jagir were called JAGIRDAR or
* SARDAR , also spelled as SIRDAR, SARDAAR or SERDAR, is a title of
nobility (sir-, sar/sair- means "head or authority" and -dār means
Sanskrit and Avestan )
* POPE , derived from
Latin and Italian papa, the familiar form of
"father" (also "SUPREME PONTIFF of the Universal Church and
Christ"); once wielding substantial secular power as the ruler of the
Papal States and leader of
Christendom , the
Pope is also the absolute
ruler of the sovereign state VATICAN CITY . Also the title of the
leader of the Coptic Church .
* CALIPH , was the ruler of the caliphate , an Islamic title
indicating the successor to
Muhammad . Both a religious and a secular
leader; the Ottoman sultans continued to use
Caliph as another of
their titles. However, in later Ottoman times the religious function
was practically exercised by the
Sheikh ül-Islam ; after the
establishment of the Turkish Republic, a solely religious Caliphate,
held by members of the Sultans' family, was established for a short
period of time.
* SALTIGUE , the high priests and priestesses of the
Serer people .
They are the diviners in Serer religion.
OTHER SOVEREIGNS, ROYALTY, PEERS, AND MAJOR NOBILITY
Royal family ,
Nobility , and Imperial
Several ranks were widely used (for more than a thousand years in
Europe alone) for both sovereign rulers and non-sovereigns. Additional
knowledge about the territory and historic period is required to know
whether the rank holder was a sovereign or non-sovereign. However,
joint precedence among rank holders often greatly depended on whether
a rank holder was sovereign, whether of the same rank or not. This
situation was most widely exemplified by the
Holy Roman Empire (HRE)
in Europe. Almost all of the following ranks were commonly both
sovereign and non-sovereign within the HRE. Outside of the HRE, the
most common sovereign rank of these below was that of Prince. Within
the HRE, those holding the following ranks who were also sovereigns
had (enjoyed) what was known as an immediate relationship with the
Emperor. Those holding non-sovereign ranks held only a mediate
relationship (meaning that the civil hierarchy upwards was mediated by
one or more intermediaries between the rank holder and the Emperor).
* ARCHDUKE , ruler of an archduchy; used exclusively by the Habsburg
dynasty and its junior branch of
Habsburg-Lorraine which ruled the
Holy Roman Empire (until 1806), the
Austrian Empire (1804-1867), and
Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867-1918) for imperial family members of
the dynasty, each retaining it as a subsidiary title when founding
sovereign cadet branches by acquiring thrones under different titles
(e.g., Tuscany , Modena ); it was also used for those ruling some
Habsburg territories such as those that became the modern so-called
"Benelux" nations (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg); The title was
created in 1358 by the Habsburgs themselves to establish a precedence
of their princes over the other titleholders of high nobility of the
era; therefore the rank was not recognized by the other ruling
dynasties until 1453
* GRAND DUKE , ruler of a grand duchy; nowadays considered to be in
precedence the third highest monarchial rank in the western world,
after "Emperor" and "King" or "Queen"
* GRAND PRINCE (Velikiy
Knyaz ), ruler of a grand principality; a
title primarily used in the medieval Kyivan Rus' principalities; It
was also used by the Romanovs of the
Russian Empire for members of the
imperial family, although then it is more commonly translated into
English as Grand Duke
* DUKE (
Herzog in German), ruler of a duchy ; also for junior
members of ducal and some grand ducal families
* PRINCE (Prinz in German), junior members of a royal, grand ducal,
ruling ducal or princely, or mediatised family. The title of Fürst
was usually reserved, from the 19th century, for rulers of
principalities—the smallest sovereign entities (e.g., Liechtenstein,
Lippe, Schwarzburg, Waldeck-and-Pyrmont)—and for heads of
high-ranking, noble but non-ruling families (Bismarck, Clary und
Aldringen, Dietrichstein, Henckel von Donnersmarck, Kinsky, Paar,
Pless, Thun und Hohenstein, etc.). Cadets of these latter families
were generally not allowed to use Prinz, being accorded only the style
of count (
Graf ) or, occasionally, that of
Fürst (Wrede, Urach ) even
though it was also a ruling title. Exceptional use of Prinz was
permitted for some morganatic families (e.g., Battenberg , Montenuovo)
and a few others (Carolath-Beuthen, Biron von Kurland).
* In particular, CROWN PRINCE (Kronprinz in German) was reserved for
the heir apparent of an emperor or king
* DAUPHIN , title of the heir apparent of the royal family of
France , as he was the de jure ruler of the Dauphiné region in
France (under the authority of the King)
* INFANTE , title of the cadet members of the royal families of
* ELECTOR (
Kurfürst in German), a rank for those who voted for the
Emperor , usually sovereign of a state (e.g. the Margrave
of Brandenburg, an elector, called the Elector of Brandenburg)
* MARQUESS , MARGRAVE , or MARQUIS (literally "
Count of a March"
(=Border territory)) was the ruler of a marquessate , margraviate , or
* LANDGRAVE (literally "Land Count"), a German title, ruler of a
* COUNT , theoretically the ruler of a county ; known as an EARL in
modern Britain; known as a GRAF in German, known as a SERDAR in
Montenegro and Serbia
* PRINCIPALíA the aristocratic ruling class of Filipino nobles,
roughly equivalent to ancient Roman Patricians , through whom the
Spanish Monarchs ruled the
Philippines during the colonial period (c.
1600s to 1898).
* VISCOUNT (vice-count), theoretically the ruler of a viscounty ,
which did not develop into a hereditary title until much later. In
the case of French viscounts, it is customary to leave the title
untranslated as VICOMTE .
* FREIHERR , a German word meaning literally "Free Master" or "Free
Lord" (i.e. not subdued to feudal chores or drudgery), is the German
equivalent of the English term "Baron", with the important difference
that unlike the British Baron, he is not a "
Peer of the Realm
Peer of the Realm "
(member of the high aristocracy)
* BARON , theoretically the ruler of a barony – some barons in
some countries may have been "free barons" (liber baro) and as such,
regarded (themselves) as higher barons.
Regarding the titles of Grand Duke,
Duke and Prince:
In all European countries, the sovereign Grand
Duke (or Grand Prince
in some eastern European languages) is considered to be the third
highest monarchic title in precedence, after
Emperor and King.
In Germany, a sovereign
Duke (Herzog) outranks a sovereign prince
(Fürst). A cadet prince (Prinz) who belongs to an imperial or royal
dynasty, however, may outrank a duke who is the cadet of a reigning
house, e.g., Wurttemberg , Bavaria , Mecklenburg or Oldenburg .
The children of a sovereign Grand
Duke may be titled "Prince"
(Luxembourg, Tuscany, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Saxe-Weimar) or "Duke"
(Oldenburg) in accordance with the customs of the dynasty. The heir of
the throne of a Grand
Duchy is titled "Hereditary Grand Duke", as soon
as he reaches the full legal age (majority).
Children of a sovereign (i.e., ruling)
Duke and of a ruling Prince
(Fürst) were, however, all titled prince (Prinz).
The heir apparent to a ruling or mediatised title would usually
prepend the prefix Erb- (hereditary) to his or her title, e.g.,
ERBherzog, ERBprinz, ERBgraf, to distinguish their status from that of
their junior siblings.
Children of a mediatised
Fürst were either Prinzen or Grafen
(counts), depending upon whether the princely title was limited to
descent by masculine primogeniture or not. In the German non-sovereign
Duke (Herzog) still ranked higher than a
MINOR NOBILITY, GENTRY, AND OTHER ARISTOCRACY
Aristocracy (class) and
The distinction between the ranks of the major nobility (listed
above) and the minor nobility, listed here, was not always a sharp one
in all nations. But the precedence of the ranks of a
Baronet or a
Knight is quite generally accepted for where this distinction exists
for most nations. Here the rank of
Baronet (ranking above a Knight) is
taken as the highest rank among the ranks of the minor nobility or
gentry that are listed below. Titles
* BARONET is a hereditary title ranking below
Baron but above
Knight; this title is granted only in the British Isles and does not
* DOMINUS was the
Latin title of the feudal, superior and mesne,
lords, and also an ecclesiastical and academical title (equivalent of
* VIDAME , a minor French aristocrat
* VAVASOUR , also a petty French feudal lord
* SEIGNEUR or LORD OF THE MANOR rules a smaller local fief
* KNIGHT is the central rank of the Medieval aristocratic system in
Europe (and having its equivalents elsewhere), usually ranking at or
near the top of the Minor Nobility
* PATRICIAN is a dignity of minor nobility or gentry (most often
being hereditary) usually ranking below
Knight but above Esquire
* FIDALGO or HIDALGO is a minor Portuguese and Spanish aristocrat
(respectively; from filho d'algo / hijo de algo, lit. son of wealth,
mediaeval Galician-Portuguese and Spanish "algo" = wealth, riches,
fortune, nowadays "algo" = something)
* NOBILE (ARISTOCRACY) is an Italian title of nobility for
prestigious families that never received a title
* EDLER is a minor aristocrat in Germany and Austria during those
countries' respective imperial periods.
* JONKHEER is an honorific for members of noble Dutch families that
never received a title. An untitled noblewoman is styled Jonkvrouw,
though the wife of a
Jonkheer is a Mevrouw or, sometimes, Freule,
which could also be used by daughters of the same.
* JUNKER is a German noble honorific, meaning "young nobleman" or
otherwise "young lord"
* SKARTABEL is a minor Polish aristocrat.
* SCOTTISH BARON is a hereditary feudal nobility dignity, outside
the Scots peerage , recognised by
Lord Lyon as a member of the Scots
noblesse and ranking below a
Knight but above a Scottish
the British system. However, Scottish Barons on the European continent
are considered and treated equal to European barons.
* LAIRD is a Scottish hereditary feudal dignity ranking below a
Baron but above an Esquire
* ESQUIRE is a rank of gentry originally derived from
indicating the status of an attendant to a knight, an apprentice
knight or a manorial lord; it ranks below
Knight (or in Scotland
below Laird) but above
* GENTLEMAN is the basic rank of gentry (ranking below Esquire),
historically primarily associated with land; within British
Commonwealth nations it is also roughly equivalent to some minor
nobility of some continental European nations
* BIBI , means Miss in
Urdu and is frequently used as a respectful
title for women in South Asia when added to the given name
In Germany, the constitution of the
Weimar Republic in 1919 ceased to
accord privileges to members of dynastic and noble families. Their
titles henceforth became legal parts of the family name, and
traditional forms of address (e.g., "Hoheit" or "
Durchlaucht ") ceased
to be accorded to them by governmental entities. The last title was
conferred on 12 November 1918 to Kurt von Klefeld. The actual rank of
a title-holder in Germany depended not only on the nominal rank of the
title, but also the degree of sovereignty exercised, the rank of the
title-holder's suzerain , and the length of time the family possessed
its status within the nobility (Uradel, Briefadel, altfürstliche,
German nobility ). Thus, any reigning sovereign
ranks higher than any deposed or mediatized sovereign (e.g., the
Fürst of Waldeck , sovereign until 1918, was higher than the
Arenberg , head of a mediatized family, although
Herzog is nominally a
higher title than Fürst). However, former holders of higher titles in
extant monarchies retained their relative rank, i.e., a queen dowager
of Belgium outranks the reigning
Prince of Liechtenstein. Members of a
formerly sovereign or mediatized house rank higher than the nobility.
Among the nobility, those whose titles derive from the Holy Roman
Empire rank higher than the holder of an equivalent title granted by
one of the German monarchs after 1806.
In Austria, nobility titles may no longer be used since 1918.
In Switzerland, nobility titles are prohibited and are not recognized
as part of the family name.
CORRESPONDING TITLES OF NOBILITY BETWEEN LANGUAGES
Below is a comparative table of corresponding royal and noble titles
in various European countries. Quite often, a
Latin 3rd declension
noun formed a distinctive feminine title by adding -issa to its base,
but usually the 3rd declension noun was used for both male and female
nobles, except for
Imperator and Rex. 3rd declension nouns are
italicized in this chart. See
Royal and noble styles to learn how to
address holders of these titles properly.
Duchess (Prince)-Elector ,
Baronetess KNIGHT / DAME
ESQUIRE , GENTLEMAN
Caesarina Rex ,
Regina Magnus Dux/
Magna Principissa Archidux,
Nobilis Homo (N.H.)
Кралица Велик Княз,
Велика Княгиня Ерцхерцог,
Grevinde, Komtesse Vicegreve,
Vicekomtesse Baron, Friherre,
Baronesse, Friherreinde Baronet,
Keisarinna (or Keisaritar, obsolete) Kuningas,
Varakreivitär Paroni, Vapaaherra,
Paronitar, Rouva/ Vapaaherratar Baronetti, "
Herra " (=fiefholder ),
Herratar Aatelinen /Ritari
style of wife:
Grande-Duchesse Archiduc, Archiduchesse
Vizegräfin, Burggräfin Baron, Herr,
Baronin, Frau, Freifrau, Freiin
Βασίλισσα Μέγας Δούκας,
Μεγάλη Δούκισσα Aρχιδούκας,
királynő Nagyherceg, fejedelem, vajda
nagyhercegnő, fejedelemasszony, - Főherceg,
(választófejedelemnő) Királyi herceg,
királyi hercegnő Alkirály,
alkirálynő Márki, őrgróf
márkinő, őrgrófnő Gróf
grófnő Várgróf, vikomt
Várgrófnő (vikomtnő) Báró,
baronetnő Lovag (vitéz )
keisarynja Konungur, kóngur,
markgreifynja Greifi, jarl
greifynja, jarlkona Vísigreifi,
vísigreifynja Barón, fríherra,
Duchessa Principe Elettore,
Principessa Electrice Principe,
Karalienė Didysis kunigaikštis,
Didžioji kunigaikštytė Kunigaikštis,
Reġina/Sultana Gran Duka,
Gran Dukessa Arċiduka,
Dukessa Prinċep Elettur,
Prinċipessa Elettriċi Prinċep,
Markise Jarl / Greve,
Visegrevinne Baron, Friherre,
Królowa Wielki Książę,
Wielka Księżna Arcyksiążę
Arcyksiężna Diuk (Książę),
(Księżna) Książę Elektor,
Księżna Elektorowa Książę,
Regina Mare Duce,
Mare Ducesă Arhiduce,
Ducesă Prinț Elector,
Prințesa Electora Prinț,
Baroneasă, Baronă Baronet
Tsaritsa Velikiy Knyaz,
Velikaya Kniagina Ertsgertsog,
Kraljica Veliki vojvoda,
Velika vojvodkinja Nadvojvoda/
Reina Gran Duque,
Gran Duquesa Archiduque,
Duquesa Príncipe Elector,
Princesa Electora; Príncipe,
Knieža volič Knieža,
Kraljica Veliki vojvoda,
Velika vojvodinja Nadvojvoda,
Vojvodinja Volilni knez,
Volilna kneginja Knez,
Podkraljica Markiz/Mejni grof,
Markiza/Mejna grofica Grof,
Vicomtessa Baron, Herre, Friherre,
Baronessa, Fru, Friherreinde
Düşes Veliaht Prens,
Veliaht Prenses Prens,
Imperatrytsia /Tsarytsia Koról/Tsar,
Koroléva/Tsarytsia Velikyi Knyaz, Velika Kniahynia
Ecclesiastical Addresses ,
Prince of the church
False titles of nobility
Forms of address in the United Kingdom
Royal and noble styles
* ^ A B Loss of sovereignty or fief does not necessarily lead to
loss of title. The position in the ranking table is however
accordingly adjusted. The occurrence of fiefs has changed from time to
time, and from country to country. For instance, dukes in England
rarely had a duchy to rule.
* ^ Meyers Taschenlexikon Geschichte 1982, vol 1, p21-22
* ^ Indian Epigraphical Dictionary Page 166 Accessed at
mas del dia, si bien en algunas provincias todavía se tramiten por
sucesion hereditaria, las hay tambien eleccion, particularmente en las
provincias más inmediatas á Manila, en donde han perdido su
prestigio y su una verdadera carga. En las provincias distantes
todavía se hacen respetar, y allí es precisamente en donde la
autoridad tiene ménos que hacer, y el órden se conserva sin
necesidad de medidas coercitivas; porque todavía existe en ellas el
gobierno patriarcal, por el gran respeto que la plebe conserva aún á
lo que llaman aquí principalía." FERRANDO, Fr Juan Terry, Janice;
Holoka, Jim; Goff, Richard; Cassar, George H. (2011). Cengage
Advantage Books: World History. I. California: Wadsworth Publishing Co
Inc. p. 329. ISBN 9781111345167 .
* ^ Meyers Taschenlexikon Geschichte 1982, vol 1, p22 these are (in
descending order of rank): Scottish feudal
Earl , Scottish Feudal Lord
, and Scottish feudal
Baron (the general name for the dignity listed
above among the ranks of aristocratic gentry).
* ^ Dodd, Charles R. (1843) A manual of dignities, privilege, and
precedence: including lists of the great public functionaries, from
the revolution to the present time, London: Whittaker & Co.,
* ^ The meaning of the title
Esquire became (and remains) quite
diffuse, and may indicate anything from no aristocratic status, to
some official government civil appointment, or (more historically) the
son of a knight or noble who had no other title above just
* ^ In the United States, where there is no nobility, the title
esquire is sometimes arrogated (without any governmental
authorization) by lawyers admitted to the state bar.
* ^ Larence, Sir James Henry (1827) . The nobility of the British
Gentry or the political ranks and dignities of the British Empire
compared with those on the continent (2nd ed.). London: T.Hookham --
Simpkin and Marshall. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
* ^ "RIS Dokument". bka.gv.at.
* ^ A B C D "Prince" (Prinz in German, Prins in Swedish, Prinssi in
Finnish, "Principe" in Spanish) can also be a title of junior members
of royal houses. In the British system, for example, prince is not a
rank of nobility but a title held exclusively by members of the royal
* ^ Does not confer nobility in the British system.
* ^ Non-hereditary. Does not confer nobility in the British system.
See also squire and esquire .
Latin titles are for etymological comparisons. They do not
accurately reflect their medieval counterparts.
* ^ The title Markýz was not used in Bohemia and thus referred
only to foreign nobility, while the title Markrabě (the same as the
German Markgraf) is connected only to a few historical territories
(including the former marches on the borders of the Holy Roman Empire,
* ^ Finland accorded the noble ranks of Ruhtinas, Kreivi,
Vapaaherra and Aatelinen. The titles Suurherttua, Arkkiherttua,
Vaaliruhtinas, Prinssi, Markiisi, Jaarli, Varakreivi, Paroni, and
Baronetti were not granted in Finland, though they are used of foreign
titleholders. Keisari, Kuningas, Suuriruhtinas, Prinssi, and Herttua
have been used as official titles of members of the dynasties that
ruled Finland, though not granted as titles of nobility. Some
feudally-based privileges in landowning, connected to nobily related
lordship , existed into the nineteenth century; and fiefs were common
in the late medieval and early modern eras. The title Ritari was not
commonly used except in the context of knightly orders. The lowest,
untitled level of hereditary nobility was that of the "Aatelinen"
* ^ A B C D E F G No noble titles were granted after 1906 when the
unicameral legislatures (
Eduskunta ) were established, removing the
constitutional status of the so-called First Estate . However, noble
ranks were granted in Finland until 1917 (there, the lowest, untitled
level of hereditary nobility was "Aatelinen", or "noble"; it was in
essence a rank, not a title).
* ^ In central Europe, the title of
Fürst or kníže (e.g. Fürst
von Liechtenstein) ranks below the title of a duke (e.g.
Brunswick). The title of Vizegraf was not used in German-speaking
countries, and the titles of
Edler were not commonly used.
* ^ In the German system by rank approximately equal to Landgraf
* ^ The "vitéz" title was introduced in Hungary after 1920. In
preceding ages simply meant a warrior or a courageous man.
* ^ In keeping with the principle of equality among noblemen, no
noble titles (with few exceptions) below that of prince were allowed
in Poland. The titles in italics are simply Polish translations of
western titles which were granted to some Polish nobles by foreign
monarchs, especially after the partitions . Instead of hereditary
titles, the Polish nobility developed and used a set of titles based
on offices held . See "szlachta " for more info on Polish nobility.
* ^ In Portugal, a baron or viscount who was a "grandee of the
kingdom" (Portuguese : Grandes do Reino) was called a "baron with
grandness" (Portuguese : Barão com Grandeza) or "viscount with
grandness" (Portuguese : Visconde com Grandeza); each of these
grandees was ranked as equal to a count.
* ^ A B C For domestic Russian nobility, only the titles
Boyar were used before the 18th century, when
Graf was added.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to NOBLE TITLES .
* Hereditary titles
* Unequal and Morganatic Marriages in German Law
* Noble, Princely, Royal, and Imperial Titles
* British noble titles
* Fake titles
Royal and noble titles and honours by country
* Commonwealth realms
* Poland and Lithuania
* GND : 7508334-6